Infant deaths in Pudong, Shanghai, China: A retrospective study of the police data and comparison with the centre for disease control data
مرگ و میر نوزادان در پودونگ ، شانگهای ، چین: یک مطالعه گذشته نگر از داده های پلیس و مقایسه آن با مرکز کنترل داده های بیماری-2019
In China, every year many infants (< 1 year) are abandoned, but abandonment related deaths are rarely reported. In this study, the police records of infant deaths in Pudong, Shanghai have been explored, then, the police data were compared with the corresponding Centre for Disease Control (“CDC”) data. During the period 2004–2017, a total of 297 infant deaths were recorded by the police, including 87 sudden natural deaths (occurred outside hospitals) and 210 unnatural deaths. The CDC data were retrieved from a Chinese article. Joinpoint Trend Analysis was used to evaluate the trend of the police records on infant deaths, and Poisson regression was used to calculate the mortality rate ratio (“RR”) by gender and places of origin (local, migrant, unknown identity). It is observed that infants born to migrant mothers were more vulnerable to sudden natural deaths than their local counterparts (RR: 4.6, 95% CI: 2.8 to 8.1). 8 abandonment deaths and 187 suspicious abandonment deaths were spotted. Births to unmarried mothers, severe illnesses, and deformities could be important risk factors resulting in abandonments. However, the female gender was not a reason that led to the abandonments. Infant deaths related to abandonments/suspicious abandonments rapidly declined during the period 2004–2017. The CDC data showed that 27 infants died of unnatural causes during the period 2002–2013, while the police data recorded 182 unnatural infant deaths during the period 2004–2013, a shorter period but more unnatural deaths. Thus, the CDC data could have underreported the infant deaths.
Keywords: Infant | Unnatural death | Abandonment | China
Cost of experimentation and the evolution of venture capital
هزینه بررسی و تکامل سرمایه فروش-2018
We study how technological shocks to the cost of starting new businesses have led the venture capital model to adapt in fundamental ways over the prior decade. We both document and provide a framework to understand the changes in the investment strategy of venture capitalists (VCs) in recent years – an increased prevalence of a “spray and pray” investment approach – where investors provide a little funding and limited governance to an increased number of startups that they are more likely to abandon, but where initial experiments significantly inform beliefs about the future potential of the venture. This adaptation and related entry by new financial intermediaries has led to a disproportionate rise in innovations where information on future prospects is revealed quickly and cheaply, and reduced the relative share of innovation in complex technologies where initial experiments cost more and reveal less.
keywords: Innovation |Venture capital |Entrepreneurship |Investing |Abandonment options