Institutional entrepreneurship in the platform economy: How Uber tried (and failed) to change the Dutch taxi law
رآفرینی نهادی در اقتصاد پلتفرم: چگونه Uber تلاش کرد (و نتوانست) قانون تاکسی هلند را تغییر دهد-2019
Platform innovations like Uber and Airbnb allow peers to transact outside established market institutions. From an institutional perspective, platform companies follow a reverse innovation process compared to innovation within traditional regulatory systems: they first launch their online platform and ask for government permission only later. We analyze the emergence of Uber as an institutional entrepreneur in The Netherlands and the strategies it employed in a failed attempt to get its UberPop service legalized through changes in Dutch taxi law. We conclude that Uber’s failure to change the Dutch taxi law stemmed from the difficulty to leverage pragmatic legitimacy among users into favorable regulatory changes in a highly institutionalized regime, because Uber’s institutional work strategies were not aligned.
Keywords: Platform economy | Uber | Ridesourcing | Institutional change | Legitimacy | Regulation
Dissolving the stiff upper lip: Opportunities and challenges for the mainstreaming of therapeutic jurisprudence in the United Kingdom
انحلال سرسختی: فرصت ها و چالش ها برای جریان اصلی فقه و درمانی در انگلستان-2019
Although therapeutic jurisprudence (“TJ”) is increasinglywell-established internationally, particularlywithin the United States of America (“US”), to date it remains relatively unacknowledged within the United Kingdom (“UK”). This articlewill explore the opportunities presentedwithin contemporary UK society for the greater promotion, and eventual mainstreaming, of TJ. Itwill also consider the challenges faced during this process and how best to overcome these. Its first key area of focus will be upon the potential role of legal education in the UK in educating law students (and academics) about TJ, considering which approaches are likely to be most effective in incorporating TJ perspectives, at what stage this should occur and to what extent TJ is likely to impact on the existing curricula at a time when proposed changes relating to entry into the legal profession are heavily influencing the work of Law Schools. The article will then move on to consider the receptiveness of the UK legal profession to the TJ paradigm in light of recent attempts tomove to a competency-based approach to practice and to reconceptualise professionalism to meet the challenges of increasing fragmentation and corporatisation. The third key area it will explore is the UKs recent plans to reintroduce problem-solving courts (“PSCs”) into its criminal justice system. The authors will discuss the downfall of the six UK Drug Court (“DC”) pilots originally established in 2005 theorising upon their failures and reflecting upon whether the current UK criminal justice system is truly able to support a fresh round of PSC initiatives. The article will end with recommendations for ways in which the international TJ community should begin the process of mainstreaming TJ within the UK. It will conclude that there are currently significant opportunities to be utilised, but that this requires significant commitment and mobilisation amongst existing TJ scholars and practitioners.
Keywords: Therapeutic jurisprudence | United Kingdom |Legal education | Legal profession | Problem-solving courts
Conservation region finding for influenza A viruses by machine learning methods of N-linked glycosylation sites and B-cell epitopes
یافتن منطقه حفاظت از ویروس های آنفلوانزا A با استفاده از روش های یادگیری ماشینی سایت های گلیکوزیلاسیون مرتبط با N و اپی توپ های سلول B-2019
Influenza type A, a serious infectious disease of the human respiratory tract, poses an enormous threat to human health worldwide. It leads to high mortality rates in poultry, pigs, and humans. The primary target identity regions for the human immune system are hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), two surface proteins of the influenza A virus. Research and development of vaccines is highly complex because the influenza A virus evolves rapidly. This study focused on three genetic features of viral surface proteins: ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequence conservation, linear B-cell epitopes, and N-linked glycosylation. On the basis of these three properties, we analyzed 12,832 HA and 9487 NA protein sequences, which we retrieved from the influenza virus database. We classified the viral surface protein sequences into the 18 HA and 11 NA subtypes that have been identified thus far. Using available analytic tools, we searched for the representative strain of each virus subtype. Furthermore, using machine learning methods, we looked for conservation regions with sequences showing linear B-cell epitopes and N-linked glycosylation. Compared to the prediction of the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) antibody neutralization response (i.e., screening of antibody sequence regions), in this study, the virus sequence coverage was large and accurate and contained N-linked glycosylation sites. The results of this study proved that we can use the machine learning-based prediction method to solve the problem of vaccine invalidation that occurred during the rapid evolution of the influenza A virus and also as a prevaccine assessment. In addition, the screening fragments can be used as a universal influenza vaccine design reference in the future.
Keywords: Hemagglutinin | Neuraminidase | N-linked glycosylation | Linear B-cell epitope | Machine learning
Experiments with a data-public: Moving digital methods into critical proximity with political practice
آزمایشات با داده های عمومی: انتقال روش های دیجیتال به نزدیکی بحرانی با عمل سیاسی-2019
Making publics visible through digital traces has recently generated interest by practitioners of public engagement and scholars within the field of digital methods. This paper presents an experiment in moving such methods into critical proximity with political practice and discusses how digital visualizations of topical debates become appropriated by actors and hardwired into existing ecologies of publics and politics. Through an experiment in rendering a specific data-public visible, it shows how the interplay between diverse conceptions of the public as well as the specific platforms and data invoked, resulted in a situated affordance-space that allowed specific renderings take shape, while disadvantaging others. Furthermore, it argues that several accepted tropes in the literatures of digital methods ended up being problematic guidelines in this space. Among these is the prescription to shown heterogeneity by pushing back at established media logics.
Keywords: Digital methods | public engagement | pragmatism | controversy-mapping | critical proximity | multiplicity
Friction, snake oil, and weird countries: Cybersecurity systems could deepen global inequality through regional blocking
اصطکاک، روغن مار، و کشورهای عجیب و غریب: سیستم های امنیت سایبری می تواند نابرابری جهانی را از طریق مسدود سازی منطقه ای تقویت کند-2019
In this moment of rising nationalism worldwide, governments, civil society groups, transnational companies, and web users all complain of increasing regional fragmentation online. While prior work in this area has primarily focused on issues of government censorship and regulatory compliance, we use an inductive and qualitative approach to examine targeted blocking by corporate entities of entire regions motivated by concerns about fraud, abuse, and theft. Through participant-observation at relevant events and intensive interviews with experts, we document the quest by professionals tasked with preserving online security to use new machine-learning based techniques to develop a ‘‘fairer’’ system to determine patterns of ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘bad’’ usage. However, we argue that without understanding the systematic social and political conditions that produce differential behaviors online, these systems may continue to embed unequal treatments, and troublingly may further disguise such discrimination behind more complex and less transparent automated assessment. In order to support this claim, we analyze how current forms of regional blocking incentivize users in blocked regions to behave in ways that are commonly flagged as problematic by dominant security and identification systems. To realize truly global, non-Eurocentric cybersecurity techniques would mean incorporating the ecosystems of service utilization developed by marginalized users rather than reasserting norms of an imagined (Western) user that casts aberrations as suspect.
Keywords: Regional blocking | machine learning | classification | inequality | discrimination | security
The influence of design and contractor errors on the failure of a tenement building
تأثیر خطاهای طراحی و پیمانکار در خرابی ساختمان اجاره ای-2019
This paper presents an application of forensic engineering methods in civil engineering problems. Under the case study based on the failure of a tenement building from the 1930s, the authors want to present the analyses of the influence of design and contractor errors on this situation. These analyses were carried out using an advanced computer program - ABAQUS v.6.6. The work was split into three parts. In the first one, only the most cracked wall was analysed as a 2D model. Next, a 3D model of a building fragment with the floor removed was created. In the last stage, the entire building was modelled, including all the structural walls as well as window and door openings. In order to evaluate the percentage responsibility for the building failure, simple FA (failure analysis) was applied. The results show that the most significant influence on the current state resulted from subsequent modernization works and not from the piling works at the site to the north. These simply triggered the accumulated damage in the structure.
Keywords: Forensic engineering | Failure | FA | FEM
A deep learning model to recognize food contaminating beetle species based on elytra fragments
یک مدل یادگیری عمیق برای تشخیص گونه های سوسک آلوده به مواد غذایی بر اساس قطعات الیترا-2019
Insect pests are often associated with food contamination and public health risks. Accurate and timely speciesspecific identification of pests is a key step to scale impacts, trace back the contamination process and promptly set intervention measures, which usually have serious economic impact. The current procedure involves visual inspection by human analysts of pest fragments recovered from food samples, a time-consuming and error-prone process. Deep Learning models have been widely applied for image recognition, outperforming other machine learning algorithms; however only few studies have applied deep learning for food contamination detection. In this paper, we describe our solution for automatic identification of 15 storage product beetle species frequently detected in food inspection. Our approach is based on a convolutional neural network trained on a dataset of 6900 microscopic images of elytra fragments, obtaining an overall accuracy of 83.8% in cross validation. Notably, the classification performance is obtained without the need of designing and selecting domain specific image features, thus demonstrating the promising prospects of Deep Learning models in detecting food contamination.
Keywords: Food contamination | Beetle species identification | Deep learning | Convolutional neural networks | Transfer learning
Justifying the logic of regulatory post-crisis decision-making – The case of the French structural banking reform
توجیه منطق تصمیم گیری نظارتی پس از بحران - مورد اصلاح ساختار بانکی ساختاری فرانسه-2019
Relying on the theories of institutional logics (Friedland and Alford) and French pragmatist sociology (Boltanski and Thévenot), this study aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the regulatory rule-making processes in the aftermath of the financial crisis. It focuses on a national post-crisis financial market reform, namely the French structural banking reform of 2013, which is characterized by a remarkable discrepancy between the ambitious announcements that accompanied the reform and its actual impact on banks’ structure. By analysing the justifications put forward by policy-makers in support of their decisions on the amendments to the bill, this paper investigates how policy-makers succeeded in maintaining and defending the historically dominant logic (i.e., market) in a situation of controversy by actively mobilizing different orders of worth. Complex mechanisms of reconciliation between orders of worth are revealed. In particular, the study identifies the strategy of symbolization of the competing order as a means of supporting the dominating logic in the context of a national post-crisis financial market reform. The technique of balancing different measures with diverging impacts on the banking sector enables the policy-makers to refer to a (symbolic) equilibrium solution, which shields their actions against criticism and helps them to achieve legitimacy
Keywords: Banking regulation | Institutional logics | Orders of worth | Justification
Ethics and entrepreneurship: A bibliometric study and literature review
اخلاق و کارآفرینی: مطالعه کتابشناسی و مرور ادبیات-2019
The entrepreneurship literature pays increasing attention to the ethical aspects of the field. However, only a fragmented understanding is known about how the context influences the ethical judgment of entrepreneurs. We argue that individual socio-cultural background, organizational and societal context shape entrepreneurial ethical judgment. In our article, we contribute to contemporary literature by carving out the intersections between Ethics and Entrepreneurship. We do this by employing a two-step research approach: 1) We use bibliometric techniques to analyze 719 contributions in Business and Economics research and present a comprehensive contextual picture of ethics in entrepreneurship research by a analyzing the 30 most relevant foundation articles. 2) A subsequent content analysis of the 50 most relevant academic contributions was carried with an enlarged database out to augment these findings, detailing ethics and entrepreneurship research on an individual, organizational and societal level of analyses. By comparing the two analyses, this paper concludes by outlining possible avenues for future research
Keywords: Ethics | Entrepreneurship | Bibliometric analysis | Literature review
Navigating the validity tradeoffs of entrepreneurship research experiments: A systematic review and best-practice suggestions
مرور در مبادلات اعتبار آزمایش تحقیق کارآفرینی: یک مرور سیستماتیک و پیشنهادات بهترین عمل-2019
Experimental methods provide important advantages for advancing academic understanding of entrepreneurship. Yet, the complex and comingled relationships between some of entrepreneurships key characteristics pose thorny methodological challenges to entrepreneurship researchers – notably to negotiate important tradeoffs between the ideals of external and construct validity. To facilitate the sound mobilization of experimental methods in entrepreneurship research, we present an overview of critical validity challenges plaguing entrepreneurship research experiments and assess the validation practices mobilized in 144 studies using such methods. Building on these findings, we develop a practical guide of actionable validation strategies to help experimenters navigate the above tradeoffs and conduct entrepreneurship research experiments that are realistic, theoretically meaningful, and that help establish the causal effects of their focal variables. By doing so, we contribute a set of pragmatic means to support the mobilization of experimental methods for advancing entrepreneurship research. Executive summary: Experimental methods hold important advantages for advancing the theoretical and practical understanding of entrepreneurial action. The power of research experiments lies in their ability to yield convincing evidence supporting the causal effects of the factors they investigate. Unfortunately, entrepreneurship research experiments are often criticized for offering pale copies of both the realities they attempt to model and the theoretical constructs they aim to study. The entrepreneurial process and its related activities count many intertwined characteristics – such as radical uncertainty, temporal dynamics, high personal stakes and other constraints – that can prove difficult to integrate in experimental studies. Moreover, these characteristics comingled relationships raise important tensions with experimental methods core principle of surgically focusing on the causal effects of a few manipulated variables. As a result, entrepreneurship research must overcome a number of validity challenges and tradeoffs in order to successfully leverage experimental methods and offer findings that convincingly support the causality of their theoretical developments. Compounding these difficulties, the guidance typically offered in research methods textbooks tends to focus on generic issues that are altogether separate from the specific challenges of conducting valid entrepreneurship research experiments. Because of this, many research manuscripts mobilizing experimental methods arrive at the review process with important shortcomings. This threatens the fields knowledge accumulation and typically calls for authors to refine their work and collect additional data.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship | Research methods | Experiments