با سلام خدمت کاربران در صورتی که با خطای سیستم پرداخت بانکی مواجه شدید از طریق کارت به کارت مقاله خود را دریافت کنید (تا مشکل رفع گردد). با تشکر از صبوری شما!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Beyond mystery: Putting algorithmic accountability in context
فراتر از رمز و راز: پاسخگویی الگوریتمی در زمینه-2019
Critical algorithm scholarship has demonstrated the difficulties of attributing accountability for the actions and effects of algorithmic systems. In this commentary, we argue that we cannot stop at denouncing the lack of accountability for algorithms and their effects but must engage the broader systems and distributed agencies that algorithmic systems exist within; including standards, regulations, technologies, and social relations. To this end, we explore accountability in ‘‘the Generated Detective,’’ an algorithmically generated comic. Taking up the mantle of detectives ourselves, we investigate accountability in relation to this piece of experimental fiction. We problematize efforts to effect accountability through transparency by undertaking a simple operation: asking for permission to re-publish a set of the algorithmically selected and modified words and images which make the frames of the comic. Recounting this process, we demonstrate slippage between the ‘‘complication’’ of the algorithm and the obscurity of the legal and institutional structures in which it exists.
Keywords: Algorithms | normativity | accountability | responsibility | mystery | detective
Accounting for the ‘deviant’ in 19th century Italian prisons
حسابداری "منحرف" در زندانهای ایتالیایی قرن نوزدهم-2019
Studies of accounting in prisons have documented how the dominance of neo-liberal preferences in the management of prison systems has meant a focus on measuring costeffectiveness and discharging accountability in a way which ignores important aspects of prison life such as decency and rehabilitation. The present work recognises the need for accounting studies to unmask the prejudiced, interested and potentially socially damaging use of accounting in prison reform by exposing how accounting is often a tool which can be used to discipline individuals consistent with the values of economic and political elites within a society. By applying a Foucauldian lens to the analysis of the prison systems of the major Italian States in the early 19th century, the study shows how accounting was an essential aid in ensuring that the correction of individuals was carried out consistent with the moral priorities of the liberal bourgeois society of the time. The specific visibilities created by means of accounting, upon which decisions on the life of prisoners were made and which still characterise modern prisons, reduced human life to a simplistic numerical representation. These were then used to reconstruct ‘deviant’ individuals as productive, obedient citizens, regardless of their specific circumstances
Keywords: Accounting | Prison | Foucault | Liberal values
Investigating accountability of public police in the private employment realm
بررسی پاسخگویی پلیس عمومی در حوزه اشتغال خصوصی-2019
Paid detail police work has grown in recent years across municipal/local and state/provincial jurisdictions in the United States and Canada, but not without controversy. Using Stennings (2000) accountability framework for private and public police, we consider how and the extent to which the private employment of public police is regulated and rendered accountable. To accomplish this, we draw on interviews with 63 employers of paid detail as well as police officers, policies collected through freedom of information requests from 30 North American police departments about paid detail procedures as well as logs, and media coverage of paid detail issues. We found incredible variation in how paid detail is regulated, as well as many instances where accountability and oversight are lacking. After examining the consequences of ineffective or absent accountability mechanisms, we suggest a more uniform approach to paid detail standards. We conclude by discussing future research about paid detail regulation and policy.
Keywords: Public police | Paid detail | Accountability | State | Market | Oversight | Regulation
Forecasting remaining useful life: Interpretable deep learning approach via variational Bayesian inferences
پیش بینی عمر مفید باقی مانده: رویکرد یادگیری عمیق قابل تفسیر از طریق استنتاج های متغیر بیزی-2019
Predicting the remaining useful life of machinery, infrastructure, or other equipment can facilitate preemptive maintenance decisions, whereby a failure is prevented through timely repair or replacement. This allows for a better decision support by considering the anticipated time-to-failure and thus promises to reduce costs. Here a common baseline may be derived by fitting a probability density function to past lifetimes and then utilizing the (conditional) expected remaining useful life as a prognostic. This approach finds widespread use in practice because of its high explanatory power. A more accurate alternative is promised by machine learning, where forecasts incorporate deterioration processes and environmental variables through sensor data. However, machine learning largely functions as a black-box method and its forecasts thus forfeit most of the desired interpretability. As our primary contribution, we propose a structured-effect neural network for predicting the remaining useful life which combines the favorable properties of both approaches: its key innovation is that it offers both a high accountability and the flexibility of deep learning. The parameters are estimated via variational Bayesian inferences. The different approaches are compared based on the actual time-to-failure for aircraft engines. This demonstrates the performance and superior interpretability of our method, while we finally discuss implications for decision support.
Keywords: Forecasting | Remaining useful life | Machine learning | Neural networks | Deep learning
Privacy-friendly platform for healthcare data in cloud based on blockchain environment
بسترهای سازگار با حریم خصوصی برای داده های بهداشت و درمان در ابر مبتنی بر محیط بلاکچین-2019
Data in cloud has always been a point of attraction for the cyber attackers. Nowadays healthcare data in cloud has become their new interest. Attacks on these healthcare data can result in annihilating consequences for the healthcare organizations. Decentralization of these cloud data can minimize the effect of attacks. Storing and running computation on sensitive private healthcare data in cloud are possible by decentralization which is enabled by peer to peer (P2P) network. By leveraging the decentralized or distributed property, blockchain technology ensures the accountability and integrity. Different solutions have been proposed to control the effect of attacks using decentralized approach but these solutions somehow failed to ensure overall privacy of patient centric systems. In this paper, we present a patient centric healthcare data management system using blockchain technology as storage which helps to attain privacy. Cryptographic functions are used to encrypt patient’s data and to ensure pseudonymity. We analyze the data processing procedures and also the cost effectiveness of the smart contracts used in our system.
Keywords: Blockchain | Decentralization | Healthcare data in cloud | Pseudonymity | Privacy | Security | Smart contract
School accountability and standard-based education reform: The recall of social efficiency movement and scientific management
مسئولیت پذیری مدرسه و اصلاح آموزش مبتنی بر استاندارد: یادآوری جابجایی کارآمدی اجتماعی و مدیریت علمی-2018
This study examines issues of success/failure, performance, and effectiveness in the contemporary reform discourses of school accountability. It pays attention to a particular meaning of success/failure and its implications for current public school systems and education reform movements, not merely as a school accountability issue, but as an ontological one, which is inscribed in the politics of inclusion and exclusion. The mechanisms of standardization, classification, and normalization embedded in the practices of high-stakes testing are reconsidered through an analysis of the discussion of social efficiency in the early twentieth century. The study also examines its recall several decades later as part of the quality control and management of individuals, schools, and states. In exploring connectedness between the old and new levels of social efficiency, this study suggests that success/failure becomes reinscribed as a particular system of reasoning to normalize the subjectivity in discourses of the current American education reform and OECD’s PISA. The study concludes by criticizing the rationale of recent educational reforms based on the search for past and present social efficiency movements in schools.
keywords: Social efficiency movement |Scientific management |Standard-based education reform |OECD PISA
Context-dependent accountability strategies to improve the transfer of training: A proposed theoretical model and research propositions
راهبردهای جوابگویی مستقل از زمینه برای بهبود انتقال آموزش: یک مدل تئوریکی پیشنهادی و طرح های تحقیقاتی-2018
The transfer of training continues to be a primary concern for organizations, yet important gaps in the literature remain. Thus, we extend recent work by Tews and Burke-Smalley (in press), which integrates accountability concepts from Schlenker (1997), along with Yelon and Fords (1999) context-dependent transfer approach, to create a theoretical model and specific research propositions to help guide the field forward. We suggest that an accountability approach to training transfer, which simultaneously considers relevant work-context dimensions (e.g., skill type and supervision type) can be used to adopt appropriate accountability strategies that enhance trainees transfer of learning back to their jobs. More specifically, by targeting variables that promote accountability – trainees role clarity, ownership perceptions, and perceived control over their learning transfer – our work provides a useful theoretical model to guide scholars and practitioners in order to facilitate transfer in different workplace contexts. Implications for research and practice are also discussed.
keywords: Training theory |Transfer strategies |Transfer of training |Accountability |Work context
Online customer reviews and consumer evaluation: The role of review font
ارزیابی های آنلاین مشتری و بررسی مشتری: نقش فونت بررسی-2018
Inspired by the literature on processing fluency and the practical question of how to choose fonts for website design, we investigated the impact of customer reviews on consumer evaluation under an easy-to-read (vs. difficult-to-read) review font. We found that the feeling of ease in reading led consumers to judge the reviewers as more credible, thus increasing the impact of the reviews. Moreover, the effect of font diminished when consumers elaborated information more thoroughly (i.e., when high in need for cognition, or in an accountable situation) and thus did not use simple heuristics (reading ease) to make judgment.
keywords: Processing ease| Review valence| Online customer reviews| Credibility| Need for cognition| Accountability
The influence of accountability for the crisis and type of crisis communication on people’s behavior, feelings and relationship with the government
تأثیر پاسخگویی برای بحران و نوع ارتباطات بحران در رفتار، احساسات و روابط افراد با دولت-2018
In this paper we investigated to what extent the willingness of people to take advice from the local government, people’s feelings of collective efficacy and empowerment, and their relation ship with the local government, is dependent on whether the local government was accountable for the crisis or not. In addition, we were interested in the influence of empathic versus neutral crisis information on people’s behavior, feelings and their relationship with the local govern ment. The results indicate that people’s intention to follow the advice of the local government is generally high, even when the local government is held accountable for the crisis. However, accountability negatively influenced people’s relationship with the local government, as well as collective efficacy. Our research shows that this negative outcome for people’s relationship with the local government cannot be countered by empathic crisis information. However, conveying empathic concern in the crisis information did enhance level of collective efficacy.
Keywords: Crisis communication ، Empathic information ، Accountability ، Collective efficacy ، Self-reliant behavior
Democratic governance in an age of datafication: Lessons from mapping government discourses and practices
حکومت دموکراتیک در زمان تصدیق اطلاعات: درسهایی از گفتمان و شیوه های حکومتداری-2018
There is an abundance of enthusiasm and optimism about how governments at all levels can make use of big data, algorithms and artificial intelligence. There is also growing concern about the risks that come with these new systems. This article makes the case for greater government transparency and accountability about uses of big data through a Government of Canada qualitative research case study. Adapting a method from critical cartographers, I employ countermapping to map government big data practices and internal discussions of risk and challenge. I do so by drawing on interviews and freedom of information requests. The analysis reveals that there are more concerns and risks than often publicly discussed and that there are significant areas of silence that need greater attention. The article underlines the need for our democratic systems to respond to our new datafied contexts by ensuring that our institutions make changes to better protect citizen rights, uphold democratic principles and ensure means for citizen intervention.
Keywords: Big data | government | democracy | transparency | accountability