Duality Between Source Coding With Quantum Side Information and Classical-Quantum Channel Coding
دوگانگی بین کدگذاری منبع با اطلاعات جانبی کوانتومی و کدگذاری کانال کوانتومی کلاسیک-2022
In this paper, we establish an interesting duality between two different quantum information-processing tasks, namely, classical source coding with quantum side information, and channel coding over classical-quantum channels. The duality relates the optimal error exponents of these two tasks, generalizing the classical results of Ahlswede and Dueck [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, 28(3):430–443, 1982]. We establish duality both at the operational level and at the level of the entropic quantities characterizing these exponents. For the latter, the duality is given by an exact relation, whereas for the former, duality manifests itself in the following sense: an optimal coding strategy for one task can be used to construct an optimal coding strategy for the other task. Along the way, we derive a bound on the error exponent for classical-quantum channel coding with constant composition codes which might be of independent interest. Finally, we consider the task of variable-length classical compression with quantum side information, and a duality relation between this task and classical-quantum channel coding can also be established correspondingly. Furthermore, we study the strong converse of this task, and show that the strong converse property does not hold even in the i.i.d. scenario.
Index Terms: Duality | classical-quantum channel coding | quantum side information | error exponent | strong converse | Slepian-Wolf coding.
Moving towards intelligent telemedicine: Computer vision measurement of human movement
حرکت به سمت پزشکی از راه دور هوشمند: اندازه گیری بینایی کامپیوتری حرکت انسان-2022
Background: Telemedicine video consultations are rapidly increasing globally, accelerated by the COVID- 19 pandemic. This presents opportunities to use computer vision technologies to augment clinician visual judgement because video cameras are so ubiquitous in personal devices and new techniques, such as DeepLabCut (DLC) can precisely measure human movement from smartphone videos. However, the accuracy of DLC to track human movements in videos obtained from laptop cameras, which have a much lower FPS, has never been investigated; this is a critical gap because patients use laptops for most telemedicine consultations. Objectives: To determine the validity and reliability of DLC applied to laptop videos to measure finger tapping, a validated test of human movement. Method: Sixteen adults completed finger-tapping tests at 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz and at maximal speed. Hand movements were recorded simultaneously by a laptop camera at 30 frames per second (FPS) and by Optotrak, a 3D motion analysis system at 250 FPS. Eight DLC neural network architectures (ResNet50, ResNet101, ResNet152, MobileNetV1, MobileNetV2, EfficientNetB0, EfficientNetB3, EfficientNetB6) were applied to the laptop video and extracted movement features were compared to the ground truth Optotrak motion tracking. Results: Over 96% (529/552) of DLC measures were within +∕−0.5 Hz of the Optotrak measures. At tapping frequencies >4 Hz, there was progressive decline in accuracy, attributed to motion blur associated with the laptop camera’s low FPS. Computer vision methods hold potential for moving us towards intelligent telemedicine by providing human movement analysis during consultations. However, further developments are required to accurately measure the fastest movements.
keywords: پزشکی از راه دور | ضربه زدن با انگشت | موتور کنترل | کامپیوتری | Telemedicine | DeepLabCut | Finger tapping | Motor control | Computer vision
Effects of Dynamical Decoupling and Pulse-Level Optimizations on IBM Quantum Computers
اثرات جداسازی دینامیکی و بهینه سازی سطح پالس بر روی کامپیوترهای کوانتومی IBM-2022
Currently available quantum computers are prone to errors. Circuit optimization and error mitigation methods are needed to design quantum circuits to achieve better fidelity when executed on NISQ hardware. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is generally used to suppress the decoherence error, and different DD strategies have been proposed. Moreover, the circuit fidelity can be improved by pulse-level optimization, such as creating hardware-native pulse-efficient gates. This article implements all the popular DD sequences and evaluates their performances on IBM quantum chips with different characteristics for various wellknown quantum applications. Also, we investigate combining DD with the pulse-level optimization method and apply them to QAOA to solve the max-cut problem. Based on the experimental results, we find that DD can be a benefit for only certain types of quantum algorithms, while the combination of DD and pulse-level optimization methods always has a positive impact. Finally, we provide several guidelines for users to learn how to use these noise mitigation methods to build circuits for quantum applications with high fidelity on IBM quantum computers.
INDEX TERMS: Error mitigation | noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) hardware.
The physical and mechanical properties for flexible biomass particles using computer vision
خواص فیزیکی و مکانیکی ذرات زیست توده انعطاف پذیر با استفاده از بینایی کامپیوتری-2022
The combustion and fluidization behavior of biomass depend on the physical properties (size, morphology, and density) and mechanical performances (elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, tensile strength and failure strain), but their quantitative models have rarely been focused in previous researchers. Hence, a static image measurement for particle physical properties is studied. Combining the uniaxial tension and digital image correlation tech- nology, the dynamic image measurement method for the mechanical properties is proposed. The results indicate that the average roundness, rectangularity, and sphericity of present biomass particles are 0.2, 0.4, and 0.16, respectively. The equivalent diameter and density obey the skewed normal distribution. The tensile strength and failure stress are sensitive to stretching rate, fiber size and orientation. The distribution intervals of elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio are 30–600 MPa and 0.25–0.307, respectively. The stress–strain curves obtained from imaging experiments agree well with the result of finite element method. This study provides the operating parameters for the numerical simulation of particles in the fluidized bed and combustor. Furthermore, the computer vision measurement method can be extended to the investigations of fossil fuels.
keywords: ذرات زیست توده | مشخصات فیزیکی | اجرای مکانیکی | تست کشش | آزمایش تصویربرداری | بینایی کامپیوتر | Biomass particle | Physical properties | Mechanical performances | Tensile testing | Imaging experiment | Computer vision
Efficient Construction of a Control Modular Adder on a Carry-Lookahead Adder Using Relative-Phase Toffoli Gates
ساخت کارآمد یک جمع کننده ماژولار کنترلی بر روی جمع کننده Carry-Lookahead با استفاده از گیت های توفولی فاز نسبی-2022
Control modular addition is a core arithmetic function, and we must consider the computational cost for actual quantum computers to realize efficient implementation. To achieve a low computational cost in a control modular adder, we focus on minimizing KQ (where K is the number of logical qubits required by the algorithm, and Q is the elementary gate step), defined by the product of the number of qubits and the depth of the circuit. In this article, we construct an efficient control modular adder with small KQ by using relative-phase Toffoli gates in two major types of quantum computers: fault-tolerant quantum computers (FTQ) on the logical layer and noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers (NISQ). We give a more efficient construction compared with Van Meter and Itoh’s, based on a carry-lookahead adder. In FTQ, T gates incur heavy cost due to distillation, which fabricates ancilla for running T gates with high accuracy but consumes a lot of especially prepared ancilla qubits and a lot of time. Thus, we must reduce the number of T gates. We propose a new control modular adder that uses only 20% of the number of T gates of the original. Moreover, when we take distillation into consideration, we find that we minimize KQT (the product of the number of qubits and T-depth) by running (n/√log n) T gates simultaneously. In NISQ, cnot gates are the major error source. We propose a new control modular adder that uses only 35% of the number of cnotgates of the original. Moreover, we show that the KQCX (the product of the number of qubits and cnot-depth) of our circuit is 38% of the original. Thus, we realize an efficient control modular adder, improving prospects for the efficient execution of arithmetic in quantum computers.
INDEX TERMS: Carry-lookahead adder | control modular adder | fault-tolerant quantum computers (FTQ) | noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers (NISQ) | Shor’s algorithm.
High-accuracy in the classification of butchery cut marks and crocodile tooth marks using machine learning methods and computer vision algorithms
دقت بالا در طبقه بندی علائم برش قصابی و علائم دندان تمساح با استفاده از روش های یادگیری ماشین و الگوریتم های بینایی کامپیوتری-2022
Some researchers using traditional taphonomic criteria (groove shape and presence/absence of microstriations) have cast some doubts about the potential equifinality presented by crocodile tooth marks and stone tool butchery cut marks. Other researchers have argued that multivariate methods can efficiently separate both types of marks. Differentiating both taphonomic agents is crucial for determining the earliest evidence of carcass processing by hominins. Here, we use an updated machine learning approach (discarding artificially bootstrapping the original imbalanced samples) to show that microscopic features shaped as categorical variables, corresponding to intrinsic properties of mark structure, can accurately discriminate both types of bone modifications. We also implement new deep-learning methods that objectively achieve the highest accuracy in differentiating cut marks from crocodile tooth scores (99% of testing sets). The present study shows that there are precise ways of differentiating both taphonomic agents, and this invites taphonomists to apply them to controversial paleontological and archaeological specimens.
keywords: تافونومی | علائم برش | علائم دندان | فراگیری ماشین | یادگیری عمیق | شبکه های عصبی کانولوشنال | قصابی | Taphonomy | Cut marks | Tooth marks | Machine learning | Deep learning | Convolutional neural networks | Butchery
Efficient Floating Point Arithmetic for Quantum Computers
محاسبات ممیز شناور کارآمد برای کامپیوترهای کوانتومی-2022
One of the major promises of quantum computing is the realization of SIMD (single instruction - multiple data) operations using the phenomenon of superposition. Since the dimension of the state space grows exponentially with the number of qubits, we can easily reach situations where we pay less than a single quantum gate per data point for data-processing instructions, which would be rather expensive in classical computing. Formulating such instructions in terms of quantum gates, however, still remains a challenging task. Laying out the foundational functions for more advanced data-processing is therefore a subject of paramount importance for advancing the realm of quantum computing. In this paper, we introduce the formalism of encoding so called-semi-boolean polynomials. As it turns out, arithmetic Z=2nZ ring operations can be formulated as semi-boolean polynomial evaluations, which allows convenient generation of unsigned integer arithmetic quantum circuits. For arithmetic evaluations, the resulting algorithm has been known as Fourier-arithmetic. We extend this type of algorithm with additional features, such as ancillafree in-place multiplication and integer coefficient polynomial evaluation. Furthermore, we introduce a tailor-made method for encoding signed integers succeeded by an encoding for arbitrary floating-point numbers. This representation of floating-point numbers and their processing can be applied to any quantum algorithm that performs unsigned modular integer arithmetic. We discuss some further performance enhancements of the semi boolean polynomial encoder and finally supply a complexity estimation. The application of our methods to a 32-bit unsigned integer multiplication demonstrated a 90% circuit depth reduction compared to carry-ripple approaches.
INDEX TERMS: Quantum arithmetic | quantum computing | floating point arithmetic.
Understanding the effect of surfactants on two-phase flow using computer vision
درک اثر سورفکتانت ها بر جریان دو فازی با استفاده از بینایی کامپیوتر-2022
The effect of surfactants on vertical gas-liquid ﬂow is experimentally investigated in a 12.7 mm diameter tube at conditions relevant to an ammonia-water bubble absorber. The characteristics of two-phase ﬂow are studied using an air-water mixture, both with and without the addition of 1-octanol as the surfac- tant. High-speed videography is used to study the ﬂow patterns and quantify interfacial areas and bubble velocities. Novel computer vision-based methods are used to analyze and quantify these ﬂow parame- ters. The addition of 1-octanol results in enhancement in interfacial area due to the prevention of bubble coalescence leading to many small diameter bubbles. Measured values of interfacial area are compared with predictions from correlations in the literature, and agreement and differences are interpreted and discussed. The bubble velocity is measured by object tracking using the optical ﬂow method. Surfactants lead to a decrease in bubble velocity and increase in the residence time. These are surmised to be due to the shear stresses caused by the non-uniform concentration distribution of surfactant along the bub- ble surface. Overall, the addition of surfactants can lead to appreciable enhancement in heat and mass transfer rates due to their effect on interfacial areas and residence times.
keywords: سورفکتانت ها | جریان دو فازی | ناحیه رابط | سرعت | تقویت | تجسم جریان | Surfactants | Two-phase ﬂow | Interfacial area | Velocity | Enhancement | Flow visualization
Efficient Hardware Implementation of Finite Field Arithmetic AB + C for Binary Ring-LWE Based Post-Quantum Cryptography
اجرای سخت افزار کارآمد محاسبات میدان محدود AB + C برای رمزنگاری پس کوانتومی مبتنی بر حلقه باینری-LWE-2022
Post-quantum cryptography (PQC) has gained significant attention from the community recently as it is proven that the existing public-key cryptosystems are vulnerable to the attacks launched from the well-developed quantum computers. The finite field arithmetic AB þ C, where A and C are integer polynomials and B is a binary polynomial, is the key component for the binary Ring-learning-with-errors (BRLWE)- based encryption scheme (a low-complexity PQC suitable for emerging lightweight applications). In this paper, we propose a novel hardware implementation of the finite field arithmetic AB þ C through three stages of interdependent efforts: (i) a rigorous mathematical formulation process is presented first; (ii) an efficient hardware architecture is then presented with detailed description; (iii) a thorough implementation has also been given along with the comparison. Overall, (i) the proposed basic structure (u ¼ 1) outperforms the existing designs, e.g., it involves 55.9% less area-delay product (ADP) than  for n ¼ 512; (ii) the proposed design also offers very efficient performance in time-complexity and can be used in many future applications.
INDEX TERMS: Binary ring-learning-with-errors | finite field arithmetic | FPGA platform | hardware design | post-quantum cryptography
Tracking the northern seasonal cap retreat of mars using computer vision
ردیابی عقب نشینی کلاهک فصلی شمالی مریخ با استفاده از بینایی کامپیوتر-2022
Using polar stereographic images from the Mars Color Imager (MARCI), we use Python to autonomously track the Northern Polar Seasonal Cap (NPSC) recession from Mars Years (MY) 29 to MY 35 between Ls = 10° and Ls = 70°. We outline the cap and find an ellipse of best fit. We then compare our results to previously published recession rates, that were manually tracked, and find them to be consistent. Our process benefits from being automated, which increases the speed of tracking and allows us to monitor the recession with higher Ls fidelity than past studies. We find that most MYs have a local minimum recession rate at Ls = ~32° and a local maximum at Ls = ~51°. We also find that MY 30 experiences a rapid latitude increasing event that involves ~1° Ls of a rapid increase and ~5° Ls of slower recession, which then increases above the interannual average rate. We interpret this to be the result of a major sublimation driven by off-polar winds. We also discover divergent effects in the recession and size of the NPSC following the MY 28 and MY 35 global dust storms. MY 29’s cap is significantly smaller and retreats slower than the multi-year average, whereas MY 35’s cap is slighter larger and retreats very close to the average. We hypothesize that the diverging behavior of the caps in post-storm years can be a result of the differences in the date of onset and the duration of the storms.