Women entrepreneurs as agents of change : A comparative analysis of social entrepreneurship processes in emerging markets
زنان کارآفرین به عنوان عوامل تغییر: تحلیل مقایسه ای فرایندهای کارآفرینی اجتماعی در بازارهای نوظهور-2020
In recent years, social and women entrepreneurship have become two growing fields of entrepreneurship research. In the context of social entrepreneurship, earlier research indicates that women are a better fit for leading social enterprises. However, the relevance of gender in the field of social entrepreneurship is underexplored and calls for further research, framing the mainstay of this study. Through a multiple case study approach employing four firms from two emerging markets – India and Colombia – we analyze how women entrepreneurs engage in social entrepreneurship processes in uncertain Base of the Pyramid environments. We use the effectuation lens to investigate the entrepreneurial journey and decision-making logics employed at various stages of the venture development. Findings show that women social entrepreneurs are highly motivated concerning social issues. Also, women entrepreneurs show a subtle transition between the two approaches of causation and effectuation during the venture creation processes. This study highlights the specific challenges that women entrepreneurs face in the emerging market context and the inclusive strategies they employ to enhance socio-economic development.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Women entrepreneurship | Inclusive business | BoP | Emerging economies
Are social incubators different from other incubators? Evidence from Italy
آیا دستگاه های جوجه کشی اجتماعی با سایر دستگاه های جوجه کشی فرق دارند؟ مدارکی از ایتالیا-2020
This paper defines and analyses incubators that mainly support start-ups with a significant social impact. In 2016, a survey was conducted on the 162 incubators active in Italy, and a total of 88 responses were received. An analysis of the literature and of this dataset led to the identification of three types of incubators: Business, Mixed, and Social. Thirty of the respondents sent information on their tenants. Thanks to the data regarding 247 tenants, it was possible to analyze the impact of the three different types of incubators (Business, Mixed, and Social) on the tenants’ growth through OLS regression analyses. A Social Incubator is here defined as an incubator that supports more than 50% of start-ups that aim to introduce a positive social impact. The study shows that Social Incubators perceive social impact measurement and training/consulting on business ethics and CSR as being more important services than other incubator types. The regression analyses explain that Social Incubators are as efficient as other incubators, in terms of tenants’ economic growth, notwithstanding the focus of Social Incubators on start-ups that do not pursue only economic objectives. Finally, this study indicates that policy- makers can foster Social Incubators to support social entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Incubators | Accelerators | Social start-up | Social entrepreneurship | Social innovation | Entrepreneurship
Social entrepreneurship orientation and company success: The mediating role of social performance
جهت گیری کارآفرینی اجتماعی و موفقیت شرکت: نقش واسطه ای عملکرد اجتماعی-2020
We examine the impact of social entrepreneurship orientation (SEO), a behavioral measure of the social en- trepreneurship of the organization, on the social and financial performance of a sample of Austrian firms. Despite growing research interests in social entrepreneurship, the field remains fragmented and this has led to calls for a careful examination of the implications of social entrepreneurship for firms. We draw on stakeholder theory and hybrid organizing to hypothesize that social performance mediates the SEO-financial performance relationship. By analyzing a sample of 1,156 companies, we find that the SEO-financial performance relationship is partially positively mediated by social performance even though the direct effect is negative. Our results show that social performance compensates for the otherwise negative effect SEO has directly with financial performance. We contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms by which an SEO affects firm performance and provide richer insights into the various aspects of performance. We discuss the future implications of our study and suggest promising avenues for further research on the SEO construct.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship orientation | Hybrid organizing | Social performance | Financial performance | Empirical | Mediation
Digitalisation, social entrepreneurship and national well-being
دیجیتالی شدن ، کارآفرینی اجتماعی و رفاه ملی-2020
This study examines the influence of digitalisation and social entrepreneurship on national well-being. Taking a configurational approach, the results show that digitalisation can benefit national well-being if the country has an adequate educational system, good governance, and a philanthropy-oriented financial system. Digitalisation can leverage these conditions in promoting national well-being. The study also contributes to entrepreneurship literature as it clarifies the role of social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship impacts national well-being when institutions are weak, but it is indifferent in developed economies, which gives support to the institutional void perspective. This finding contributes to the ongoing debate on the role of the institutions on the creation of social enterprises and advances knowledge on the social impact of social entrepreneurship. Additionally, the results show that a combination of conditions is required to achieve high levels of national well-being.
Keywords: National well-being | Digitalisation | Social entrepreneurship | Institutional theory | fs/QCA
Exploring frugal innovation in social entrepreneurship:: Insights from emerging economies
کاوش نوآوری صرفه جو در کارآفرینی اجتماعی :: بینشی از اقتصادهای نو ظهور-2020
Social entrepreneurshipinemergingeconomies isfraught with challenges concerning the availability of financial resources such as favorable credit terms, availability of human resources, and profit-making potential of new ventures, among others. Collectively, these conditions make undertaking entrepreneurial ventures difficult. As such, it is paradoxical that such adverse economic and institutional conditions in emerging economies also provide social entrepreneurs with opportunities to deliver social value. Research suggests that social entrepreneurial initiatives such as Jaipur foot in India and liter of light in Nigeria have overcome economic, social, and institutional constraints to create social value through frugal innovation. Yet as a scholarship, we have a limited understanding of the processes through which these frugal innovations emerge and how they enable social entrepreneurship in the context of emerging economies.
Individual capital and social entrepreneurship: Role of formal institutions
سرمایه فردی و کارآفرینی اجتماعی: نقش نهادهای رسمی-2020
Drawing on capital theory and institutional theory, we hypothesize the contingent role of a countrys formal institutions (ﬁnancial, educational, and political) on the relationship between individual capital (ﬁnancial, human and social capital) and social entrepreneurship entry. Using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, we ﬁnd that all three forms of individual capital are important for social entrepreneurship entry. Moreover, we ﬁnd that this relationship is contingent on the formal institutional context such that (i) philanthropy-oriented ﬁnancial systems have a positive moderating eﬀect on investment of ﬁnancial capital; (ii) educational systems have a positive moderating eﬀect on investment of human capital; and (iii) political systems have a positive moderating eﬀect on investment of both human and ﬁnancial capital. We make substantial contributions to the literature on social entrepreneurship by ascertaining the nature of contingent eﬀects of formal institutions on the relationship between individual capital and the emergence of social enterprises.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Institutional theory | Capital theory | Formal institutions | Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
Paradoxes and strategies in social enterprises’ dual logics enactment: A csQCA between Italy and the United Kingdom
تناقض ها و استراتژی ها در تصویب منطق دوگانه شرکت های اجتماعی: csQCA بین ایتالیا و انگلستان-2020
This study builds upon the literature around tensions, conflicts, and mission drift in social enterprises (SEs) to provide a clearer understanding of how SEs position themselves and which strategies can more effectively prevent a shift toward pure social or pure commercial outcomes. We conducted an in-depth investigation of 10 SEs in Italy and the UK contextualized in the food and beer industries. We produced a theoretical framework shedding light on the possible strategies to deal with sources of conflict and applied a csQCA to identify the most effective combination of strategies in preventing mission drift: mixed ownership and financial resource mobilization. We discuss that differences between the countries emerged due to some of the paradoxes of SEs in these industries. This is seemingly the first study adopting a csQCA in such a context, and it proved to be suitable for studying social entrepreneurship in homogenizing variables, hardly comparable otherwise.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Mission drift | Tensions | Crisp-set QCA | Italy and United Kingdom | Food
Understanding social entrepreneurship: A cultural perspective in business research
درک کارآفرینی اجتماعی: یک دیدگاه فرهنگی در تحقیقات تجاری-2020
This study investigates the cultural drivers of social entrepreneurship (SE), focusing on the way in which Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Eﬀectiveness (GLOBE) aﬀects social entrepreneurial activity (SEA) in diﬀerent countries. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and GLOBE project were used as data sources. Cultural values, regional aﬃliation, and economic development levels were used to cluster the selected coun- tries. Correlations between values and operating SEA were checked for the entire sample, as well as for each of the three clusters. A positive correlation between ‘Gender Egalitarianism’ and narrowly deﬁned operating SEA and negative correlation between ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ and the aforementioned SEA was conﬁrmed for all the countries, while the linkage between ‘Future Orientation’, ‘In-group Collectivism’, and operating SEA was par- tially veriﬁed. Research results suggest that culture is not suﬃcient to justify national diﬀerences in SE rates.
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship | Culture | GLOBE | GEM
From donation-based NPO to social enterprise: A journey of transformation through business-model innovation
از NPO مبتنی بر اهدا به شرکت اجتماعی: سفر تحول از طریق نوآوری در مدل کسب و کار-2020
Nonprofit organizations (NPO) have suffered from two interrelated bottlenecks: lack of funds and difficulties to grow and operate at scale. Business model innovation (BMI) has been found to be important to overcome those bottlenecks, but the extant literature is limited and lacks a solid empirical foundation. To explore this topic, we conducted a retrospective analysis of a single case study, tracking the evolution of an organizations business model as it went from being a traditional, donation-based NPO, to a dynamic sales-driven social enterprise (SE). As a result, the organization gained financial autonomy, scaled up operations and increased impact. Our findings add to the literature by identifying BMI change drivers and outcomes. We show how a platform-inspired business model can enhance value creation and value capture in a SE.
Keywords: Business model innovation | Social entrepreneurship | Value creation | Platforms
Social entrepreneurship research: A review and future research agenda
تحقیقات کارآفرینی اجتماعی: یک مرور و برنامه تحقیقاتی آینده-2020
Social Entrepreneurship (SE) is a popular area of research and practice. An analysis of the existing literature reviews on SE reveals a dearth of studies classifying the existing SE literature into multiple research themes and further presenting popular and less popular research themes. With the aim of bridging this gap, this study presents a systematic review of 188 peer reviewed SSCI journal articles published in last decade. It presents an overview of recent SE research, classifying it in five main themes while identifying the thrust areas of research in each. Based on identified research gaps, we provide future research directions, contexts and methodology.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship | Social enterprises | Entrepreneurship | Systematic review