A framework for intelligent IoT firmware compliance testing
چارچوبی برای تست سازگاری سیستم عامل اینترنت اشیاء هوشمند-2022
The recent mass production and usage of the Internet of Things (IoT) have posed serious concerns due to the unavoidable security complications. The firmware of IoT systems is a critical component of IoT security. Although multiple organizations have released security guidelines, few IoT vendors are following these guidelines properly, either due to a lack of accountability or the availability of appropriate resources. Some tools for this purpose can use static, dynamic, or fuzzing techniques to test the security of IoT firmware, which may result in false positives or failure to discover vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the vast majority of resources are devoted to a single subject, such as networking protocols, web interfaces, or Internet of Things computer applications. This paper aims to present a novel method for conducting compliance testing and vulnerability evaluation on IoT system firmware, communication interfaces, and networking services using static and dynamic analysis. The proposed system detects a broad range of security bugs across a wide range of platforms and hardware architectures. To test and validate our prototype, we ran tests on 4300 firmware images and discovered 13,000þ compliance issues. This work, we believe, will be the first step toward developing a reliable automated compliance testing framework for the IoT manufacturing industry and other stakeholders.
keywords: اینترنت اشیا | امنیت اینترنت اشیا | تست انطباق | آسیب پذیری های میان افزار | IoT | IoT security | Compliance testing | Firmware vulnerabilities
Accounting as a technology of neoliberalism: The accountability role of IPSAS in Nigeria
حسابداری به عنوان فناوری نئولیبرالیسم: نقش پاسخگویی IPSAS در نیجریه-2021
This paper critically examines the implications for Nigeria’s indebtedness of neoliberalism as a neo-colonial dependency concept and International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) as a technology of a new form of economic imperialism. As Nigeria’s huge oil and gas revenues continue to be lost to corruption, the country relies on loans from Paris Club countries and International Financial Institutions (IFIs), notably the World Bank. In 1999, when the country changed from military to democratic governance, Nigeria’s debt to the Paris Club and the World Bank was $30bn. With pressure from the Paris Club and the World Bank to repay its debts, the new democratic Nigerian government sought debt forgiveness and rescheduling. Although the World Bank, representing the creditors in debt negotiation, does not go into specific accounting standards to be adopted by debtor nations, the Bank does require Nigeria to embrace neoliberal economic reforms (including public sector reporting framework that produces consistently relevant and reliable financial information – which denotes IPSAS). Despite the partial debt forgiveness, repayment of the balance of the debt and adoption of IPSAS, Nigeria remains endemically corrupt, relies on loans from powerful nations and IFIs, and has again become debt-laden. Contrary to neoliberal assumptions therefore, we provide the evidence that better accounting may not necessarily be a panacea for economic development.
keywords: نئولیبرالیسم | موسسات مالی بین المللی (IFIS) | حسابداری بین المللی بخش دولتی | استانداردها (خود) | فساد | شفافیت و پاسخگویی | Neoliberalism | International Financial Institutions (IFIs) | International Public Sector Accounting | Standards (IPSAS) | Corruption | Transparency and Accountability
Sustainability at stake during COVID-19: Exploring the role of accounting in addressing environmental crises
پایداری در معرض خطر در Covid-19: بررسی نقش حسابداری در رسیدگی به بحران های زیست محیطی-2021
In this paper, we reflect and provide insights on the environmental implications of postCOVID-19 economic recoveries. More specifically, we highlight the connection(s) between the environment and the COVID-19 crisis, in particular the intertwined links between Mother Nature and the virus. We then raise some concerns about the ‘illusionary’ positive and negative effects of the crisis on the environment before evoking some past lessons about crisis management and recovery. We contend that the current accounting and accountability mechanisms employed in economic stimulus programs, as well as traditional environmental accounting approaches, are inadequate and limiting to achieve long-term sustainability change. The paper concludes by offering accounting practitioners and researchers some possibilities to take a step forward and develop new understandings of social and environmental value consistent with ecological principles and sustainable development—and hope that these reflections will contribute to a broader debate on the role of accounting for sustainable development in the Anthropocene
keywords: بحران زیست محیطی | کووید -19 | حسابداری اجتماعی و زیست محیطی | مسئوليت | Environmental crisis | COVID-19 | Social and environmental accounting | Accountability
Critical reflections of accounting and social impact (Part I)
بازتاب انتقادی حسابداری و تأثیر اجتماعی-2021
This special issue on Accounting and Social Impact consists of two parts that will be hosted in separate issues of the journal. Here in part I we introduce the concepts and themes of social impact, before analyzing how the exposure of researchers to impact assessment regimes introduces pressures on researchers to seek specific kinds of impact. We go on to discuss the various contributions included in this issue that cover themes of accountability, sustainability, control and gender in a diverse range of organizational forms that sit in the spheres of the public, private and third sectors. The second part, in a later issue, will examine how accountability, power and control issues create impacts in non-governmental and other not-for-profit organizations.
Framing accounting for goodwill: Intractable controversies between users and standard setters
فریم کردن حسابداری برای حسن نیت: اختلافات قابل انعطاف بین کاربران و برنامه های استاندارد-2021
How to account for goodwill arising from business combinations has proven to be one the most controversial topics for the standardisation, preparation, and audit of financial reports. Given its contested nature, and recent debates about improper goodwill accounting by failing companies, standard setters are currently reconsidering existing recognition, measurement, and disclosure requirements. In this study, we explore the views of a relatively neglected group of stakeholders in the financial reporting policy-making arena – financial statement users. We draw on empirical evidence from interviews with financial analysts and from responses by analysts to IASB and EFRAG consultations. We mobilise framing theory as used in public policy studies to analyse how users make sense of goodwill accounting information as compared to standard setters. Our key finding is the plurality of colliding frames between users and standard setters that remain intractable. Our analysis reveals that users’ interest in management’s accountability on acquisi- tions cannot fit easily into the financial reporting frame. Not only are claims by standard setters about the value relevance of goodwill impairments found not to be experienced in practice, but also we discover that users question the benefits of standard setters working in this area, while they take recourse to ‘street numbers’ for their analysis. We interpret the intractability we discover as putting into question public policy claims that accounting policies are developed with a commitment to serve the public interest.
keywords: IFRS | حسن نیت | آنالیز مالی | کادر بندی | IFRS | Goodwill | Financial analysis | Framing
NGOs, public accountability, and critical accounting education: Making data speak
سازمانهای غیردولتی، مسئولیتپذیری عمومی و آموزش حسابداری انتقادی: صحبت کردن از دادهها-2021
The purpose of the paper is to provide theoretical and empirical insights into NGO accountability in the context of public sector accounting. We present a case study of two advocacy Italian NGOs which act as informational surrogates in the accountability relationship between local governments and the civic public. We extend the concept of surrogate accountability by integrating accounting education as one of its features. Alongside making data accessible, NGOs in our case explain accounting terms and organise educational events. By doing so, they aim to “repair” the weak information link in the accountability mechanism of local governments.
keywords: آموزش حسابداری انتقادی | پاسخگویی به سازمان های غیر دولتی | دولت باز | پاسخگویی عمومی | پاسخگویی جایگزین | شفافیت | Critical accounting education | NGO accountability | Open government | Public accountability | Surrogate accountability | Transparency
Accounts of NGO performance as calculative spaces: Wild Animals, wildlife restoration and strategic agency
حساب های عملکرد سازمان های غیر دولتی به عنوان فضاهای محاسباتی: حیوانات وحشی، ترمیم حیات وحش و آژانس استراتژیک-2021
Whereas corporations typically share a common primary objective of generating profits for their owners, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) principally pursue a panoply of various social and/or ecological objectives. Accordingly, an NGO’s performance in pursuit of its objectives can rarely be accounted for in straightforwardly comparable quantitative terms. How then can an NGO instead construct qualitative accounts of its performance that show how it makes a differ- ence in pursuit of its objectives? This paper examines qualitative accounts of performance against an objective to restore wildlife, which are included in the annual reports of a large conservation NGO. These accounts are conceptualised as being calculative spaces, configured by framing work being done within these accounts. Analysis of this framing work finds that these accounts identify a performance object (i.e. specific wild animal populations), establish relations that seemingly affect this performance object (i.e. threats to wild animal populations and actions to conserve these populations), and attribute the NGO with agency to make a difference to this performance object (i.e. as a strategic actor directing and co-ordinating wildlife restoration). Thus, this paper demonstrates that seeing quantitative and qualitative accounts of organisational performance in the same conceptual terms creates conditions of possibility for developing a fuller understanding of an organisation’s calculations of its own capacity to act upon society.
keywords: سازمان غیر دولتی | مسئوليت | کادر بندی | محاسبات | گفتمان | حفاظت | NGO | Accountability | Framing | Calculation | Discourse | Conservation
A Review and Conceptual Analysis of Cancer Pain Self-Management
بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل مفهومی از خود مدیریت سرطان-2021
Objectives: In this concept analysis article, we will clarify the concept “self-management of cancer pain” by identifying related antecedents, attributes, and consequences to further refine the conceptual and operational definitions of the concept. Design: A review was conducted.
Review/Analysis Methods: The Walker and Avant method was used for this concept analysis. Data sources: CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycInfo were searched systemically.A total of eight studies on “selfmanagement of cancer pain or self-care of cancer pain” published between 2004 and 2019 were identified.
Results: Attributes for self-management of cancer pain include self-efficacy, integration of methods for pain relief into daily life, decision-making related to pain management, process for solving pain-related issues, and initiation of interactions with healthcare professionals. Antecedents include knowledge regarding pain assessment and management, cognitive abilities, motivation, undergoing pain treatment, patient education and counseling, social support, and accountability from all parties involved. Consequences include pain control, improved quality of life, and increased opioid intake.
Conclusions: Self-management of cancer pain was reported to be a self-regulation process with the aim to encourage patients to use skills attained through development of self-efficacy, so they can actively participate in their pain management. This outcome may enhance their quality of life by decreasing their pain, depression, and anxiety and increasing the availability of social support.
Social movement activists’ conceptions of political action and counter-accounting through a critical dialogic accounting and accountability lens
تصورات فعالان جنبش اجتماعی از کنش سیاسی و مقابله با حسابداری از طریق یک دریچه حسابداری گفتگوی انتقادی و پاسخگویی-2021
In the face of growing disaffection with neoliberalism and corporate social and environmental accounting, critical accounting recognizes the potential of counter-accounting to open spaces for democratic contestation and to advance progressive change. Critical dialogic accounting and accountability (CDAA), for example, views counter-accounting as providing social movements with opportunities to challenge neoliberal hegemony, to mobilize multiple publics and to construct new social realities. However, the democratizing potential of counter-accounting is contested within academia, and social movements’ views of counter-accounting as a politicizing practice are not well understood. We extend CDAA theorizing by elaborating on the value of counter-accounting in advancing democratic struggles against neoliberalism and illustrating how an agonistic lens can be useful in framing social movements’ actions in these struggles. Social movements’ conceptualizations of political action and counter-accounting are empirically investigated through interviews with 25 social movement activists. Based on the interviews and our CDAA lens, we propose possible areas for critical accounting collaborations with social movements as they seek to effect progressive change.
keywords: حسابداری دیجیتالی انتقادی و پاسخگویی | مبنی بر حسابداری | عذاب | جنبش های اجتماعی | نئولیبرالیسم | Critical dialogic accounting and accountability | Counter-accounting | Agonistics | Social movements | Neoliberalism
Accounting and accountability for farm animals: Conceptual limits and the possibilities of caring
حسابداری و پاسخگویی برای حیوانات مزرعه: محدودیت های مفهومی و امکان مراقبت-2021
This study explores dairy farmers’ accounts of farm animals in a context heavily influenced by the concept of farm animal welfare (FAW). We illustrate how external demands linked to FAW, performance concerns, and proximity to animals shape farmers’ formal and cognitive accounts of animals. We explain how different accounts underlie farmers’ accountability for animals. Using FAW as an example of a referent concept, we propose that accountability can be limited conceptually by its referent. This limit is not a matter of its (in)ability to account fully for all lived experiences. Rather, it is a matter of what one is or is not accountable for—such as the mortality rate but not culling—as well as assumptions regarding the referent—such as the nature of animal welfare and how it can be assessed and safeguarded. Even when it is conceptually bounded in this way, self-accountability has potential to alter farming practices by reflecting on caring about animals and on what this implies for oneself and the animals.
keywords: رفاه حیوانات مزرعه | حسابداری | مسئوليت | حیوانات | محدودیت پاسخگویی | اهميت دادن | Farm animal welfare | Accounting | Accountability | Animals | Limits of accountability | Care