Biometric indicators can be early signs of declines in activities of daily living functioning among the Indonesian elderly
شاخص های بیومتریک می توانند نشانه های اولیه کاهش فعالیت های روزانه در افراد مسن اندونزی باشند-2021
Background: Signs associated with the onset of disability can be useful in disability projection and have signiﬁcant implications in elderly care policy. Objective: To explored the associations between biometric screening indicators and declines in activities of daily life (ADLs) functioning among the Indonesian elderly.
Methods: This is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 4 conducted in 2007e2008, and IFLS 5 conducted in 2014e2015 were used to assess the association be- tween biometric indicators and ADLs at baseline and follow-up.
Results: Findings revealed that 22.3% of participants surveyed in 2007e2014 had become disabled in terms of ADLs. Anemia status, stage 2 hypertension, lung capacity, and a longer sit-to-stand time were associated with ADLs.
Conclusion: These ﬁndings are important to help early detection and potentially help the prevention of ADLs in elderly people in the future. Accuracy of disability estimation could possibly be improved if including biometric parameters.© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biometric screening | Activities of daily living (ADLs) | Cohort study | Elderly | Indonesia
Comparison of electrical energy and power of PV with different cells materials in clear sky day condition
مقایسه انرژی الکتریکی و توان PV با مواد سلول های مختلف در شرایط روز آسمان صاف-2021
In present study, a comparison has been made on the basis of gain of the electrical energy and power from solar cells or photovoltaic module. To evaluate the electrical energy and power, five different materials or cases have been considered, which are named as: case (i): c-Si, case (ii): p-Si, case (iii): a-Si, case (iv): CdTe and case (v): CIGS. Each PV module has been considered for the analysis which dimension is 0.6051 m2. For case (i): PV cells are made of silicon crystalline, which is having 0.5 Volts and 4 Amp and 36 cells are connected in series, which are producing 72 W. Such analysis has been studied for a clear sky day condition, New Delhi, India. The comparative study is attempted to choose best for generating electrical energy and power when high electrical enrgy demands in our society. It is also observed that the maximum electrical energy and power have been found for case (i), whereas minimum for case (iii), due to high PV cell temperature. The electrical energy and power have been 1.8 times higher in case (i), than case (iii).
Keywords: Silicon materials | PV | Composite climate | Energy and power
Code as constitution: The negotiation of a uniform accounting code for U:S: railway corporations and the moral justification of stakeholder claims on wealth
کد به عنوان قانون اساسی: مذاکره در مورد یک کد حسابداری یکسان برای شرکت های راه آهن ایالات متحده و توجیه اخلاقی ادعاهای سهامداران در مورد ثروت-2021
Economic historians of the United States identify the railway industry of the nineteenth century as the birthplace of existing institutions of corporate finance, law, and labor relations (Chandler, 1990; Perrow, 2002; Thomas, 2011). This paper shows that the railway industry was also an important arena for the standardization of corporate accounting in the U. S., and that railway accountants played a significant role in the federal government’s earliest attempts to regulate large corporations. The paper describes how railway accountants worked with the first federal regulator of corporations, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), created by act of Congress in 1887, to create a uniform accounting code for the railway industry. This code was designed by the prominent economist and ICC statistician Henry Carter Adams to serve as a mechanism for the administrative supervision of railway corporations: a “cognitive equivalent of a constitution” (Starr, 1987, p. 53) that would promote economic democracy by protecting the property rights of non-controlling stakeholders in the railway system: shippers who used the trains to send goods to markets, long-term investors in railway shares and bonds, consumers of shipped goods, and members of the communities that the railways connected and employed. Railway accountants working with Adams created the rules for answering “potentially divisive questions of fact” (Starr, 1987, p. 53) about who contributed how much to the assets and profits of the railway corporation, and thus provided moral justification for how claims on those assets and profits were distributed.
Factors Relating to Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Pain Management in Inpatients
عوامل مرتبط با دانش و نگرش پرستاران در مورد مدیریت درد در بیماران بستری-2021
Purpose: To describe factors associated with nurses’ attitudes or lack of knowledge regarding pain management in adult inpatients.
Design: Transverse descriptive survey-based study. Methods: This was a transverse descriptive survey-based study. The population was obtained through nonprobability convenience sampling. The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was made available to 470 nurses at a tertiary level hospital. Associations were sought with the unit where assigned, years of experience, specific training on pain, and postgraduate education.
Results: The sample included 134 nurses with a mean age of 41.6 ± 10.8 years; 87% were women, 64% worked rotating shifts, 64% had more than 10 years of experience, and 31% had specific training in pain management. The greatest number of correct responses was obtained from nurses with specific training in pain management (p ¼ .001) and nurses who worked in units of surgical hospitalization (p ¼ .004). The lack of training was associated with a deficit in knowledge and inadequate attitudes about pain management. In nurses with less than 10 years of experience, worse results were observed in knowledge, whereas the unit of work was decisive in the results about attitude (p < .05).
Conclusions: Among the nurses surveyed, some knowledge gaps were detected, as were certain inappropriate attitudes, associated with lack of training, lack of experience, and being assigned to specific hospitalization units.
Modern slavery statements: From regulation to substantive supply chain reporting
اظهارات برده داری مدرن: از مقررات گرفته تا گزارش زنجیره تأمین اساسی-2021
Recent years have seen a renewed focus on labor standards in the supply chain, prompted by legislation that requires firms to provide an account of their efforts to combat modern slavery. However, as a common problem of non-financial disclosure regulation, companies can decide the extent and content of their reporting, which could potentially result in merely symbolic disclosures with little substance. We examine the disclosure of substantive actions in modern slavery statements, defined as those disclosures of corporate actions that can positively affect working conditions in supply chains. We examine the corporate disclosure of these actions over time in order to evaluate whether legally mandated disclosure requirements could lead to progress in combatting modern slavery. For this purpose, we collected modern slavery statements from companies that had issued such statements for at least two different years after the
Keywords: Modern slavery statements | Social sustainability | Substantive disclosures | CSR Disclosures | Legitimacy theory | Content analysis
Correction of left ventricular doppler echocardiographic measurements for physiological variances using a novel optimized multivariable allometric model in healthy chinese han adults
اصلاح اندازه گیری های اکوکاردیوگرافی داپلر بطن چپ برای واریانس های فیزیولوژیکی با استفاده از یک مدل آلوومتری چند متغیره بهینه سازی شده در افراد سالم هان چینی-2021
Most left ventricular (LV) Doppler measurements vary significantly with age and gender, making it necessary to correct them for physiological variances. We aimed to verify the hypothesis that different Doppler measurements correlate nonlinearly with different biometric variables raised to different scaling factors and exponents. In this work, a total of 23 LV Doppler parameters were measured in 1224 healthy Chinese adults. An optimized multivariable allometric model (OMAM) and scaling equations were developed in 70% of the subjects (group A), and the reliability of the model and equations was verified using the remaining 30% of the subjects (group B) as well as 183 overweight subjects (group C). The single-variable isometric model (SVIM) with body surface area (BSA) as a scaling variable was used for comparison. Before correction, all 23 LV Doppler parameters correlated significantly with one or more of the biometric variables. In group B, gender differences were found in 47.8% (11/23) of the parameters and were eliminated in 81.8% (9/11) of the parameters after correction with OMAM. The successful correction rate with OMAM was 100% (23/23) in group B and 82.6% (19/23) in group C. New reference values for corrected Doppler measurements independent of biometric variables were established. The SVIM with BSA successfully corrected none of the 23 parameters. In conclusion, different LV Doppler parameters allometrically correlated with one or more of the biometric variables. The novel OMAM developed in this study successfully corrected the effects of the physiological variances of most biometric variables on Doppler measurements in healthy and overweight subjects, and was found to be far superior to the SVIM. However, whether the OMAM equations can be applied to other ethnicities, obese subjects, and pathological conditions requires further investigation.
Effect of CNT additives on the electrical properties of derived nanocomposites (experimentally and numerical investigation)
تأثیر افزودنیهای CNT بر خواص الکتریکی نانوکامپوزیتهای مشتقشده (بررسی تجربی و عددی)-2021
In this work, two simulations models have been developed to study the electrical percolation and the electrical conductivity of epoxy-based nanocomposite containing Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes. The models are based on resistor-model and finite element analysis. The former was evaluated using MATLAB code and the finite element analysis using DIGIMAT software. The maximum tunneling distance and its influence on the percolation probability and final electrical conductivity were studied. Electrical measurements on the samples were conducted for numerical validation. The experimental data showed a percolation achievement around 2 wt%, which was confirmed in the numerical simulations. This study provides evidence of the effectiveness of the resistor model and finite element method approach to predict the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites.
Keywords: Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs) | Nanocomposites | Carbon nanotube | Electrical properties | Computational modelling
Accounting to the end of life: Scarcity, performance and death
حسابداری تا پایان زندگی، عملکرد و مرگ-2021
This paper follows accounting to the end of life. We question how accounting can influence the way life ends to understand the conceptions of life, health and normality that inform accounting valuations of life itself. Specifically, we conducted an ethnographic study of a hospital’s geriatrics and palliative care unit to analyse how accounting influences, and is informed by, conceptions of what makes a life worth living. The end of life problematises accounting and makes visible as- sumptions on what constitutes a good life. We draw on Agamben and Canguilhem to show that accounting builds on, and reproduces, several discursive positions – scarcity and the need for efficient resource allocation; separability and the possibility to isolate segments; commensuration and the possibility to relate each situation to standardised categories; valuation and the reduction of life to exchange values; normativity and the definition of normality through statistical regu- larities. We then discuss the kind of life that is included in accounting valuations of life itself and the dehumanising consequences accounting practices can have on the end of life. We conclude with opening questions on how to imagine forms of accounting that would acknowledge our vulnerability and allow for an art of living while dying.
keywords: قوم شناسی | مرگ | جرات | زیست شناسی | زندگی | Ethnography | Death | Geriatrics | Biopolitics | Life
A Review and Conceptual Analysis of Cancer Pain Self-Management
بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل مفهومی از خود مدیریت سرطان-2021
Objectives: In this concept analysis article, we will clarify the concept “self-management of cancer pain” by identifying related antecedents, attributes, and consequences to further refine the conceptual and operational definitions of the concept. Design: A review was conducted.
Review/Analysis Methods: The Walker and Avant method was used for this concept analysis. Data sources: CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycInfo were searched systemically.A total of eight studies on “selfmanagement of cancer pain or self-care of cancer pain” published between 2004 and 2019 were identified.
Results: Attributes for self-management of cancer pain include self-efficacy, integration of methods for pain relief into daily life, decision-making related to pain management, process for solving pain-related issues, and initiation of interactions with healthcare professionals. Antecedents include knowledge regarding pain assessment and management, cognitive abilities, motivation, undergoing pain treatment, patient education and counseling, social support, and accountability from all parties involved. Consequences include pain control, improved quality of life, and increased opioid intake.
Conclusions: Self-management of cancer pain was reported to be a self-regulation process with the aim to encourage patients to use skills attained through development of self-efficacy, so they can actively participate in their pain management. This outcome may enhance their quality of life by decreasing their pain, depression, and anxiety and increasing the availability of social support.
Who will take on green product development in supply chains? Manufacturer or retailer
چه کسی توسعه محصول سبز را در زنجیره های تامین به عهده خواهد گرفت؟ تولید کننده یا خرده فروش-2021
: This paper investigates the optimal decisions, profits and social welfare in a green supply chain (GSC) when the manufacturer or retailer conducts green product development. Two Stackelberg game models are constructed here: the manufacturer-led green product development model (MD model) and retailer-led green product development model (RD model), and it is assumed that the green product developer is risk-averse. Then the optimal decisions and members’ profits under two models are obtained. Through comparing them, the results show that the product greenness and leader’s profit are always higher in MD model, but in which model the retail price, wholesale price and follower’s profit are higher/lower is related to the cost coefficient of green product development, the leaders’ risk aversion, and demand uncertainty. Moreover, the risk aversion and demand uncertainty have a negative impact on most decisions and profits, but their impact on followers’ profits under two models and the wholesale price of RD model are still affected by the cost coefficient of green product development. Finally, numerical experiments are used to compare the total profits and social welfare under two models. The results indicate that in most cases, the GSC’s total profit under RD model is higher, but the social welfare under MD model is higher.
Keywords: Green product development | Green supply chain management | Stackelberg game | Risk aversion