Digital entrepreneurship ecosystem : How digital technologies and collective intelligence are reshaping the entrepreneurial process
اکوسیستم کارآفرینی دیجیتال: چگونه فناوری های دیجیتال و هوش جمعی در حال شکل گیری مجدد روند کارآفرینی هستند-2020
Digital technologies have nowadays a significant impact on how new business ventures are imagined and created. The arising technology paradigm is leveraging the potential of collaboration and collective intelligence to design and launch more robust and sustainable entrepreneurial initiatives. However, although the topic of digital entrepreneurship is relevant and timely, there is a limited literature discussion on the real impact of digital technologies and collaboration on the entrepreneurial process. Further research is needed to describe the nature and characteristics of the entrepreneurial ecosystem enabled by the new socio-technical paradigm. Based on extant literature, this article proposes a definition of digital entrepreneurship ecosystem by highlighting the integrated digital-output and digital-environment perspectives. A collective intelligence approach is then adopted to define a descriptive framework and identify the distinguishing genes of a digital entrepreneurship ecosystem. Four dimensions associated to digital actors (who), digital activities (what), digital motivations (why), and digital organization (how) are defined and discussed. The framework was also applied to describe 9 real cases of companies and initiatives, which are analyzed as digital entrepreneurship ecosystems along the four key dimensions presented. The article ends with a discussion about the results and a research agenda for future studies.
Keywords: Collective intelligence | Digital entrepreneurship | Digital technologies | Entrepreneurial process | Ecosystem | Framework
How Entrepreneurs make sense of Lean Startup Approaches: Business Models as cognitive lenses to generate fast and frugal Heuristics
چگونه کارآفرینان رویکردهای راه اندازی ناب را احساس می کنند: مدل های کسب و کار به عنوان لنزهای شناختی برای تولید اکتشافی سریع و مقرون به صرفه-2020
The role of the business model (BM) as heuristics to support entrepreneurial and strategic problem solving at a cognitive level has been hinted at by extant literature, but left largely unexplored as of yet. This study is po- sitioned in the emerging research on the cognitive individual microfoundations of Entrepreneurship and Strategy, and contributes to the discussion of how business models are used as heuristics, in the novel and relevant setting of Digital Entrepreneurship. We conducted a multiple case study on three digital startups that applied the emerging Lean Startup Approaches (LSAs) and embody technological development in their value proposition. We found that digital entrepreneurs applying LSAs as a systematic process to validate their business ideas rely on business models as cognitive lenses to make sense of LSAs and translate abstract guidelines into fast and frugal heuristics, in order to ‘make do’ with cognitive resource scarcity. These BM-generated heuristics in turn help entrepreneurs in the activities of: (i) making sense of entrepreneurial opportunities; (ii) formulating falsifiable hypotheses concerning their startups’ viability; (iii) filtering, selecting and organizing fuzzy and in- complete external and internal information; (iv) designing multidimensional customer experiments and tests revolving around the notion of value, through Minimum Viable Business Models (MVBMs); (v) prioritizing these experiments and tests to validate their early BM through analogical arguments; and (vi) processing the learning they obtain from experiments, and concretizing it in the form of BM pivots. We also provide empirically-driven insight on an integrative set of cognitive processes – namely (1) cognitive imprinting, (2) common language transfer; (3) attention intensity and (4) scientific and experimental cognition – that mold and blend together the BM-generated heuristics and explain how they are learnt, transferred, enacted, and how they persistently enablea cognitive transition to the application of a scientific method to Entrepreneurship based on more sophisticated experiments and metrics.«Non sunt multiplicanda entia sine necessitate» (Entities are not to be multiplied without necessity)William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347)
Keywords: Business Model | Heuristic | Lean Startup Approaches | Microfoundations | Entrepreneurship | Experimentation | Digital Entrepreneurship | Scientific method
Agile Business Model Innovation in Digital Entrepreneurship: Lean Startup Approaches
نوآوری مدل کسب و کار چابک در کارآفرینی دیجیتال: رویکردهای راه اندازی ناب-2020
Digital startups in the early stages of their development frequently undergo innovation to their value ar- chitecture and Business Model. A set of pragmatic methods drawing on lean and agile principles has recently been proposed to support digital entrepreneurs facing Business Model Innovation (BMI), known as Lean Startup Approaches (LSAs). However, the theoretical and practical relationship between BMI and LSAs in dynamic di- gital environments has seldom been investigated. To ﬁll this gap, our study draws on an exploratory multiple- case study based on three digital multisided platform startups to craft a uniﬁed framework that can disclose the relationship between BMI, LSAs and Agile Development (AD), within the context of Strategic Agility. Our ﬁn- dings, which emerge from the uniﬁed framework, show that LSAs can be employed as agile methods to enable Business Model Innovation in Digital Entrepreneurship. These ﬁndings are then organized around a set of propositions, with the aim of developing a research agenda directed towards integrating BMI, LSAs and AD processes and methods.
Keywords: Business Model Innovation | Lean Startup Approaches | Agile development | Customer development | Digital startups | Multisided platform | Strategic agility
The emancipatory potential of digital entrepreneurship: A study of financial technology-driven inclusive growth
پتانسیل رهایی کارآفرینی دیجیتال: مطالعه رشد فراگیر مبتنی بر فناوری مالی-2020
Digital entrepreneurship possesses immense societal implications beyond its commercial significance. Yet our knowledge of the emancipatory potential of digital entrepreneurship remains limited because few studies have gone beyond the conventional emphasis on profits and wealth creation. Drawing on the emancipatory perspective that views entrepreneurship as change creation through the removal of constraints, this article ex- amines how emancipation can occur through the actions of digital entrepreneurs. Using an empirical investi- gation of entrepreneurial endeavours set against disadvantaged communities in Indonesia, we uncover constraints facing a developing economy and the role of digital technologies in ameliorating them. Through extensive fieldwork and in-depth case study analyses, we identify constraining societal norms and restrictive practices, as well as the three forms of digital enablement - to emulate services, aggregate capital and equalize opportunities – necessary for the enactment of digitally enabled emancipation. We present a framework to illustrate the enactment of emancipatory digital entrepreneurship for the inclusive development of businesses and communities.
Keywords: Digital entrepreneurship | Emancipation | Fintech | Case study
The CAGE around cyberspace? How digital innovations internationalize in a virtual world
CAGE در اطراف فضای مجازی؟ چگونه نوآوری های دیجیتال در جهانی مجازی بین المللی می شوند-2020
This paper analyzes some salient factors affecting the internationalization speed of digital innovations by tracking international penetrations of 127 apps at Apples app store. Although apps are globally available via online platforms, their international penetration is still subject to cultural, administrative, geographic, and economic (CAGE) distances that act as user adoption barriers to impede app internationalization. App developers may overcome these barriers by employing the demand-side strategies of engaging users in value co-creation. We contribute to an improved understanding of internationalization process in a digital context and also extend demand-side perspective to inform international entrepreneurship research.
Keywords: Digital entrepreneurship | Digital innovations | International entrepreneurship | Mobile apps | Demand-side perspective | User engagement | Value co-creation
Effectual tactics in digital entrepreneurship: A process model
تاکتیک های تأثیرگذار در کارآفرینی دیجیتال: یک مدل فرآیند-2020
Uncertainty and the pursuit of new ventures are intricately linked. Digital technologies open up new ways for uncertainty handling in the pursuit of novelty. In this paper, we develop a process model that traces the dynamics among uncertainty, digitally enabled tactics, and organizational novelty. The model points to the potential of technologies that are evocative, disposable, and responsive for venturing in complex, uncertainty-ridden contexts. Our research builds on extant conceptualizations of complexity in innovation journeys, in conjunction with perspectives on effectual entrepreneurial tactics. Empirically, we investigate uncertainty handling through a longitudinal case study on an in-house venture for the
Keywords: Intrapreneurship | Uncertainty | Complexity | Effectuation | Digital entrepreneurship
The engagement of home-based businesses in the digital economy
مشارکت مشاغل خانگی در اقتصاد دیجیتال-2020
This paper explores the engagement of home-based businesses in digital trading, measured as proportion of their sales from buying and selling services and products online of all their sales. Findings are drawn from a sample of 994 Small- and Medium-Sized Businesses that are members of the Federation of Small Businesses in Scotland. Multivariate findings show that home-based businesses are associated with high proportions of online sales supporting the view of homebased businesses as ‘online’ businesses. However, quantitatively, the overall transformational effects of digital technologies on the nature and processes of entrepreneurship are rather small as the vast majority of home-based businesses, like SMEs that are not home-based, trade offline. Online business models represent a very small proportion of the home-based business sector. Home-based businesses in rural areas do not make greater use of e-commerce. The findings add to the critical literature on the transformative nature of digital entrepreneurship and the emerging home-based business literature that question whether the role of digital technologies and online marketplaces for home-based businesses are being exaggerated, particularly in rural economies.
Keywords: Small business | Digital entrepreneurship | Home-based business | E-commerce
Researching Pure Digital Entrepreneurship – A Multimethod Insider Action Research approach
تحقیق در مورد کارآفرینی دیجیتالی خالص - یک رویکرد تحقیقات خود عملی چند منظوره -2019
Knowledge production in Pure Digital Entrepreneurship (PDE) needs to reflect the non-linear nature of a journey defined by digital artifact and platform creation. Accordingly, this paper proposes and offers practical guidance on the use of Multimethod Insider Action Research (MIAR) as a suitable research design for studying the entrepreneurial journey in this context. It argues for integrating first-person Reflective Practice, second-person Collaborative Inquiry and Design Research for third-person knowledge production that balances rigour and relevance. While calls for such forms of longitudinal process inquiry have largely gone unanswered due to identified challenges, this paper uses a case narrative to illustrate the feasibility of conducting them in a PDE context.
Keywords: Digital entrepreneurship | Multimethod | Insider Action Research | Design research
Levelling the playing field? Towards a critical-social perspective on digital entrepreneurship
زمین بازی را تسطیح می کنید؟ به سمت یک دیدگاه انتقادی-اجتماعی در مورد کارآفرینی دیجیتال-2019
This conceptual paper critically analyses whether digital technologies have the potential to level the entrepreneurial playing field, and presents a more comprehensive and nuanced view of an increasingly significant yet underexplored phenomenon. Drawing upon three broad theoretical lenses: neoclassical economic entrepreneurship theory, cyberfeminist theories of technology and social embeddedness approaches to entrepreneurship, it critiques popular assumptions about digital entrepreneurship as an equalising force. It develops a novel critical-social perspective on digital entrepreneurship and an innovative typology of the landscape. Such an approach highlights a range of digital entrepreneurial activity and actors excluded from mainstream view, theorises the impact of technological requirements and socially distributed resources, and concludes that optimistic promises of success have been, and are likely to continue to be, realized primarily by those already in the top rungs of the social ladder.
Keywords: Digital | Enterprise | Entrepreneurship | Cyberfeminism | Intersectionality | Social embeddedness
Moving a mountain with a teaspoon: Toward a theory of digital entrepreneurship in the regulatory environment
جابجایی کوه با یک قاشق چایخوری: به سمت یک تئوری کارآفرینی دیجیتال در محیط نظارتی-2019
Digital entrepreneurship is an emerging phenomenon in the digital era. While the literature has started to look into this phenomenon, the attention has been paid mainly to digital startups in free markets. In a regulatory environment, however, it is unclear how a new startup might digitally transform business through entrepreneurial actions to overcome the challenges and barriers from regulations. Drawing on the dynamic capabilities and digital innovation literature, I conduct an in-depth longitudinal study at a Dutch digital startup. I trace the underlying mechanisms through which it creates digital solutions to the regulations in the Dutch healthcare sector — demand-driven digital disruption, fast digital adaptation, and continuous digital transplantation. Novel implications for digital entrepreneurship in the regulatory environment are presented.
Keywords: Digital entrepreneurship | Digital startup | Digital innovation | Regulatory environment