A multi-objective fuzzy robust stochastic model for designing a sustainable-resilient-responsive supply chain network
یک مدل تصادفی محکم فازی چند هدفه برای طراحی یک شبکه زنجیره تأمین پایدار ، قابل انعطاف و پاسخگو-2021
This study proposes a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to configure a sustainable supply chain network while considering resilience and responsiveness measures. The model aims at minimizing the total costs and environmental damages while maximizing the social impacts, as well as the responsiveness and resilience levels of the supply chain network. An improved version of the fuzzy robust stochastic optimization approach is proposed to tackle the uncertain data arising in the dynamic business environment. Furthermore, a new version of meta-goal programming named the multi-choice meta-goal programming associated with a utility function is developed to solve the resulting multi-objective model. A case study in the water heater industry is investigated to illustrate the application of the proposed model and its solution approach. The numerical results validate the proposed model and the developed solution method. Finally, interactions between the sustainability, responsiveness, and resilience dimensions are investigated and several sensitivity analyses are performed on critical parameters by which useful managerial insights are provided.
Keywords: Supply chain network design | Sustainability | Resilience | Responsiveness | Fuzzy robust stochastic optimization | Multi-choice meta-goal programming
Modern slavery statements: From regulation to substantive supply chain reporting
اظهارات برده داری مدرن: از مقررات گرفته تا گزارش زنجیره تأمین اساسی-2021
Recent years have seen a renewed focus on labor standards in the supply chain, prompted by legislation that requires firms to provide an account of their efforts to combat modern slavery. However, as a common problem of non-financial disclosure regulation, companies can decide the extent and content of their reporting, which could potentially result in merely symbolic disclosures with little substance. We examine the disclosure of substantive actions in modern slavery statements, defined as those disclosures of corporate actions that can positively affect working conditions in supply chains. We examine the corporate disclosure of these actions over time in order to evaluate whether legally mandated disclosure requirements could lead to progress in combatting modern slavery. For this purpose, we collected modern slavery statements from companies that had issued such statements for at least two different years after the
Keywords: Modern slavery statements | Social sustainability | Substantive disclosures | CSR Disclosures | Legitimacy theory | Content analysis
Reframing supply chain finance in an era of reglobalization: On the value of multi-sided crowdfunding platforms
تغییر شکل مالی زنجیره تأمین در دوره جهانی سازی: در مورد ارزش سیستم عامل های سرمایه گذاری چند جانبه-2021
This paper investigates the moderating role of a host government that promotes a multi-sided platform (MSP) as an alternative supply chain finance (SCF) solution. The MSP comprises eq- uity crowdfunding, fixed-income funds, and low-rate lending facilities. We examine the sequential interactions between the host government (as the dominant legislator), a crowd of risk-averse small investors, and two competing SCs (local and foreign) that are engaged in Cournot competition. The players’ equilibrium strategies are characterized under two platform power structures, namely small investors-led and SC-led. The joint impact of government legislation and platform’s configuration on the performance of the proposed SCF mechanism is investigated. Results reveal that, while the regulated MSP outperforms a deregulated scenario, the profit- seeking behavior of the host government may intensify the power struggle between the local SC and small investors, and restrict the platform’s overall performance. To successfully practice smart protectionism, policy makers are urged to reframe existing SCF schemes by leveraging their moderating influence and prioritizing social welfare over their short-term economic goals. This not only abates the power imbalance in MSPs, but also enhances the players’ participation and enables host governments to further support their digital platform economy in the era of reglobalization.
Keywords: Supply chain finance | Multi-sided platform | Equity crowdfunding | Digital platform economy | Platform power | Reglobalization
Biomass supply chain coordination for remote communities: A game-theoretic modeling and analysis approach
هماهنگی زنجیره تأمین زیست توده برای جوامع از راه دور: رویکرد مدل سازی و تحلیل نظری بازی-2021
Biomass, as one of the most available renewable energies, could reduce dependency on fossil fuels and the consequent environmental impacts. There is a need for biomass supply chain management, which is managing bioenergy production from harvesting feedstock to energy conversion facilities. In case of remote communities, bioenergy adoption requires dealing with dispersed geographies of suppliers and places of consumption with small scales of energy demand. As such, coordination plays a key role in increasing the efficiency of the biomass supply chain network through bundling of demand and thus improving the economy of scale. This paper employs a game-theoretic approach to formulate a coordinated biomass supply chain with three echelons including suppliers, hubs, and energy convertors. To investigate the strategic interactions of participants, three decision making structure scenarios have been considered under Stackelberg game providing insights into the impact of power distribution, the role of side payments in enforcing the flow of decisions, and the resulting efficiency and performance improvements. In doing so, a case study bioenergy supply chain for three northern Canadian communities is explored to demonstrate the application of the proposed formulation, solution methods, and the practicality and significance of the adopted approach and outcomes for remote communities.
Keywords: Bioenergy | Supply chains | Coordination | Remote communities | Game theory | Mathematical Program with Equilibrium | Constraints (MPEC)
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance Stakeholder mapping Veterinary drugs Policy regulation Supply chain Public and private sector collaboration National action plan
درک زنجیره تأمین آنتی بیوتیک های دامپزشکی برای رفع مقاومت ضد میکروبی در PDR لائوس: نقش ها و تعاملات سهامداران درگیر-2021
In response to the global call to mitigate risks associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR), new regulations on the access and use of veterinary antibiotics are currently being developed by the Lao government. This study aims to explore how the implementation of these new regulations might effectively reduce and adapt the sale, distribution and use of veterinary antibiotics in Lao PDR. To this end, we used the theory of change, framing the AMR issue within the context of the stakeholders involved in the veterinary antibiotics supply chain. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data, based on questionnaires (n=36 antibiotic suppliers, n=96 chicken farmers, n=96 pig farmers), and participatory tools such as a workshop (n=10 participants), semi-structured interviews (n=20), and focus group discussions (n=7 participants). The stakeholders understanding of the AMR issue and potential challenges related to the implementation of new regulations regarding access and use of antibiotics, were also investigated. We mapped the veterinary antibiotic supply chain in Lao PDR, and analysed the roles and interactions of its stakeholders. Twenty-three stakeholders representing the private and the public sectors were identified. Many informal and formal links connected these stakeholder within this supply chain. The lack of veterinarian-farmer interaction and the evolving nature of the veterinary antibiotics supply chain accentuated the challenges of achieving behaviour change through regulations. Most of the antibiotics found on farms were categorized by the World Health Organizations as critically important antibiotics used in human medicine. We argue that AMR risk mitigation strategy requires dialogue and engagement between private and publicsectors stakeholders, involved in the importation, distribution, sale and use of veterinary antibiotics. This study further highlighted that AMR is a complex adaptive challenge requiring multi-sectoral approach. We believed that a sustainable approach to reduce and adapt veterinary antibiotics use should be prepared in collaboration with stakeholders from private and public sectors identified in this study, in addition to the new regulations. This collaboration should start with the co-construction of a common understanding of AMR issue and of the objectives of new regulations.
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance | Stakeholder mapping | Veterinary drugs | Policy regulation | Supply chain | Public and private sector collaboration | National action plan
Investigation and assessment of blockchain technology adoption in the pharmaceutical supply chain
بررسی و ارزیابی پذیرش فناوری بلاکچین در زنجیره تأمین دارویی-2021
The global pharmaceutical industry has gone through several changes in the past decade related to the adoption of new technologies. The challenges that are faced by this industry mostly involve counterfeit drugs and operational issues. The involvement of cold chain for vaccines, medicine etc. is also impacting the secure logistics and transportation. Newly introduce blockchain technologies have capabilities to address these issues. The challenge which needs to address is the requirement of tracking the product authenticity from start production to consumption point to prevent further financial losses. The present study has proposed the investigation and assessment of blockchain for integration in the supply chain model of the pharmaceutical to securely record transactions between parties enhancing trust and transparency. The blockchain adaptation and implementation to address the supply chain challenges are discussed.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Confer- ence on Technological Advancements in Materials Science and Manufacturing.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical supply chain | Blockchain technology | Decentralised system | Conceptual model | Assessment model
Balanced Scorecard approach in deducing supply chain performance
رویکرد کارت امتیازی متوازن در استنباط عملکرد زنجیره تأمین-2021
Supply chain management showcases a major role in enhancing organizational efficiency and effective- ness. A proficient supply chain can lead to abridged costs, augmented market shares, improved transactions and sustainable customer relationships. Nevertheless, designing a supply chain alone may be inadequate in bettering the overall performance of an organization which can only be improved through evaluation. For deducing supply chain performance, the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is an appropriate tool, apart from Supply Chain Operations Reference models (SCOR), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Heuristic techniques based models. Modern firms face inabilities in measuring their real performance against the demanded performance. Real performance is often greater or lesser than the demanded performance which leads to uncertain and delicate supply chains. Accounting for this ambiguity and improving supply chain performance using Balanced Scorecard model is the emphasis of this research effort, by providing an approach to inspect value creation from four standpoints such as financial, customer, internal business process, learning and growth. In this paper, the drag factors which affects the above four standpoints have been explored and removed, to mend the supply chain for better profits.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the International Conference on Sustainable materials, Manufacturing and Renewable Technologies 2021.
Keywords: Balanced Scorecard | Supply chain performance | Drag factors | Stand points | Organizational efficiency
Circular economy for phosphorus supply chain and its impact on social sustainable development goals
اقتصاد مدور برای زنجیره تأمین فسفر و تأثیر آن بر اهداف توسعه پایدار اجتماعی-2021
To be able to grow crops, we have interfered with Earths reserves of one of top three essential elements, phosphorus (P), as to which we face a problem related to its high consumption compared to available resources. This forces us to follow the alternative of closing the phosphorus loop from a circular economy perspective. However, there is a lack of research on regional and global social sustainability in this area, as emphasized in the United Nations Agenda 2030 goals for sustainable development. In this paper, we address social challenges involved in global phosphorus supply chain, such as eradicating poverty, child labor and malnutrition; promoting gender equality; providing decent work and economic growth; maintaining sustainable water use; and achieving food security. Our research is driven by the question of whether the circular economy aims to direct phosphorus management towards tackling social issues associated with its supply chain. We use system dynamics modelling by combining the concept of material flow analysis and social life cycle assessment. Detailed analysis at regional and global levels indicates a paradoxical social impact of phosphorus circular model. This reflects the multiple stakeholders involved, and the regional interactions with phosphorus circular economy transitions. Improvements can be demonstrated in reducing poverty and providing safer work environment in many regions, e.g., Western Asia (93%), New Zealand, Central Asia, and Europe (44–61%), while achieving employment targets is limited in Northern and Eastern Europe. Circular model fails to promote gender equality, it also exacerbates exploitative child work problem for the Caribbean and most Africa. It provides sufficient nutrition to North America, Australia/New Zealand, and Northern Europe. It achieves water use targets in several regions with 53% savings worldwide. Finally, circular model contributes to P efficiency (average balance of 1.21 kgP/ha) and strengthens P security within most regions with an average of 64%.
Keywords: Critical materials | Phosphorus | Social sustainability | Circular economy | Dynamic modelling
Optimization of extended business processes in digital supply chains using mathematical programming
بهینه سازی فرآیندهای تجاری گسترده در زنجیره های تأمین دیجیتال با استفاده از برنامه ریزی ریاضی-2021
We propose a mathematical programming approach to optimize the business process transactions in digital supply chains. Five scheduling models from the Process Systems Engineering (PSE) area are applied to schedule the processing of orders in a simplified Order-To-Cash (OTC) business process, which is modeled as a multistage network with parallel units (agents). Two case studies are presented to compare the performance of the scheduling models on various sizes of a flexible jobshop representation of the OTC process. The models are compared and scaled to select those that are more suitable to this application. The continuous-time general precedence model provides an accurate representation of the real system and performs well for small instances. The discrete-time State-Task Network (STN), however, proves most efficient in terms of tractability, despite the well-known limitations resulting from discretizing time. The tightness of the linear programming (LP) relaxations in the discrete-time STN framework, as well as the ability of commercial solvers to perform preprocessing and apply heuristics to the STN formulation, enables finding near optimal solutions quickly even for larger instances.
Keywords: Business process optimization | digital supply chain | order-to-cash | scheduling | mathematical programming
Developing sustainable supply chain management: The interplay of institutional pressures and sustainability capabilities
Developing sustainable supply chain management: The interplay of institutional pressures and sustainability capabilities-2021
With growing concern about social impacts and environmental protection, sustainable supply chain management has become a focus of interest for business practitioners and academics. This study examines the driving forces of sustainable supply chain management practices. Drowning on institutional theory and the resource-based view, this study empirically examines the driving effects of institutional pressures (in terms of governance pressure, customer pressure, and competitive pressure) and internal sustainability capabilities (in terms of top management leadership and technical capability) and their interactions on sustainable supply chain management practices. Based on empirical analysis of data from 172 Chinese ﬁrms, the ﬁndings reveal that institutional pressures and sustainability capabilities simultaneously and jointly motivate the implementation of sustainable supply chain management practices. Interestingly, the interactions of technical capabilities with governance pressures and customer pressures signiﬁcantly and negatively inﬂuence sustainable supply chain management practice adoption, while the interactions of top management leadership with competitive pressures positively affect the pursuit of sustainable supply chain management practices.© 2021 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Key words: Sustainable supply chain management | institutional pressures | sustainability capabilities | top management | technical capability