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81 A multi-objective fuzzy robust stochastic model for designing a sustainable-resilient-responsive supply chain network
یک مدل تصادفی محکم فازی چند هدفه برای طراحی یک شبکه زنجیره تأمین پایدار ، قابل انعطاف و پاسخگو-2021
This study proposes a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to configure a sustainable supply chain network while considering resilience and responsiveness measures. The model aims at minimizing the total costs and environmental damages while maximizing the social impacts, as well as the responsiveness and resilience levels of the supply chain network. An improved version of the fuzzy robust stochastic optimization approach is proposed to tackle the uncertain data arising in the dynamic business environment. Furthermore, a new version of meta-goal programming named the multi-choice meta-goal programming associated with a utility function is developed to solve the resulting multi-objective model. A case study in the water heater industry is investigated to illustrate the application of the proposed model and its solution approach. The numerical results validate the proposed model and the developed solution method. Finally, interactions between the sustainability, responsiveness, and resilience dimensions are investigated and several sensitivity analyses are performed on critical parameters by which useful managerial insights are provided.
Keywords: Supply chain network design | Sustainability | Resilience | Responsiveness | Fuzzy robust stochastic optimization | Multi-choice meta-goal programming
مقاله انگلیسی
82 Improvements in biometric health measures among individuals with intellectual disabilities: A controlled evaluation of the Fit 5 program
بهبود اقدامات سلامت بیومتریک در افراد دارای معلولیت فکری: ارزیابی کنترل شده از برنامه Fit 5-2021
Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have poorer health statuses compared to the general population. Actions are needed to address
health disparities and promote healthy lifestyles among individuals with ID. Moreover, studies that consider program settings for this population are needed. Objective: The Special Olympics health program, Fit 5, was evaluated to assess effectiveness in improving health measures for individuals with ID. The settings of programs’ implementation were also considered. Methods: Four Special Olympics basketball teams participated as an intervention group, and three teams as a control group, in a study of the Fit 5 program that was implemented during, and as part of, a regular 8-week basketball season. Resting heart rate (RHR) and blood pressure, and height and weight to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI), were measured before and after the program. Differences in pre- and post-measures were compared between the two groups with paired samples t-tests and ANCOVA. Results: Participants in the intervention group had significantly greater improvements in resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p ¼ 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) and RHR (p ¼ 0.003). BMI increased for both groups; however, the increase in the intervention group was significantly less (p ¼ 0.006). The Special Olympics setting was considered familiar and supportive and effectively reached individuals with ID.
Conclusion: The Fit 5 program positively impacts RHR and blood pressure, and could help reduce extents of BMI increases, in individuals with ID when implemented in a common setting. Further investigation of the impact of Fit 5 and similar programs in additional settings is warranted.© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Intellectual disability | Health promotion | Physical activity | Health risk factors | Program settings
مقاله انگلیسی
83 Nanotechnology applied for improving research in electrical domain - a survey
کاربرد نانوتکنولوژی برای بهبود تحقیقات در حوزه الکتریکی - یک مرور-2021
Research activities in the field of nanotechnology have paved way to improvisation and progress in various fields globally. Since its tremendous development, it has extended its hands in almost all domains and in the past few decades it has also been a foundation for new technological advancement in electrical domain in particular. This field has given the way in development of new materials which has really improved the electrical characteristics like dielectric, insulation of materials which are conventionally used and therefore enhanced their performances in various applications. This paper tries to bring out a glimpse of its applications in past developments and future opportunities listed by various authors particularly in the field of electrical engineering.
Keywords: Electrical machine | Transformer | Nanotechnology
مقاله انگلیسی
84 Accounts of NGO performance as calculative spaces: Wild Animals, wildlife restoration and strategic agency
حساب های عملکرد سازمان های غیر دولتی به عنوان فضاهای محاسباتی: حیوانات وحشی، ترمیم حیات وحش و آژانس استراتژیک-2021
Whereas corporations typically share a common primary objective of generating profits for their owners, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) principally pursue a panoply of various social and/or ecological objectives. Accordingly, an NGO’s performance in pursuit of its objectives can rarely be accounted for in straightforwardly comparable quantitative terms. How then can an NGO instead construct qualitative accounts of its performance that show how it makes a differ- ence in pursuit of its objectives? This paper examines qualitative accounts of performance against an objective to restore wildlife, which are included in the annual reports of a large conservation NGO. These accounts are conceptualised as being calculative spaces, configured by framing work being done within these accounts. Analysis of this framing work finds that these accounts identify a performance object (i.e. specific wild animal populations), establish relations that seemingly affect this performance object (i.e. threats to wild animal populations and actions to conserve these populations), and attribute the NGO with agency to make a difference to this performance object (i.e. as a strategic actor directing and co-ordinating wildlife restoration). Thus, this paper demonstrates that seeing quantitative and qualitative accounts of organisational performance in the same conceptual terms creates conditions of possibility for developing a fuller understanding of an organisation’s calculations of its own capacity to act upon society.
keywords: سازمان غیر دولتی | مسئوليت | کادر بندی | محاسبات | گفتمان | حفاظت | NGO | Accountability | Framing | Calculation | Discourse | Conservation
مقاله انگلیسی
85 Pain Prevalence, Pain Management, and the Need for Pain Education in Healthcare Undergraduates
شیوع درد، مدیریت درد و نیاز به آموزش درد در دانشجویان مراقبت های بهداشتی-2021
Background: Pain is a common health problem in undergraduate students. Pain prevalence, pain management strategies and knowledge among healthcare groups has not been revealed yet.
Aim: This study explored pain prevalence, intensity, pain management strategies, knowledge, and education in undergraduate students specializing in healthcare science. The findings will highlight the necessity for increasing pain management education in the university setting. Design: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was conducted.
Settings/ Participants: Data was collected from 1,490 university students in Tokyo between December 2015 and April 2016. A c square test was performed to examine differences in pain status and management strategies according to gender. We compared medical knowledge scores among disciplines using one-way analysis of variance.
Results: In total, 511 (79.2%) students had experienced bodily pain during the preceding 6 months. Pain prevalence differed by gender. More nursing students had used both pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods for pain management than had students from other disciplines (p ¼ .011). Pain medication knowledge of students in other disciplines was low to moderate, with greater knowledge observed in medical students (p < .05).
Conclusions: Education regarding pain management should be developed that considers differences among disciplines. Additionally, poor pain management knowledge could affect the quality of care students provide to patients after graduation. Enhancing pain management knowledge by providing suitable pain management education in universities may contribute to better pain management for students, and this may translate to their work in clinical settings.
مقاله انگلیسی
86 Inventory model for sustainable operations of a closed-loop supply chain: Role of a third-party refurbisher
مدل موجودی برای عملیات پایدار یک زنجیره تأمین حلقه بسته: نقش یک مرمت کننده شخص ثالث-2021
Journal Pre-proof This paper investigates the joint decision on inventory and refurbishing strategies in a closed-loop supply chain, consisting of a manufacturer responsible for the production and first-market sales and a third-party refurbisher responsible for the refurbishment and second market. Based on a game-theoretic model, we investigate the effects of supply chain structures on the production operations, sales price of a refurbished product, profits and environmental performance. Through numerical analyses, we reveal that the integrated system yields higher first-market sales and a larger production lot size, while the decentralized one shows higher second-market sales and a larger refurbishing lot. Interestingly, the integrated system sets the higher price for the refurbished item due to channel conflict issues. Efforts to increase the second-market sales can harm the over- all supply chain profit by leading to the decrease in the higher-margin first-market sales. We also show that the difference in pricing decisions and inventory holding cost components allows a better operational performance of the third-party refurbishers process in the decentralized system. Then, it leads to the better environmental performance in the decentralized system, enhancing the refurbishing rate and sales of refurbished items while reducing scrap costs. By investigating the overall performance of integrated and decentralized supply chains, we offer important implications to practicing supply chain managers by revealing how the third-party refurbisher can help the sustainable operations of a closed-loop supply chain. We also contribute to the body of knowledge by incorporating pricing and lot sizing issues into the context of closed-loop supply chain management.
Keywords: inventory | closed-loop supply chain | sales return | refurbishment
مقاله انگلیسی
87 Biometric indicators can be early signs of declines in activities of daily living functioning among the Indonesian elderly
شاخص های بیومتریک می توانند نشانه های اولیه کاهش فعالیت های روزانه در افراد مسن اندونزی باشند-2021
Background: Signs associated with the onset of disability can be useful in disability projection and have significant implications in elderly care policy. Objective: To explored the associations between biometric screening indicators and declines in activities of daily life (ADLs) functioning among the Indonesian elderly.
Methods: This is a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 4 conducted in 2007e2008, and IFLS 5 conducted in 2014e2015 were used to assess the association be- tween biometric indicators and ADLs at baseline and follow-up.
Results: Findings revealed that 22.3% of participants surveyed in 2007e2014 had become disabled in terms of ADLs. Anemia status, stage 2 hypertension, lung capacity, and a longer sit-to-stand time were associated with ADLs.
Conclusion: These findings are important to help early detection and potentially help the prevention of ADLs in elderly people in the future. Accuracy of disability estimation could possibly be improved if including biometric parameters.© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biometric screening | Activities of daily living (ADLs) | Cohort study | Elderly | Indonesia
مقاله انگلیسی
88 Comparison of electrical energy and power of PV with different cells materials in clear sky day condition
مقایسه انرژی الکتریکی و توان PV با مواد سلول های مختلف در شرایط روز آسمان صاف-2021
In present study, a comparison has been made on the basis of gain of the electrical energy and power from solar cells or photovoltaic module. To evaluate the electrical energy and power, five different materials or cases have been considered, which are named as: case (i): c-Si, case (ii): p-Si, case (iii): a-Si, case (iv): CdTe and case (v): CIGS. Each PV module has been considered for the analysis which dimension is 0.6051 m2. For case (i): PV cells are made of silicon crystalline, which is having 0.5 Volts and 4 Amp and 36 cells are connected in series, which are producing 72 W. Such analysis has been studied for a clear sky day condition, New Delhi, India. The comparative study is attempted to choose best for generating electrical energy and power when high electrical enrgy demands in our society. It is also observed that the maximum electrical energy and power have been found for case (i), whereas minimum for case (iii), due to high PV cell temperature. The electrical energy and power have been 1.8 times higher in case (i), than case (iii).
Keywords: Silicon materials | PV | Composite climate | Energy and power
مقاله انگلیسی
89 Code as constitution: The negotiation of a uniform accounting code for U:S: railway corporations and the moral justification of stakeholder claims on wealth
کد به عنوان قانون اساسی: مذاکره در مورد یک کد حسابداری یکسان برای شرکت های راه آهن ایالات متحده و توجیه اخلاقی ادعاهای سهامداران در مورد ثروت-2021
Economic historians of the United States identify the railway industry of the nineteenth century as the birthplace of existing institutions of corporate finance, law, and labor relations (Chandler, 1990; Perrow, 2002; Thomas, 2011). This paper shows that the railway industry was also an important arena for the standardization of corporate accounting in the U. S., and that railway accountants played a significant role in the federal government’s earliest attempts to regulate large corporations. The paper describes how railway accountants worked with the first federal regulator of corporations, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), created by act of Congress in 1887, to create a uniform accounting code for the railway industry. This code was designed by the prominent economist and ICC statistician Henry Carter Adams to serve as a mechanism for the administrative supervision of railway corporations: a “cognitive equivalent of a constitution” (Starr, 1987, p. 53) that would promote economic democracy by protecting the property rights of non-controlling stakeholders in the railway system: shippers who used the trains to send goods to markets, long-term investors in railway shares and bonds, consumers of shipped goods, and members of the communities that the railways connected and employed. Railway accountants working with Adams created the rules for answering “potentially divisive questions of fact” (Starr, 1987, p. 53) about who contributed how much to the assets and profits of the railway corporation, and thus provided moral justification for how claims on those assets and profits were distributed.
مقاله انگلیسی
90 Factors Relating to Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Pain Management in Inpatients
عوامل مرتبط با دانش و نگرش پرستاران در مورد مدیریت درد در بیماران بستری-2021
Purpose: To describe factors associated with nurses’ attitudes or lack of knowledge regarding pain management in adult inpatients.
Design: Transverse descriptive survey-based study. Methods: This was a transverse descriptive survey-based study. The population was obtained through nonprobability convenience sampling. The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was made available to 470 nurses at a tertiary level hospital. Associations were sought with the unit where assigned, years of experience, specific training on pain, and postgraduate education.
Results: The sample included 134 nurses with a mean age of 41.6 ± 10.8 years; 87% were women, 64% worked rotating shifts, 64% had more than 10 years of experience, and 31% had specific training in pain management. The greatest number of correct responses was obtained from nurses with specific training in pain management (p ¼ .001) and nurses who worked in units of surgical hospitalization (p ¼ .004). The lack of training was associated with a deficit in knowledge and inadequate attitudes about pain management. In nurses with less than 10 years of experience, worse results were observed in knowledge, whereas the unit of work was decisive in the results about attitude (p < .05).
Conclusions: Among the nurses surveyed, some knowledge gaps were detected, as were certain inappropriate attitudes, associated with lack of training, lack of experience, and being assigned to specific hospitalization units.
مقاله انگلیسی
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