با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
A semantic-based methodology for digital forensics analysis
یک روش مبتنی بر معنایی برای تجزیه و تحلیل پزشکی قانونی دیجیتال-2020
Nowadays, more than ever, digital forensics activities are involved in any criminal, civil or military investigation and represent a fundamental tool to support cyber-security. Investigators use a variety of techniques and proprietary software forensics applications to examine the copy of digital devices, searching hidden, deleted, encrypted, or damaged files or folders. Any evidence found is carefully analysed and documented in a ‘‘finding report’’ in preparation for legal proceedings that involve discovery, depositions, or actual litigation. The aim is to discover and analyse patterns of fraudulent activities. In this work, a new methodology is proposed to support investigators during the analysis process, correlating evidence found through different forensics tools. The methodology was implemented through a system able to add semantic assertion to data generated by forensics tools during extraction processes. These assertions enable more effective access to relevant information and enhanced retrieval and reasoning capabilities.
Keywords: Digital forensics | Text analysis | Log analysis | Correlation | Cybersecurity
FBI inspired meta-optimization
اف بی آی الهام گرفته از متا بهینه سازی-2020
This study developed a novel optimization algorithm, called Forensic-Based Investigation (FBI), inspired by the suspect investigation–location–pursuit process that is used by police officers. Although numerous unwieldy optimization algorithms hamper their usability by requiring predefined operating parameters, FBI is a user-friendly algorithm that does not require predefined operating parameters. The performance of parameter-free FBI was validated using four experiments: (1) The robustness and efficiency of FBI were compared with those of 12 representations of the top leading metaphors by using 50 renowned multidimensional benchmark problems. The result indicated that FBI remarkably outperformed all other algorithms. (2) FBI was applied to solve a resource-constrained scheduling problem associated with a highway construction project. The experiment demonstrated that FBI yielded the shortest schedule with a success rate of 100%, indicating its stability and robustness. (3) FBI was utilized to solve 30 benchmark functions that were most recently presented at the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC) competition on bound-constrained problems. Its performance was compared with those of the three winners in CEC to validate its effectiveness. (4) FBI solved high-dimensional problems, by increasing the number of dimensions of benchmark functions to 1000. FBI is efficient because it requires a relatively short computational time for solving problems, it reaches the optimal solution more rapidly than other algorithms, and it efficaciously solves high-dimensional problems. Given that the experiments demonstrated FBI’s robustness, efficiency, stability, and user-friendliness, FBI is promising for solving various complex problems. Finally, this study provided the scientific community with a metaheuristic optimization platform for graphically and logically manipulating optimization algorithms.
Keywords: Forensic-based investigation algorithm | Metaheuristic optimization | Swarm intelligence and evolutionary | computation | Benchmark functions | Construction engineering and project | management
Review of the most common chemometric techniques in illicit drug profiling
مروری بر رایج ترین تکنیک های شیمیایی در پروفایل داروهای غیرمجاز-2019
The information generated through drug profiling can be used to infer a common source between one or several seizures as well as drug trafficking routes to provide insights into drug markets. Although well established, it is time-consuming and ineffective to compare all drug profiles manually. In recent years, there has been a push to automate processes to enable a more efficient comparison of illicit drug specimens. Various chemometric methods have been employed to compare and interpret forensic case data promptly. The intelligence that is produced can be used by decision-makers to disrupt or reduce the impact of illicit drug markets. This review highlights the most common chemometric techniques used in drug profiling and more specifically, the most efficient comparison metrics and pattern recognition techniques outlined in the literature.
Keywords: Pattern recognition | Comparison metrics | Forensic intelligence
Forensic psychiatric evaluations of defendants: Italy and the Netherlands compared
ارزیابی روانپزشکی پزشکی قانونی از متهمان: ایتالیا و هلند در مقایسه-2019
Background: Forensic psychiatric practices and provisions vary considerably across jurisdictions. The diversity provides the possibility to compare forensic psychiatric practices, as we will do in this paper regarding Italy and the Netherlands. Aim: We aim to perform a theoretical analysis of legislations dealing with the forensic psychiatric evaluation of defendants, including legal insanity and the management of mentally ill offenders deemed insane. This research is carried out not only to identify similarities and differences regarding the assessment of mentally ill offenders in Italy and the Netherlands, but, in addition, to identify strengths and weaknesses of the legislation and procedures used for the evaluation of the mentally ill offenders in the two countries. Results: Italy and the Netherlands share some basic characteristics of their criminal law systems. Yet, forensic psychiatric practices differ significantly, even if we consider only evaluations of defendants. A strong point of Italy concerns its test for legal insanity which defines the legal norm and enables a straightforward communication between the experts and the judges on this crucial matter. A strong point of the Netherlands concerns more standardized practices including guidelines and the use of risk assessment tools, which enable better comparisons and scientific research in this area. Conclusions: We argue that there appears to be room for improvement on both sides with regards to the evaluation of mentally ill offenders. More generally, a transnational approach to these issues, as applied in this paper, could help to advance forensic psychiatric services in different legal systems.
Keywords: Forensic psychiatry | Legal insanity | Italy | Netherlands | Risk assessment
Neuroscience and mental state issues in forensic assessment
علوم اعصاب و مسائل روانی در ارزیابی پزشکی قانونی-2019
Neuroscience has already changed how the law understands an individuals cognitive processes, how those processes shape behavior, and how bio-psychosocial history and neurodevelopmental approaches provide information, which is critical to understanding mental states underlying behavior, including criminal behavior. In this paper, we briefly review the state of forensic assessment of mental conditions in the relative culpability of criminal defendants, focused primarily on the weaknesses of current approaches. We then turn to focus on neuroscience approaches and how they have the potential to improve assessment, but with significant risks and limitations.
Staffs perception of Patients’ affiliation and control in a Highly Secure Psychiatric Setting
درک کارکنان از وابستگی و کنترل بیماران در یک محیط روانی کاملاً ایمن-2019
Effective interactions between patients and staff have been associated with positive ward climate and therapeutic effects, but also pose a challenge in high secure forensic psychiatric settings. The goal of this study was to gain more insight into i) the characteristics that play a role in how staff members perceive the interpersonal style of patients, and ii) whether these perceptions are related to patients’ evaluation of ward climate and satisfaction with daily staff. Staff members (n=69), rated the interpersonal style of 102 male patients. Satisfaction with daily staff and ward climate were rated by 45 patients. Results show that patient characteristics (primary diagnosis, patient age, disruptive behavior, recent problems with symptoms of major mental disorder and recent problems with treatment or supervision response) were related to how staff perceived the interpersonal style (i.e., affiliation and control) of patients. Furthermore, the level of affiliation was positively related to patients’ satisfaction with daily staff. Patients that were seen as more controlling by staff were less satisfied with the safety on their ward (as a factor of ward climate). The results indicate that perception of patients’ interpersonal style entails patient related information and can be relevant for staff to use in their work.
Keywords: Interpersonal style | Forensic psychiatric patients | Staff members
A comparison of machine learning techniques for file system forensics analysis
مقایسه روشهای یادگیری ماشین برای تجزیه و تحلیل پزشکی قانونی سیستم فایل-2019
With the remarkable increase in computer crimes –particularly Internet related crimes –digital forensics become an urgent and a timely issue to study. Normally, digital forensics investigation aims to preserve any evidence in its most original form by identifying, collecting, and validating the digital information for the purpose of reconstructing past events. Most digital evidence is stored within the computer’s file system. This research investigates and evaluates the applicability of several machine learning techniques in identifying incriminating evidence by tracing historical file system activities in order to determine how these files can be manipulated by different application programs. A dataset defined by a matrix/vector of features related to file system activity during a specific period of time has been collected. Such dataset has been used to train several machine learning techniques. Overall, the considered machine learning techniques show good results when they have been evaluated using a testing dataset containing unseen evidence. However, all algorithms encountered an essential obstacle that could be the main reason as why the experimental results were less than expectation that is the overlaps among the file system activities.
Keywords: Digital forensic | File system | Computer crimes | Machine Learning | Log file
Legal mobilization in medicine: Nurses, rape kits, and the emergence of forensic nursing in the United States since the 1970s
بسیج حقوقی در پزشکی: پرستاران ، کیت های تجاوز جنسی و ظهور پرستاری پزشکی قانونی در ایالات متحده از دهه 1970-2019
Routine administration of the sexual assault medical forensic exam (commonly known as the “rape kit”) is one of the most significant healthcare reforms advanced by the U.S. anti-rape movement since the 1970s. To promote reform, nurses acted as practitioner-activists in emergency medicine and created the new specialty of forensic nursing to administer the medical forensic exam independent of physicians. Their efforts suggest a new way of conceptualizing the interface of law and medicine: the proactive invocation of criminal law in clinical medicine for the purpose of institutional reform in healthcare organizations, or what I term legal mobilization in medicine. Using the framework of legal mobilization in medicine, I ask: (1) how did nurses mobilize criminal law and rights to health in emergency medicine to facilitate reform? and (2) what were the effects on clinical practice and knowledge production? To chart this history, I draw on a review of published writings by early forensic nurses, interviews with leaders in the field, and ethnographic observation at the 20th anniversary International Association of Forensic Nurses conference in 2012, commemorating the founders and origins of this new specialty. Bringing together scholarship on law and social movements in socio-legal studies and scholarship on health and social movements in science, technology, and medicine studies, I argue that nurses forged a porous boundary between the overlapping institutional spheres of medicine and law in order to align the objectives of medical care and criminal investigation and, thereby, seek rights to healthcare and rights to justice for patientvictims through the enactment of new medical routines. I demonstrate the historical emergence of a novel, hybrid form of professional jurisdiction and medical practice, and I explore its benefits as well as its unintended consequences. I conclude by discussing the ethical implications of this case for the use of medical evidence to corroborate rape.
Keywords: United States | Forensic nursing | Rape kit | Sexual assault medical forensic exam | Legal mobilization in medicine
A retrospective analysis of data from forensic toxicology at the Academy of Forensic Science in 2017
تجزیه و تحلیل گذشته نگر از داده های مربوط به سمیت شناسی پزشکی قانونی در آکادمی علوم پزشکی قانونی در سال 2017-2019
Knowing the specific pattern of forensic toxicology cases in a region is vital to help the local government establish an effective prevention and treatment system; currently, there have been no published reports investigating various types of forensic toxicology cases based on a large autopsy series and city size. The data in this study were obtained from records kept at the Academy of Forensic Science (AFS) between February 2017 and December 2017, and the cases were mainly from the Public Security Organs People’s Police in Shanghai, China. There were 299 autopsies; the leading cause of death was traffic accidents (37.1%), and the manners of death were mainly accidental (54.8%). From a total of 9083 cases, 1992 involved traffic accidents, 6787 were drug abuse, 269 were poisonings, and 35 were drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSAs). We also investigated the pattern of unnatural deaths and the alcohol-positive (with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 0.20 mg/ml) rate among the various cases. The BAC ranged from 0.08 to 7.24 mg/ml in traffic cases, and the mean BAC of the total alcohol-positive drivers was 1.44 mg/ml. It was found that 80.8% of the drivers involved had a BAC 0.20 mg/ml (limit of civil offense), and 72.8% had a BAC 0.80 mg/ml (limit of criminal offense). Among the drug abuse cases, there were 4073 cases (60.0%) that were positive for at least one euphoriant; the most frequently abused drug group was amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). Poisonings by natural toxins (such as scopolamine and tetrodotoxin) account for a significant portion of accidental deaths. Pesticide poisoning was also constituted a large portion, and organophosphorus were the cause of the majority of those cases. Suicide by pesticide showed the highest frequency in the present study. Among the 35 DFSA cases, dexmedetomidine was frequently detected in our study, which has rarely been reported previously in DFSA cases.
Keywords: Driving | Drug abuse | Poisoning | Drug-facilitated sexual assault | Retrospective study | Shanghai
The impact of Brexit on the future of UK forensic science and technology
تأثیر Brexit در آینده علم و فناوری پزشکی قانونی انگلیس-2019
This article seeks to assess the prospects of UK forensic science and technology in a post-Brexit world by analysing four interlocking issues: Brexit itself, the evolution of national criminal justice organisational and funding priorities, the increasing interrelationship of science and technology in the forensic domain and the relatively disadvantaged place of forensic science and technology within the contemporary ‘scientific state’ paradigm. The results are generally pessimistic for the likely future of forensic science. This conclusion is reinforced by scepticism about the wisdom of proceeding with Brexit. The article is structured to identify the potential implications of British political decisions on its national forensic science capabilities and capacity. Some aspects of the analysis are likely to have a wider resonance for international discourse about the future sustainability of forensic science and technology, however, particularly the interface between the globalisation of science and technology with justice.
Keywords: Brexit | Forensic science and technology | International criminal justice cooperation | Fiscal austerity | National science policy