با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
Transition engineering of transport in megacities with case study on commuting in Beijing
مهندسی انتقالی از حمل و نقل در شهرهای بزرگ با مطالعه موردی در مورد رفت و آمد در پکن-2020
Private automobiles have been wildly popular around the world and have transformed the concept of personal mobility for the affluent. However, automobile-oriented development patterns have demonstrably degraded the quality of the city environment. The economic burden of transport infrastructure asset management, plus air pollution, CO2 emissions and congestion are pressing issues for all cities. City planners struggle with the issues of growth in travel demand and the costs of providing traffic management, parking, policing, and emergency services. The future of personal vehicle mobility and goods movements are particularly challenging, and it is difficult to imagine what the sustainable solutions could be for these wicked problems of transport in megacities. This paper explores urban form, transport activity and quality of life in future cities through the emerging discipline, Transition Engineering. The main methodology is the Interdisciplinary Transition Innovation, Management and Engineering (InTIME) approach, the outcome of which are innovative shift projects that directly step down the negative factors and step up in the quality of life while maintaining the access to social and economic activities. One shift project in Beijing is a new “Work Unit Retrofit” property development enterprise. Integrated land use is a popular idea, but the shift projects in this research answer the questions of “how” the transition to the future city occurs. This research demonstrates the new Transition Engineering approach to sustainable city development that results in actionable property and infrastructure development with financial and social benefits that can be clearly communicated to all stakeholders.
Keywords: Energy transition | Transition engineering | Future cities | Work unit | Adaptive capacity | Urban form | Cycling potential | Commute model
When salient science is not enough to advance climate change adaptation: Lessons from Brazil and Australia
وقتی علم برجسته برای پیشبرد سازگاری با تغییرات آب و هوا کافی نیست: درسهایی از برزیل و استرالیا-2020
Increased social and environmental vulnerability to extreme climatic events and inherent aggravation of environmental and social problems has placed climate change adaptation as an urgent challenge for decisionmakers. Understanding and using climate change information to advance the implementation of climate-friendly policies further compounds this challenge. A rich scholarly literature focusing on climate change adaptation endorses that investing in mechanisms that narrow the gap between climate change information production and its use is crucial to increase adaptive capacity. Based on this assumption, this paper investigates the extent to which two collaborative projects that functioned as boundary organisations in Brazil (CiAdapta project) and Australia (Climate Change Adaptation for Natural Resource Management in East Coast Australia) increased access to information, and enabled the continual and continuous usefulness of produced knowledge for climate change adaptation. Considering the distinction between usable and useful information, we applied six criteria to guide the data analysis and extract key lessons from each project. Our findings confirm that face-to-face interactions are more likely to result in research having the societal impact that is being increasingly required by research and funding bodies. Our findings also indicate that two key systemic changes are critical for the longterm influence of boundary organisations for advancing climate change adaptation. These include changes to the science, knowledge production process; and shift in the political culture.
Keywords: Boundary organisation | Cities | Natural resources management | Knowledge co-production | Adaptive capacity
Ties that bind: Local networks, communities and adaptive capacity in rural Ghana
روابط همبند : شبکه های محلی، جوامع و ظرفیت انطباق در روستای غنا-2017
Current models of adaptation to climate change focus on common causes of vulnerability among in dividuals and communities in an attempt to improve their capacity to adapt. These models tend to neglect the impact on vulnerability of local relationships that include political and economic power structures. We use social network analysis to examine the connectivity and positions of vulnerable rural households and their capacity to adapt. We collected empirical data from a community of 58 small holders in upper west Ghana on external relations with local actors that are independent, operate beyond the community yet have direct relations with the community. These connections provide important resources and knowledge to build adaptive capacity that would not be generated from within the community. Our results highlight that certain external relations expose households to knowledge and other forms of capital, which in turn strengthen their ability to access and mobilise resources to respond to environmental change. However, not all external relations offer equal opportunities, which results in a stratified community and variation in the households’ capacity to adapt. The network approach also identifies points where local actors can link communities and households to remote agencies crucial for planning and implementing effective adaptation. Keywords: Adaptation; Adaptive capacity; Rural agriculture; Climate change; Rural community, Social network analysis; Vulnerability
Keywords: Adaptation | Adaptive capacity | Rural agriculture | Climate change | Rural community | Social network analysis | Vulnerability
How does adaptive co-management relate to specified and general resilience? An approach from Isla Mayor, Andalusia, Spain
چگونگی مدیریت هماهنگی مربوط به انعطاف پذیری مشخص و کلی؟ یک رویکر از اسلامایور، اندلس، اسپانیا-2017
Resilience provides a framework to study the dynamics of social-ecological systems (SESs). The inherent com plexity and uncertainty of SESs reveals the necessity for new approaches in management, such as adaptive co management (ACM). The objective of the present research is to analyse the link between ACM and specified/ general resilience debate. For the empirical analysis, a qualitative case-study approach is conducted in Isla Mayor, a southern municipality of Spain with an intensive rice cultivation tradition and a few limited secondary activities such as fishing and tourism. First, we explore five different faces of ACM in Isla Mayor’s rice farming: (1) institution building, (2) power sharing, (3) governance, (4) problem solving, and (5) knowledge co-pro duction, social learning and adaptation. Secondly, we analyse specified and general resilience from two per spectives: (1) stakeholders’ perceptions, (2) adaptive capacity and self-organization. The results highlight the existence of a task-oriented process aimed at solving problems related to the rice activity. This process has contributed to shape a new multi-level governance system and sharing of power between public authorities and local rice farmers, seemingly contributing to an improved rice cultivation specified resilience. However, the lack of collective power and vertical/horizontal links in the governance framework of the remaining socio-economic activities in the region have given rise to some difficulties in their management and interactions with the rice sector, thereby raising barriers to diversify activities and enhance general resilience. The case shows that ACM can provide the opportunity to navigate the trade-offs between specified and general resilience.
Keywords: Adaptive co-management | General resilience | Social-ecological systems | Specified resilience
Assessing the potential for forest management practitioner participation in climate change adaptation
ارزیابی پتانسیل برای مشارکت دست اندرکاران مدیریت جنگل در انطباق تغییرات آب و هوا-2016
The sensitivity of forests to local climate and the long time periods involved in forest management com- bine to result in conditions where forests and forest management are vulnerable to climate change. Minimizing the risks and impacts of climate change on forest management outcomes and reducing the vulnerability of forest management systems requires adaptation. Forest management system adaptation is a multi-scale incremental process that involves diverse actors collaborating to define issues, develop options, and implement solutions. Enabling adaptation may require revising assumptions (e.g., assump- tions about stationary climate), upgrading formal and informal institutions (including mandates), re-engineering governance, addressing knowledge gaps and information management issues, and changing practices. Given the heightened uncertainty associated with climate change, adaptation also includes enhancing capacities, reducing risks through diversification, increasing flexibility, and enhancing resi- liency by creating decision environments conducive to learning, foresight, knowledge integration, and adaptive management. Forest management practitioners have a fundamental role in identifying, evaluat- ing, and implementing climate change adaptation measures. This study develops and applies a frame- work (derived from recent scholarship on adaptation) for assessing the perceptions of forest management practitioners about issues, challenges, and factors that they consider important relative to their potential to contribute to climate change adaptation. The framework draws from, and ties together various aspects of adaptation process including psychological factors, knowledge management, forest management capacity, institutions and governance, and the state of information methods that sup- port forest management (i.e., planning, monitoring, and assessment). The framework is applied utilizing the results of surveys of forest practitioners in British Columbia, Canada. The application provides an opportunity to test concepts and to identify key barriers from a practitioner perspective. Proof of concept is tested by evaluating the extent to which respondents were able and willing to provide answers to sur- vey questions. In general, responses were robust suggesting some understanding and recognition of the importance and validity of the underlying adaptation concepts by forest professionals. The results sug- gest that forest professionals have diverse viewpoints about climate change. The majority is concerned and support adaptation. However, a significant minority do not support modification of current forest management. Discourse, education, and engagement are called for. Other key factors that from the per- spective of professionals may reduce participation potential include knowledge deficits, lack of mandate to adapt, limited resources for adaptation, institutional barriers, inadequate assessment, and persistence of planning and monitoring approaches that do not account for climate change.© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Climate change | Adaptation potential | Forest management practitioners | Adaptive capacity | Barriers | Perceptions | Awareness | Beliefs | Knowledge | Learning | Human capital | Institutions | Partnerships | Planning | Monitoring | Adaptive management | Assessment