Promoting sustainable energy: Does institutional entrepreneurship help?
ارتقاء انرژی پایدار: آیا کارآفرینی نهادی به شما کمک می کند؟-2019
Institutional entrepreneurship research has described and conceptualized dramatic cases of successful institu- tional change. We know less about whether it can help people trying to change institutions, for example, struggling to change the energy system. Do concepts from the institutional entrepreneurship literature oﬀer sustainable energy practitioners insights on the political aspects of their work? And vice-versa: do practitioners have useful insights on the potential and limits of agency in institutional change? The present study contributes to these questions through collaborative inquiry together with government-aﬃliated organizations with a mission to promote sustainable energy. The results suggest that concepts from the institutional entrepreneurship literature do serve to make practitioners’ implicit competencies explicit and hence a legitimate subject for or- ganizational development and joint learning about the political aspects of energy systems change. We conclude that institutional entrepreneurship appears to require a form of organizing that combines environmental scan- ning, grand strategy and everyday tactical moves on the ground.
Keywords: Institutional entrepreneurship | Sustainable energy | Practitioner | Collaborative inquiry
Snatched secrets: Cybercrime and trade secrets modelling a firms decision to report a theft of trade secrets
اسرار ربوده شده: جرایم سایبری و اسرار تجاری مدل سازی تصمیم یک شرکت برای گزارش سرقت اسرار تجاری-2019
Cybercrime and economic espionage are increasing problems for firms. We build on US FBI policy to frame the interaction between a cybercrime victim firm and a government security agency. We bring together several strands in the literature to model the strategies of the firm, which has suffered a cy- ber breach and theft of trade secrets, and the government security agency, which must investigate and prosecute crimes. We investigate the interactions between these two players, in which the firm has pri- vate information about its cybersecurity investment. This investment level is unknown to the security agency, which must nonetheless decide how to prioritize reported crime. We model this asymmetric in- formation problem within a game theoretic signaling framework derived from Becker’s work in crime and punishment. We suggest that such a framework can inform policy to encourage security investments by firms and more efficient resource utilization by security agencies. We particularly focus on an illustrative stylized example to highlight how our modelling approach can be helpful. In this example we compare two worlds; one where all security breaches become public knowledge and another where only reported breaches become public knowledge. We then formulate two potentially testable Hypotheses and several implications of these Hypotheses. Case studies and a policy analysis further highlight how our framework plays out in reality
Keywords: Cyber security | Cybercrime | Trade secrets | Economic espionage | Cyber breaches
The dilemma of rape avoidance advice: Acknowledging womens agency without blaming victims of sexual assault
معضل مشاوره برای جلوگیری از تجاوز جنسی: تصدیق آژانس زنان بدون مذمت قربانیان تجاوز جنسی-2019
This article addresses the question of whether there is a legitimate role for rape avoidance advice for women as part of a larger suite of efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of mens sexual violence. It highlights an apparent dilemma between acknowledging womens agency and placing the blame for sexual violence on perpetrators rather than victims. The article builds upon analysis of the phenomenon of responsibility by moral and political philosophers to suggest a clearer way of thinking about this dilemma. I argue that because causal responsibility is a necessary but not sufficient element of moral responsibility, it is logically possible to hold that some victims could have prevented their rape and at the same time hold they are not blameworthy. I go on to argue that this poses a dilemma for feminists concerned to end rape, in that the practical interests of individual women in avoiding rape might at times be in conflict with womens strategic interests in ensuring that the burden (task responsibility) for ending rape rests with men (as potential perpetrators). I argue that while it is logically possible that some rape avoidance advice could help some women reduce their likelihood of being raped, the legitimate role for rape avoidance advice is circumscribed by its impact on womens strategic interests. The worth of rape avoidance advice in general should not be dismissed out of hand. However, the legitimacy of particular pieces of advice need to be assessed in terms of their impact on womens strategic and practical interests and this will vary depending on the quality and source of the advice
Keywords: Agency | Blame | Victims | Rape prevention | Sexual assault
State of damage to and support for victims of motor vehicle accidents in Japan
وضعیت آسیب و پشتیبانی قربانیان حوادث وسایل نقلیه موتوری در ژاپن-2019
Individuals are likely to be involved in at least one motor vehicle accident (MVA) during their lifetime.MVAs can have a significant impact on both the victimsand their families; in the case of death, the bereaved familymay face mental health problems. Ongoing studies have focused on devising strategies to support victims and their families who face such problems. This paper clarifies the reality of mental health issues ofMVA victims and reviews the current state of victimsupport available in Japan, its significance and other relevant issues. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) inMVA survivors has been estimated to be 8%–45% one month after the accident and 6%–40% six months after the accident. The mental health of the survivors families, bereaved families, and orphaned children are usually affected afterMVAs. Bereaved families experience not only PTSD but also symptoms of complicated grief. Based on studies using different scales to measure symptoms and other items, symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief have been seen in 17%–75% and 6%–61% of bereaved families, respectively, which were much higher than those observed in the general population. In addition to the actual physical andmental damage caused byMVAs, it is necessary to take notice of survivors who are exposed to post-accident secondary victimization. Justice agencies, such as the National Police Agency andMinistry of Justice Investigation Bureau, as well as victim support centers and self-help groups, provide support to MVA victims. To a certain extent, evaluating support provided to MVA victims and their families is possible by initiating assistance promptly and actively using leaflets, brochures, and other materials. The literature reports thatwomen are at increased risk for developing PTSD and complicated grief; also,men and women use differentmechanisms for coping with stress.Moreover, men tend not to express their pain and try to manage it on their own. Thus, support that is appropriate for both sexes must be provided. In the future, the effectiveness of the support provided should be evaluated by survivors. Whether acute-phase support leads to improvement in survivors long-term prognoses must also be investigated.
Keywords: Motor vehicle accidents | MVA victims | Bereaved family | Social support | Self-help groups | Sex differences
Producing the vulnerable subject in English drug policy
تولید موضوع آسیب پذیر در سیاست مواد مخدر انگلیسی-2019
The concept of vulnerability is now deeply embedded in English drug policy, influential in governing practices such as prevention and treatment activity but yet to be subject to critical scrutiny. In this article, we offer an appraisal of the vulnerability zeitgeist in contemporary drug policy, drawing upon insights from similar endeavours across a range of policy areas to consider the underlying assumptions and various effects of this conceptual logic. Using an approach to policy analysis which supports the questioning of deep-seated assumptions and implications of particular representations of ‘problems’ in social policies (often referred to as the ‘What’s the Problem?’ [WPR] approach, Bacchi & Goodwin, 2016), we analyse the 2017 Drug Strategy to facilitate a close perspective on the texture of governance in relation to people who use drugs in England. We explore how vulnerability and drug use are in Bacchi’s (2018; 6) terms ‘problematized’ and ‘made ‘real’’ as a specific kind of phenomenon, drawing attention to the presuppositions and potential effects of being labelled (or not) as vulnerable. We argue that alongside bolstering targeted support, the current problematisation of vulnerability in English drug policy supports the operation of subtle disciplinary mechanisms to regulate the behaviour of those deemed vulnerable, underplaying the role of material inequalities and social divisions in the unevenness of drug-related harms. We then use the WPR approach to guide a discussion of the burgeoning multidisciplinary literature on vulnerability, exploring orientations and effects of alternative representations of the ‘vulnerable’ drug users. Producing the ‘vulnerable’ subject in these alternative ways creates a different and deeper understanding of the ‘problem’ and consequently its ‘solutions’, allowing more space for human agency to be considered and directing attention beyond drug policy towards tackling the diverse multiple social marginalisations which make some people more likely than others to experience drug-related harms.
Keywords: Drug policy | England | Problematisation | Responsibilisation | Risk | Vulnerability
Assessing the quantum-resistant cryptographic agility of routing and switching IT network infrastructure in a large-size financial organization
ارزیابی چابکی رمزنگاری مقاوم به کوانتومی در مسیریابی و تعویض زیرساخت های شبکه IT در یک سازمان مالی با اندازه بزرگ-2019
This paper provides exploratory research by determining the impact of quantum computing threat on modern routing and switching infrastructure components of IT network infrastructure in a large-size fi- nancial organization. We determine whether common routing and switching IT network infrastructure, including its hardware and software components, have enough cryptographic agility to accommodate the change of cryptographic algorithms to the ones that do not exhibit vulnerability to quantum computing and to the ones that are compliant with National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B set of protocols. We pinpoint upstream or downstream impacts of a change in the encryption algorithms across various IT network infrastructure components in terms of effort required to accomplish this transition. This study is among the first studies that investigate quantum-resistance cryptographic from the hard- ware perspectives of routing and switching technologies using diffusion of innovation theory. The study integrates enterprise governance to meet the challenges presented by quantum-computing with a focus on cryptographic agility. We offer an enterprise architecture framework for assessing the dependencies, costs, and benefits of IT infrastructure migration plan to meet the future challenges of quantum-resistant cryptographic. The analysis in this research can be used by IT managers to pre-plan for an upgrade of routing and switching infrastructure, assist in estimating the effort s required to perform these upgrades, and assist in selecting a vendor of routing and switching equipment from the perspective of cryptographic agility. With today’s supercomputers, a computational task involved in breaking modern asymmetric cryptographic algorithms would be infeasible due to the required computational complexity. However, with progress in the devel- opment of quantum computing technology, firms are facing an increasing risk of potential security threats to existing encrypted data and secured transmission channels as the processing power of quantum com- puters continue to increase.
Keywords: Quantum-resistance | Cryptography | Routing and switching | Enterprise architecture | IT governance
Deferred cash compensation and risk-taking: Evidence from the Chinese banking industry
جبران خسارت معوق و ریسک پذیری: شواهدی از صنعت بانکی چین-2019
Starting in 2010, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) mandated that between 40% and 50% of the annual variable compensation of senior commercial bank managers be paid over the subsequent 3 years or longer. We examine the implications of the CBRC deferred compensation regulation for bank risk-taking using a sample of 156 bank executives from 14 listed Chinese commercial banks. We find that before the 2010 regulation, high-risk banks deferred executive compensation less than low-risk banks. We also find that banks reduced their risktaking after the 2010 regulation, and the reduction was greater for banks with higher pre-regulation risk. Unlike prior research which examines equity compensation, we provide evidence on the use of deferred executive cash compensation and its implications for bank risk-taking in an emerging market
Keywords: Deferred executive compensation | Bank risk-taking | Compensation regulation | Multi-period agency
In silico prediction of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines metabolism susceptible to form DNA adducts in humans
پیش بینی سیلیکون متابولیسم آمینهای هتروسیکلیک آروماتیک مستعد ابتلا به ترکیبات DNA در انسان-2019
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAAs) are environmental and food contaminants that are classified as probable or possible carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Thirty different HAAs have been identified. However the metabolism of only three of them have been fully characterized in human hepatocytes: AαC (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and PhIP (2- amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine). In this study, we use an integrative approach to accurately predict the biotransformation of 30 HAAs into DNA reactive and non DNA reactive compounds. We first build predicted metabolites networks by iterating a knowledge-based expert system of prediction of metabolic reactions based on fingerprint similarities. Next, we combine several methods for predicting Sites Of Metabolism (SOM) in order to reduce the metabolite reaction graphs and to predict the metabolites reactive with DNA. We validate the method by comparing the experimental versus predicted data for the known AαC, MeIQx and PhIP metabolism. 28 of the 30 experimentally determined metabolites are well predicted and 9 of the 10 metabolites known to form DNA adducts are predicted with a high probability to be reactive with DNA. Applying our approach to the 27 unknown HAAs, we generate maps for the metabolic biotransformation of each HAA, including new metabolites with a high-predicted DNA reactivity, which can be further explored through an userfriendly and interactive web interface.
Keywords: In silico | Xenobiotics | Metabolism | DNA adducts
Combining Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Satellite Image Time Series for land cover mapping via a multi-source deep learning architecture
ترکیب سری زمانی ماهواره ای Sentinel-1 و Sentinel-2 برای نقشه برداری از پوشش زمین از طریق یک معماری یادگیری عمیق چند منبعی-2019
The huge amount of data currently produced by modern Earth Observation (EO) missions has allowed for the design of advanced machine learning techniques able to support complex Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) mapping tasks. The Copernicus programme developed by the European Space Agency provides, with missions such as Sentinel-1 (S1) and Sentinel-2 (S2), radar and optical (multi-spectral) imagery, respectively, at 10m spatial resolution with revisit time around 5 days. Such high temporal resolution allows to collect Satellite Image Time Series (SITS) that support a plethora of Earth surface monitoring tasks. How to effectively combine the complementary information provided by such sensors remains an open problem in the remote sensing field. In this work, we propose a deep learning architecture to combine information coming from S1 and S2 time series, namely TWINNS (TWIn Neural Networks for Sentinel data), able to discover spatial and temporal dependencies in both types of SITS. The proposed architecture is devised to boost the land cover classification task by leveraging two levels of complementarity, i.e., the interplay between radar and optical SITS as well as the synergy between spatial and temporal dependencies. Experiments carried out on two study sites characterized by different land cover characteristics (i.e., the Koumbia site in Burkina Faso and Reunion Island, a overseas department of France in the Indian Ocean), demonstrate the significance of our proposal.
Keywords: Satellite Image Time Series | Deep learning | Land cover classification | Sentinel-2 | Sentinel-1 | Data fusion
Nutrition-Focused Food Banking in the United States: A Qualitative Study of Healthy Food Distribution Initiatives
بانکداری مواد غذایی با محوریت تغذیه در ایالات متحده: یک مطالعه کیفی از ابتکارات توزیع مواد غذایی سالم-2019
Background Nutrition-focused food banking is broadly defined as organizational and programmatic efforts to address nutrition-related health disparities among charitable food clients. Additional information is needed to systematically describe how US food banks, as key influencers of the charitable food system, are working to advance nutrition-focused food banking initiatives in their communities. Objective Our aim was to describe food bank leadershipeidentified organizational strategies, “best practices,” and innovative programs for advancing nutrition-focused food banking in the United States. Design We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews to elicit information about the nutrition-focused food banking practices and processes being employed by US food banks. Participants/setting Participants comprised a purposive sample of food bank executives (n¼30) representing a diverse selection of food banks across the United States. Interviews were conducted between April 2015 and January 2017 at national food bank conferences. Analysis Two researchers independently reviewed transcripts to identify themes using code-based qualitative content analysis. Results Executive leader descriptions of specific strategies to support nutrition-focused food banking centered primarily around the following four major themes: building a healthier food inventory at the food bank; enhancing partner agency healthy food access, storage, and distribution capacity; nutrition education outreach; and expanding community partnerships and intervention settings for healthy food distribution, including health care and schools. Conclusions Study findings indicate that food banks are implementing a variety of multilevel approaches to improve healthy food access among users of the charitable food system. Further evaluation is needed to assess the reach, scalability, and sustainability of these various approaches, and their effectiveness in reducing determinants of nutrition-related health disparities.
Key Words: Food bank | Food insecurity | Fruits and vegetables | Community nutrition | Qualitative research