DOES TRIPLE HELIX COLLABORATION MATTER FOR THE EARLY INTERNATIONALISATION OF TECHNOLOGY-BASED FIRMS IN EMERGING ECONOMIES?
آیا همکاری سه گانه هلیکس برای بین المللی سازی اولیه شرکتهای مبتنی بر فن آوری در اقتصادهای در حال رشد اهمیت دارد؟-2020
Firms’ early internationalisation (EI) is a complex process derived from uncertain market conditions, entrepre- neurial vision, and strategic entry decisions. Academic debates still require deepening and broadening the dis- cussion on early internationalisation of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). This study proposes a framework to analyse how NTBFs are adopting collaborative networks with the triple helix actors (government, university, and industry) to implement an EI strategy in emerging economies. Our findings show that the lack of specialised knowledge and resources stimulates collaboration with multiple triple helix agents to ensure the early entry strategy into international markets. We state the relevant implications and propositions concerning the inter- nationalisation of NTBFs and the relationship with triple helix stakeholders.SPECIAL DEDICATIONIn memory of Juan Arriaga, Department of Innovation and Entrepre- neurship, EGADE Business School
Keywords: NTBFs | International entrepreneurship | Triple helix | Early internationalisation | Emerging economies
The CAGE around cyberspace? How digital innovations internationalize in a virtual world
CAGE در اطراف فضای مجازی؟ چگونه نوآوری های دیجیتال در جهانی مجازی بین المللی می شوند-2020
This paper analyzes some salient factors affecting the internationalization speed of digital innovations by tracking international penetrations of 127 apps at Apples app store. Although apps are globally available via online platforms, their international penetration is still subject to cultural, administrative, geographic, and economic (CAGE) distances that act as user adoption barriers to impede app internationalization. App developers may overcome these barriers by employing the demand-side strategies of engaging users in value co-creation. We contribute to an improved understanding of internationalization process in a digital context and also extend demand-side perspective to inform international entrepreneurship research.
Keywords: Digital entrepreneurship | Digital innovations | International entrepreneurship | Mobile apps | Demand-side perspective | User engagement | Value co-creation
Founder passion, neural engagement and informal investor interest in startup pitches: An fMRI study
اشتیاق بنیانگذار ، تعامل عصبی و علاقه غیررسمی سرمایه گذاران در زمینه های راه اندازی: یک مطالعه fMRI-2020
Theory suggests that an earlier age at international entry results in improved growth but also decreased survival chances. Empirical studies tell a different story, providing mixed and equivocal results that challenge the tenets of extant theory. To begin to bridge the gap between theory and results, we develop theoretical explanations for curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) relationships between age at entry and both firm growth and firm survival as well as the moderating impact of resource-providing initial public offering (IPO) on the resource-intensive internationalization process. Our findings support the inverted U-shaped relationships and that IPO performance steepens the growth curve and flattens the survival curve. Taken together, our study enhances understanding of the effects of age at entry, bridges the IPO and international entrepreneurship literatures, and offers avenues for extending the micro-foundations of the development of capabilities for new foreign market entry. In doing so, we advance knowledge about the conditions under which earlier or later internationalization leads some firms to thrive while others fail.
Keywords: International entrepreneurship | Age at international entry | IPO | Survival | Growth
Timing is everything? Curvilinear effects of age at entry on new firm growth and survival and the moderating effect of IPO performance
زمان بندی همه چیز است؟ اثرات منحنی خطی سن هنگام ورود بر رشد و بقای شرکت جدید و اثر تعدیل کننده عملکرد IPO-2020
Theory suggests that an earlier age at international entry results in improved growth but also decreased survival chances. Empirical studies tell a different story, providing mixed and equivocal results that challenge the tenets of extant theory. To begin to bridge the gap between theory and results, we develop theoretical explanations for curvilinear (inverted U-shaped) relationships between age at entry and both firm growth and firm survival as well as the moderating impact of resource-providing initial public offering (IPO) on the resource-intensive internationalization process. Our findings support the inverted U-shaped relationships and that IPO performance steepens the growth curve and flattens the survival curve. Taken together, our study enhances understanding of the effects of age at entry, bridges the IPO and international entrepreneurship literature, and offers avenues for extending the micro-foundations of the development of capabilities for new foreign market entry. In doing so, we advance knowledge about the conditions under which earlier or later internationalization leads some firms to thrive while others fail.
Keywords: International entrepreneurship | Age at international entry | IPO | Survival | Growth
How do cultural values influence entrepreneurial behavior of nations? A behavioral reasoning approach
ارزشهای فرهنگی چگونه بر رفتار کارآفرینی ملتها تأثیر می گذارد؟ یک رویکرد استدلال رفتاری-2020
Despite an abundance of research, still there is a gap in understanding the underlying cultural mechanisms behind entrepreneurial behavior of nations in the literature. This study contributes to the debate through a new perspective of analysis based on behavioral reasoning theory (BRT). Specifically, this research analyses the role cultural values play in formation of the reasoning behind entrepreneurial behavior. The data and variables are taken from the GLOBE project and the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for a multiple regression analysis spanning from 2007 to 2017 for 50 countries. The results show that, with the exception of Institutional Collectivism, all of GLOBE’s cultural dimensions affect the reasoning justifications behind entrepreneurial intentions in various countries. Thus, the novel contribution of the present research is the application of BRT in explaining entrepreneurial intentions. This contribution is substantial to the international entrepreneurship field through clarification of the role of cultural values in the reasoning processes behind entrepreneurial activities of nations. Some findings are surprising with regard to the conventional understandings. These findings are fully discussed in the concluding sections.
Keywords: International entrepreneurship | Entrepreneurial intention | Culture | Behavioral reasoning theory
Are voluntary international migrants self-selected for entrepreneurship? An analysis of entrepreneurial personality traits
آیا مهاجران داوطلب بین المللی برای کارآفرینی خود انتخاب می شوند؟ تجزیه و تحلیل ویژگی های شخصیت کارآفرینانه-2020
In many countries, international migrants show a high tendency to become entrepreneurs. In the literature this has often been attributed to discrimination, ethnic networks, and sociodemographic differences. This paper examines a new explanation and argues that voluntary international migrants have a more entrepreneurial personality as a result of self-selection. An analysis of intentions, preparatory actions (n = 1,385) and long-term actions (n = 360) of skilled migrants andnon-migrants confirms this hypothesis. It suggests that the relationship between voluntary international migration and entrepreneurship is mediated by a greater willingness to take risks and, to some extent, by a greater need for achievement.
Keywords: Migrant entrepreneurship | international entrepreneurship | ethnic entrepreneurship | entrepreneurial personality | international migration | risk taking | need for achievement
International entrepreneurship in the post Covid world
کارآفرینی بین المللی در جهان Covid-2020
How will the world look post Covid-19? What is the role of international entrepreneurship (IE) in this new world? This article attempts to answer these two questions. It highlights the changes caused by Covid and how they might affect the scope and types of international entrepreneurial activities in years to come. It also discusses how international entrepreneurs are likely to operate and shape the emerging world order. The article concludes by outlining the implications of these changes for IE scholarship, offering an agenda for future research.
Keywords: International entrepreneurship | International new ventures (INVs) | Covid-19 | Institutional change | Digitalization | Innovation | Research agenda
An institution-based view of international entrepreneurship: A comparison of context-based and universal determinants in developing and economically advanced countries
دیدگاه مبتنی بر نهاد در مورد کارآفرینی بین المللی: مقایسه عوامل تعیین کننده متن و محور در کشورهای در حال توسعه و از نظر اقتصادی پیشرفته-2019
The objective of this paper is to investigate the institutional characteristics of different geographic contexts that affect the internationalisation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The study focuses on three categories of factors: (a) sociocultural, (b) political/legal, and (c) economic. Under economic factors, it examines competitive pressures in international markets, the nature of demands in international markets, domestic resources advantages, and domestic general economic characteristics. The paper identifies universal factors that influence the internationalisation of SMEs regardless of the location of the firm. These universal factors are distinguished from context-based factors, which are specific to the particular conditions of the people/location of the firm. A comparative analysis of cases from Italy and Iran allow us to find factors that are universal, others that are Iranian context-based, and one factor specific to the Italian context. Also, our analysis suggests the existence of some factors without significant influence in either country.
Keywords: International entrepreneurship | SME internationalisation | Institutions | Universal factors | Context-based determinants
Multinational Enterprises: Leveraging a Corporate International Entrepreneurship Lens for New Insights Into Subsidiary Initiatives
شرکت های چند ملیتی: اعمال یک لنز کارآفرینی بین المللی شرکت برای بینش های جدید در ابتکارات فرعی-2019
Corporate entrepreneurship has long been acknowledged as critical to multinational enterprises (MNEs), with dispersed entrepreneurial efforts involving subsidiary initiatives becoming increasingly relied upon. Yet despite the global context in which MNEs operate, the conversation has not fully embraced the extent to which many of its entrepreneurial activities overlap with internationalization. In this paper, we identify a set of opportunity phenotypes for subsidiary initiatives based on their market focus as well as the knowledge and capabilities leveraged to identify and exploit the opportunity. The recursive relationship between opportunities and dynamic capabilities is then discussed, with an emphasis on building a research agenda for corporate international entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Corporate international entrepreneurship | Multinational enterprises | Dynamic capabilities
Governance structure and internationalization of family-controlled firms: The mediating role of international entrepreneurial orientation
ساختار حکومتداری و بین المللی سازی شرکت های تحت کنترل خانواده: نقش میانجی گرایی گرایش به کارآفرینی بین المللی-2017
Stemming from resource dependence theory this article investigates the mediating role of international entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between the involvement of non-family members in the firms governance structure and both pace of internationalization and international performance of family firms. Relying on a sample of 113 German family firms, the theoretical model proposed in the study is tested via structural equation modeling techniques. Our findings suggest that a high involvement of non-family members in governance structure has a positive impact on family firms pace of inter nationalization, and that this relationship is mediated by the international entrepreneurial orientation of the firm. The discussion section offers implications for family business and international entrepre neurship literature, as well as practical implications.
Keywords: Family business | Internationalization | Governance structure | International entrepreneurial orientation | PLS-SEM