با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
Applying emergy and decoupling analysis to assess the sustainability of China’s coal mining area
استفاده از تحلیل اضطراری و جداسازی برای ارزیابی پایداری منطقه استخراج زغال سنگ چین-2020
The sustainable development of coal mining area continues to be one of the most topical issues in the world. Taking Shainxi Province as a case, this study applies emergy and decoupling analysis to build a multi-index sustainability evaluation system and constructs an emergy decoupling index to investigate the sustainability of a coal mining area in China during 2006e2015. It overcomes the problem of the unification of the traditional evaluation index system and integrates the influence of economic development, resources, the environment, and energy. The study finds that the coal mining area still depends on its coal resources. The sustainability of the coal mining area is still at a low level, and it is not sustainable in the long term. The economic growth still has a strong negative decoupling from the environmental loss. Energy management system and circular economic system should be built to improve the coal mining area’s sustainability. In the long run, the coal mining industry should gradually be abandoned. Based on China’s growing energy consumption, the findings of this study may not only serve as a reference for management to improve the sustainability of the coal mining areas but also to address China’s energy shortage problem.
Keywords: Sustainability | Emergy analysis | Decoupling | Coal mining area
Research on the policy route of China’s distributed photovoltaic power generation
تحقیق در مورد مسیر سیاست تولید انرژی فتوولتائیک و توزیع شده در چین-2020
The distributed photovoltaic power generation is an important way to make use of solar energy in cities. China issues a series of policies to support the development of distributed photovoltaics in law, electricity price, grid connection standard, project management, financial support and so on. However, there are still some defects in policies and market mechanism. China creates a competitive market with a significant number of projects of distributed photovoltaic power through the reform of the electricity market, yet substantial drawbacks of the corresponding investment subsidies prevent distributed photovoltaic power from rapidly developing. This paper summarizes the status quo of China’s distributed photovoltaic power development, given its long-term plan, presents excellences and shortcomings of the existing policy system, and looks into the supporting policies and implementation paths for China’s distributed photovoltaic power in different stages. Innovative business models and financial support models are conducive to the development of distributed photovoltaic power. Financial innovation methods such as crowd funding and asset securitization should be encouraged to develop a sound risk assessment mechanism for projects, involve insurance institutions, and establish a risk sharing mechanism. In the context of a series of supporting policies, the distributed photovoltaic power in China will move towards market-oriented standardization for a healthier and more stable development.
Keywords: Distributed photovoltaic power | Electricity price | Policy route | Development strategy
Effectiveness of implementing the criminal administrative punishment law of drunk driving in China: An interrupted time series analysis, 2004-2017
اثربخشی اجرای قانون مجازات اداری کیفری رانندگی مست در چین: تجزیه و تحلیل سری های زمانی قطع شده ، 2004-2017-2020
In 2011, a more severe drunk driving law was implemented in China, which criminalized driving under the influence of alcohol for the first time and increased penalties for drunk driving. The present study aimed to assess effectiveness of the drunk driving law in China in reducing traffic crashes, injuries, and mortality. Data used in this study was obtained from the Traffic Management Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security of the People’s Republic of China. An interrupted time series analysis was conducted to analyze annual data from 2004 to 2017, including the number of road traffic crashes, deaths, and injuries caused by drunk driving in China. The average annual incidences of crashes, mortality, and injuries have decreased after the promulgation of drunk driving law in 2011. In the post-intervention period, the increased slope for crashes, mortality and injury rates were, respectively, -0.140 to -0.006, -0.052 to -0.005 and -0.150 to -0.008, indicating a weaker downward trend of dependent variables. The more stringent drunk driving law is not as effective as expected. Drunk driving is still a severe traffic safety problem to be addressed in China. Both legislation and other prevention programs should be adopted to reduce road traffic injuries caused by drunk driving in China.
Keywords: Drunk driving | Interrupted time series analysis | Road traffic law | Injury | Evaluation | China
Challenges and recommended technologies for the industrial internet of things: A comprehensive review
چالش ها و فن آوری های پیشنهادی برای اینترنت اشیا صنعتی: مرور جامع-2020
Physical world integration with cyber world opens the opportunity of creating smart environments; this new paradigm is called the Internet of Things (IoT). Communication between humans and objects has been extended into those between objects and objects. Industrial IoT (IIoT) takes benefits of IoT communications in business applications focusing in interoperability between machines (i.e., IIoT is a subset from the IoT). Number of daily life things and objects connected to the Internet has been in increasing fashion, which makes the IoT be the dynamic network of networks. Challenges such as heterogeneity, dynamicity, velocity, and volume of data, make IoT services produce inconsistent, inaccurate, incomplete, and incorrect results, which are critical for many applications especially in IIoT (e.g., health-care, smart transportation, wearable, finance, industry, etc.). Discovering, searching, and sharing data and resources reveal 40% of IoT benefits to cover almost industrial applications. Enabling real-time data analysis, knowledge extraction, and search techniques based on Information Communication Technologies (ICT), such as data fusion, machine learning, big data, cloud computing, blockchain, etc., can reduce and control IoT and leverage its value. This research presents a comprehensive review to study state-of-the-art challenges and recommended technologies for enabling data analysis and search in the future IoT presenting a framework for ICT integration in IoT layers. This paper surveys current IoT search engines (IoTSEs) and presents two case studies to reflect promising enhancements on intelligence and smartness of IoT applications due to ICT integration.
Keywords: Industrial IoT (IIoT) | Searching and indexing | Blockchain | Big data | Data fusion Machine learning | Cloud and fog computing
Functional urban area delineations of cities on the Chinese mainland using massive Didi ride-hailing records
توصیف های کاربردی منطقه شهری از شهرها در سرزمین اصلی چین با استفاده از سوابق گسترده تگرگ سوار بر دیدنی Didi-2020
The problem associated with a citys administrative boundary being “under-” or “over-bounded” has become a global phenomenon. A citys administrative boundary city does not effectively represent the actual size and impact of its labor force and economic activity. While many existing case studies have investigated the functional urban areas of single cities, the problem of how to delineate urban areas in geographic space relating to large bodies of cities or at the scale of an entire country has not been investigated. This study proposed a method for FUA identification that relies on ride-hailing big data. In this study, over 43 million anonymized 2016 car-hailing records were collected from Didi Chuxing, the largest car-hailing online platform in the world (to the best of our knowledge). A core-periphery approach is then proposed that uses nationwide and fine-grained trips to understand functional urban areas in Mainland China. This study examined 4456 out of all 39,007 townships in an attempt to provide a new method for the definition of urban functional areas in Chinese Mainland. In addition, four types of cities are identified using a comparison of functional urban areas with their administrative limits, and a further evaluation is conducted using 23 Chinese urban agglomerations. With the rapidly increasing use of internet-based ride-hailing services, such as Didi, Grab, Lyft, and Uber, globally, this study provides a practical benchmark for the delineation of functional urban areas at larger scales..
Keywords: Functional urban area | Car-hailing records | |National level | Delineating standards | City system
China’s poverty alleviation resettlement: Progress, problems and solutions
اسکان مجدد فقرزدایی در چین: پیشرفت ، مشکلات و راه حلها-2020
Poverty alleviation resettlement (PAR) is a national rural development policy which uses resettlement as a tool for addressing environmental and poverty-related concerns in a rapidly changing world in China. It is regarded as one of the effective ways for the poor shaking off poverty in the implementation process of targeted poverty alleviation (TPA) strategy. Notable progress has been made in poverty alleviation for poverty-stricken people living in regions deemed unable to support sustainable livelihoods while problems have arisen during the process of its implementation. Based on literature review and a field survey, this paper attempts to conclude the beneficial policy as well as typical modes, problems and suggestions which might provide successful experience for regions to effectively implement the PAR projects and promote the management of rural resettlement. This article will offer a holistic and systematic research about China’s PAR policy, which will make up for the lack of PAR researches in the context of targeted poverty alleviation. It will offer international experience for ending poverty by 2030 to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Keywords: Poverty alleviation resettlement | Targeted poverty alleviation strategy | Poverty reduction | Rural development | Well-off society | China
Administrative decentralization and credit resource reallocation: Evidence from Chinas “Enlarging Authority and Strengthening Counties” reform
عدم تمرکز اداری و تخصیص مجدد منابع اعتبار: شواهدی اصلاحات "بزرگ سازمان و تقویت شهرستان" چین-2020
With the rapid development of county-level economy promoted by continuous administrative decentralization reform in China, the shortage of county-level credit resources has become an increasingly serious problem. Based on the quasi-experiment of Chinas “Enlarging Authority and Strengthening Counties” (EASC) reform, this paper investigates the reallocation effect of administrative decentralization on county-level credit resources for the first time. We take a big panel data set of Chinas 1981 counties (county-level cities) during the period of 1997–2012 as research sample. Combining the difference-in-differences (DID) model with the propensity score matching (PSM) method to correct the sample self-selection bias, we estimate the effect of the EASC reform on the financial agglomeration of both deposits and loans. The results show that the administrative decentralization represented by the EASC reform exerts different reallocation effects on county-level deposits and loans. The EASC reform enhances loan agglomeration but restrains deposit agglomeration, intensifying the contradiction between the supply and demand of credit resources. The reallocation effect of the EASC reform on loans shows an inverted Ushaped trend over time, indicating that the reform effect gradually weakens. The significantly positive effect of the EASC reform on deposit financial agglomeration lasts only two years, followed by a continuous negative effect.
Keywords: Administrative decentralization | Credit resource reallocation | “Enlarging Authority and Strengthening | Counties” reform | Financial agglomeration | Quasi-experiment | China
Robust fault estimation of discrete-time nonlinear system based on an enhanced maximum-priority-based switching law
برآورد خطای قوی سیستم غیرخطی زمان گسسته براساس قانون تغییر سوئیچینگ مبتنی بر حداکثر اولویت-2020
The problem of robust fault estimation of discrete-time nonlinear plant is investigated from the view of reducing its conservatism and restraining its on-line computational burden simultaneously. Firstly, an enhanced maximum-priority-based switching law is developed for subdividing the distribution types of normalized fuzzy weighting functions in a more flexible way. Then, a new fuzzy fault estimation observer is proposed with different switching modes in accordance with the updated value of the above switching law. More importantly, the proposed designing criterion is further optimized by considering the balance between reducing the conservatism and restraining the on-line computational burden. Finally, a set of simulation comparisons over the previous ones are provided to illustrate the advantages of our method developed in this paper.
Land titling, land reallocation experience, and investment incentives: Evidence from rural China
عنوان بندی اراضی ، تجربه توزیع مجدد زمین و مشوق های سرمایه گذاری: شواهدی از روستای چین-2020
The impacts of land titling on investment incentives among farmers with different land reallocation experiences are studied in this work. Ordered Probit model and 2SLS are employed to estimate the survey data collected from 2704 households in rural countries in China. We find that, generally, land titling can substantially promote investment incentive among farmers. However, the impacts vary among farmers with different land reallocation experiences. Specifically, land titling positively affects farmers without land reallocation experience, but it negatively affects those farmers who experienced big reallocation. Land titling has an investment incentive effect on China’s special agricultural land system, where farmers only have contract rights of land. However, big reallocation should be heavily restricted to guarantee the investment incentive effect of land titling.
Keywords: Land titling | Land rights reallocation | Investment incentive | China
Economic feasibility valuing of deep mineral resources based on risk analysis: Songtao manganese ore - China case study
ارزیابی امکان سنجی اقتصادی منابع معدنی عمیق بر اساس ریسک تجزیه و تحلیل: سنگ معدن منگنز Songtao - مطالعه موردی چین-2020
The exploitation of deep mineral resources is an inevitable choice under economic development and resource shortage. Assessing the economic feasibility of deep mineral resource exploit projects is a prerequisite for resource industry development. Mining industry have some problems influence its economic feasibility, including long mining period, high infrastructure investment and lack flexibility, and have risks of geology instability and economic reserve degrade. On the other hand, with the increase of the buried depth of mineral resources, some problems have intensified the uncertainty of the profit of deep resource utilization project, such as high stress, high lithology, high temperature environment, and increase of upgrading cost. Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) are traditional economic evaluation means which difficult to identify and assess risks precisely. Decoupled Net Present Value (DNPV) provides an efficiency tool to separate the time value and risk cost which is helpful to finds the real value of projects. A manganese mining project which is located Guizhou province, China is analyzed, paper choices several mainly risks of influence expected revenue to analysis project feasibility based on the DNPV technology, which includes the thickness of ore body, ore grade, market price, operation cost and nature disaster. The cost of potential environmental risk (carbon emission cost) also is analyzed. Paper constructs a risk management framework by risk identify, assess and classification, and analyzes the corresponding measures to reduce risk costs. The mainly risk cost of study case from market price shock and unexpected ore grade decline, which accounting for 80% of the total risk cost. In the process of deep mineral resources exploit, effective cost control measures can reduce the risk cost to a certain extent, including improving productivity, reducing unit cost of ore, improving mine sustainability and exploration accuracy. Green mineral construction is a feasible direction of deep resource utilization. For improve the accuracy of economic feasibility evaluation of deep mineral resources utilization, further improvement is needed in the selection and construction of different risk assessment model.
Keywords: Deep mining | Risk value assess | DNPV | Risk management | Songtao manganese