Unsuccessful life style in middle-aged official and self-reported types of offenders
سبک زندگی ناموفق در مقام میانسال و انواع خود گزارش مجرمان-2019
Purpose: This research investigates how types of convicted offenders (C-types: life-course-persistent; adolescence- limited; late-onset; non-offenders) compare with the corresponding types of self-reported offenders (SRtypes: SR-LCP; SR-AL; SR-LO; SR-NO) in life adjustment. Methods: In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 411 London males have been followed up from age 8 to age 48 in face-to-face interviews, and from age 8 to 61 in criminal records. This article focuses on the unsuccessful life style scale based on interviews at ages 32 and 48. Results: Both convicted and self-reported offenders manifested a more unsuccessful life style in comparison with C-NO and SR-NO. Physical fights, and high alcohol and drug abuse featured in the lives of C-LCP and C-AL at age 32, and in the lives of all C-type offenders at age 48. SR-LCP and SR-AL reported higher levels of alcohol and drug use in comparison with SR-NO, while SR-LO reported a higher level of drug use. Conclusions: Criminality is one aspect, and not the most important one, that impinges upon the quality of life. Other dimensions contribute to altering life-adjustment. Addressing these issues might promote an improvement in the quality of life in adult offenders, and foster criminal desistance.
Keywords: Criminal careers | Official offenders | Self-reported offenders | Unsuccessful life style | Adult life adjustment
Understanding risky behaviors during adolescence: A model of self-discovery through experimentation
درک رفتارهای مخاطره آمیز در دوران نوجوانی: یک مدل از کشف خود از طریق آزمایش-2019
This paper presents a theory of risky “anti-social” behavior that links economic motives with aspects ofpersonality development during adolescence. We show that a model in which adolescents go through aprocess of self-discovery and the costs and benefits of risky behavior (such as engaging in a criminal act)are revealed to them through experiential learning can replicate the pattern of initiation and desistancein such conduct typically observed in the data. In this setting, farsighted individuals have an incentiveto experiment with risky behavior to resolve the uncertainty over their personality; contrary to popularbelief, this means that a greater concern for the future may be linked to a stronger incentive to pursuerisky activities at a young age. We also show that while stigma reduces the incentive to experiment,its effect on the prevalence of risky behavior is ambiguous. We discuss how imperfect self-knowledgemay interact with other factors associated with risky behavior over the life course, including increasingpenalties for repeat offenders and self-control problems
Keywords:Risky behavior | Crime | Age-crime curve | Recidivism | Stigma | Punishment | Penaltiesa
Parenting in the digital era: Protective and risk parenting styles for traditional bullying and cyberbullying victimization
والدین در عصر دیجیتال: سبک های والدین محافظت و در معرض خطر برای زورگویی سنتی و قربانی حمله سایبری-2019
This study analyzes the parenting styles that could act as risk or protective factors for bullying and cyberbullying victimization in Spain, considering the predisposition to aggression of the adolescents. The protective or risk effect of parenting styles for adolescents related behavior such as antisocial behavior, school adjustment, and self-esteem was also analyzed. Study sample was 1109 adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years (49.96%, females, M=13.88, SD=1.38). A 4×2×2×2 MANOVA was applied for the outcome variables of bullying victimization (traditional bullying and cyberbullying), antisocial behavior, school adjustment, and self-esteem; with parenting style, predisposition to aggression, sex and age as independent variables. The results confirm and extend emergent research in parenting styles, carried out in Spain and other European and Latin-American countries, showing that indulgent parenting, characterized by the use of reasoning and warmth practices, can act as a protective factor for both traditional bullying and cyberbullying victimization. On the contrary, authoritarian parenting, characterized by the use of physical and verbal coercion and privation practices, would act as a risk factor for cyberbullying and traditional bullying victimization. The protective and risk effects of parenting styles over adolescents adjustment take place irrespective of the adolescents predisposition to aggression
Keywords: Cyberbullying | Bullying | Peer victimization | Parenting styles | Adolescence
An exploration of family challenges and service needs during the post-adoption period
یک بررسی روی چالش های خانواده و نیازهای خدماتی درطی دوره زمانی پسا - پذیرش-2018
This study investigated caregiver-initiated contacts to a statewide, phone-based adoption support program to understand the breadth and range of challenges families experienced during the post-adoption period. Characteristics of families and their reasons for seeking post-adoption support are described, and the relationship between family characteristics and the type and range of challenges families reported were examined using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In one-year caregivers from 238 families representing 257 adopted children sought phone-based post-adoption support. Callers had primarily adopted children internationally or from U.S. child welfare systems. The average child age at the time of adoption was 3.6 years, however post-adoption help seeking occurred when the average child age was 12 years. Caregivers reported an average of 9 different challenges which crossed four domains; child emotional-behavioral difficulties, caregiver strain, school challenges, and adoption specific resource and assistance needs. Challenges were positively correlated and co-occurring. Larger sibling groups were associated with increased child behavior issues, caregiver strain, and school related challenges. Older sibling groups and adoptions from foster care were associated with increased school related challenges. The timing of caregiver help seeking suggests the transition from childhood to adolescence may be a particularly vulnerable period for some adoptive families, and post-adoption service providers should consider bolstering supports for adoptive families during this time. The breadth and range of challenges reported also suggest the need to increase the availability of multidimensional, adoption-specific services for children, caregivers, and broader family system in the years following adoption finalization.
Binge drinking and cigarette smoking among teens: Does body image play a role?
نوشیدن مشروب و استعمال سیگار دربین نوجوانان: آیا تصویر بدن ایفای نقش می کند؟-2018
Adolescence is a critical juncture for the development of ones physical, mental, and social self, which includes body image. Previous research has linked poor body image and substance use in adolescents, but existing research on sex differences in these relationships is conflicting. The current study will examine the relationship between body image and substance use in adolescent males and females using data from the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project (OYSUP), focusing on alcohol and tobacco use. The logistic regression results indicated that females who reported lower satisfaction with body image engaged in more binge drinking and smoking, while the relationship was not significant for males. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
keywords: Body image| Substance use| Adolescence| Youth development
نوشیدن مشروب و کشیدن سیگار دربین نوجوانان: آیا تصویر بدن ایفای نقش می کند؟
سال انتشار: 2018 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 19
نوجوانی یک موقعیت بحرانی برای توسعه شخصیت فیزیکی، روحی و اجتماعی یک فرد است که شامل تصویر بدن نیز می شود. تحقیقات قبلی، تصویر ضعیف بدن و استعمال مواد در نوجوانان را به هم مرتبط کرده است اما تحقیقات فعلی روی تفاوت های جنسیتی در این روابط باهم تعارض دارند. مطالعه حاضر رابطه بین تصویر بدن و استعمال مواد در پسران و دختران نوجوان را با استفاده از داده های حاصل از پروژه استعمال مواد جوانان ایالت اورگون و با تمرکز روی استعمال الکل وتنباکو بررسی خواهد کرد. نتایج رگراسیون منطقی بیانگر این بود که دخترانی که رضایت پایین تری از تصویر بدن گزارش کرده اند بیشتر به نوشیدن مشروب و سیگار کشیدن مشغول بوده اند درحالیکه این رابطه برای پسران قابل توجه نبود. دلالت ها برای تحقیقات عملی و آتی مورد بحث قرار می گیرند.
کلیدواژه ها: تصویر بدن | استعمال مواد | نوجوانی | توسعه جوانان
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
The role of online social network chatting for alcohol use in adolescence: Testing three peer-related pathways in a Swedish population-based sample
نقش شبکه اجتماعی آنلاین چت برای استفاده از الکل در نوجوانی : تست سه راه مرتبط با همتایان در یک نمونه سوئدی مبتنی بر جمعیت-2017
The aim of the study was to examine whether online social network chatting (OSNC) is related to any of three peer-related pathways to alcohol use among adolescents including a stress-exposure pathway, a peer status pathway and a social context pathway. A survey was distributed to a Swedish population based sample of 2439 boys and girls 15e16 years old enrolled in the 9th grade of primary school. In direct effects, moderating effects, and gender differences were analysed. The results exposed a robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use, but also that OSNC accounted for one-fifth of the association between the peer status pathway and alcohol use. A positive association between the stress exposure pathway and alcohol use was found that was weaker among adolescents who scored high on OSNC whereas a positive association between the social context pathway and alcohol use also was found that was stronger among adolescents who scored high on OSNC. Consequently, OSNC may contribute differently to alcohol use depending on which peer-related pathway that the adolescent follows. The robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use that remained when the three peer-related pathways were accounted for also indicates that this association is accounted for by other factors.
Keywords: Internet | Adolescence | Alcohol drinking | Cross-sectional studies
A qualitative study into parental mediation of adolescents internet use
یک مطالعه کیفی میانجیگری والدین استفاده نوجوانان از اینترنت -2017
The vast majority of studies on parental mediation are quantitative by nature, which leads to a lack of in depth understanding of how parents define and perform their role as socializing agents in this area. The present study offers new insights into how parental mediation is implemented on a daily basis with regard to adolescents internet use. Therefore, six focus group interviews with parents of children aged 13 to 17 were performed (in total, 34 participants). Concretely, the study investigated (i) how parents perceive their adolescents internet use, (ii) how parents define their own role as socializing agents, and (iii) how parents perform internet mediation on a daily basis. The results show that parental mediation is best conceived as a dynamic process that stems from the daily interactions between parents and their adolescent children, rather than as a preconceived set of rules and strategies that are implemented. Open communication and making a connection with the adolescent in terms of his or her internet use are parents preferred strategies for performing parental mediation. The results have implications in terms of parental mediation research as well as in terms of the support directed at parents of adolescent children.
Keywords: Parental mediation | Adolescence | Qualitative research | Internet use
Gender Violence and Social Networks in Adolescents: The Case of the Province of Malaga
خشونت جنسیتی و شبکه های اجتماعی نوجوانان: مورد استان مالاگا-2017
Gender violence and the violence exerted on social networks are particularly current issues of interest for both the scientific community and the media. When both types of violence are present during adolescence, a more specific area of study arises that is circumscribed to cyberbullying exerted and suffered by adolescents on the Internet. This work is part of a larger project carried out in secondary schools in Spain, with special focus on Andalusia (financed by BBVA, 2014-2016). The case here presented is the one for the province of Malaga. The educational community of Malaga is of a peculiar and heterogeneous nature that combines a large foreign section of the population that was the result of tourism (since the seventies in the past century) with other migratory phenomena that are shared with other regions of Spain. The purpose of the study was to show the prevalence of gender violence among adolescent students in the 15-17-year age bracket from the province of Malaga, and to identify the predictive factors of occasional and frequent violence on social networks. A survey was designed and validated that was applied in electronic format to a random sample of public schools in Malaga (n=282). The sample size allowed us to work with an error of ±0.06 (confidence level of 95%). The results and conclusions identify predictive factors of occasional and frequent violence, and suggest improvements to be made in action guidelines and protocols, as well as in the action to foster awareness among adolescents and the general public in regard to these issues.
Keywords: Student violence | Bullying | Cyberbullying | Adolescents
Tasks Model: A tool to Study the Human Development
ابزاری برای مطالعه توسعه انسانی -2017
Different cultures have raised the development of people through their life cycle, as successions of stages, which are defined by rites of passages and tasks, which often are activities that must be met in order to access the rites, or by tasks that are accomplished and define on their own the closure or compliance with these stages. From these traditions of cultures and different approaches to research approaches in psychology and psychoanalysis the task model conceptualization is structured as a tool that facilitates the study of developmental psychology. Different approaches tasks have been proposed in various contexts for the study of development; in particular, from the study of adolescence and latency from clinical practice on the one hand; and on the other from the analysis of psycho development and research in prevention and educational contexts, from where they have documented and demonstrated applications of this model. In this paper, from the research of primary school students and the evaluation of conceptual materials on adolescence, evidence, practice and usefulness of a conceptual tasks model for development assessment arises. The existence of task structures for stages of development enables applying this knowledge to orient and optimize this development while facilitating tasks in applied areas
Keywords: Developmental psychology | Task model | adolescence | second childhood | latency