No luck for moral luck
بدون شانس برای شانس اخلاقی-2019
Moral philosophers and psychologists often assume that people judge morally lucky and morally unlucky agents differently, an assumption that stands at the heart of the Puzzle of Moral Luck. We examine whether the asymmetry is found for reflective intuitions regarding wrongness, blame, permissibility, and punishment judg- ments, whether people’s concrete, case-based judgments align with their explicit, abstract principles regarding moral luck, and what psychological mechanisms might drive the effect. Our experiments produce three findings: First, in within-subjects experiments favorable to reflective deliberation, the vast majority of people judge a lucky and an unlucky agent as equally blameworthy, and their actions as equally wrong and permissible. The philosophical Puzzle of Moral Luck, and the challenge to the very possibility of systematic ethics it is frequently taken to engender, thus simply do not arise. Second, punishment judgments are significantly more outcome- dependent than wrongness, blame, and permissibility judgments. While this constitutes evidence in favor of current Dual Process Theories of moral judgment, the latter need to be qualified: punishment and blame judgments do not seem to be driven by the same process, as is commonly argued in the literature. Third, in between-subjects experiments, outcome has an effect on all four types of moral judgments. This effect is mediated by negligence ascriptions and can ultimately be explained as due to differing probability ascriptions across cases.
Keywords: Moral luck | Moral judgment | Outcome eﬀect | Dual process theory of moral judgment | Hindsight bias
Conceptual structure and perspectives on entrepreneurship education research: A bibliometric review
ساختار مفهومی و دیدگاه های مربوط به تحقیقات آموزش کارآفرینی: یک مرور کتابشناختی-2019
This study aims to review the field of Entrepreneurship Education (EE). The review examines 325 scientific articles published in refereed scientific journals from 1987 to 2017. The SciMat software was used to conduct an analysis of performance indicators and science mapping visualizations. The performance analysis results identified some of the field’s most active and influential articles, journals, and authors. The science mapping visualization of co-word analysis results revealed EE research evolution. In general, we found that EE research has evolved from EE as part of an economic development strategy to the EE academic perspective. Furthermore, research themes showed that students, rather than teachers, have become the main agents of the educational process. The results of this bibliometric analysis enhance understanding of the evolution of EE research with a global overview of the relevant literature and its authors.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship education | Entrepreneurial intention | Entrepreneurial learning | Bibliometrics | SciMat
The sensitive prosecutor: Emotional experiences of prosecutors in managing criminal proceedings
دادستان حساس: تجربیات عاطفی دادستان در مدیریت دادرسی کیفری-2019
For over three decades, therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) has produced rich scholarship highlighting the inseparable connection between law and personal wellbeing. Only recently, however, have TJ scholars begun to explore the influence that the lawhas on those practicing it. The current research aimsto contribute to this developing area of study. It explores the “emotional map” of public prosecutors in relation to defendants and crime victims, their awareness to these emotions and the impact that these emotions have on their professional decisions. The research involves in-depth interviews with 14 public prosecutors handling criminal cases in Israeli courts. The qualitative, phenomenological analysis of the documented interviews revealed three exposure levels in which interviewees discussed the emotional aspects of their work. The tension between resisting emotions and accepting them was lurking upon each one of the subjects. Their descriptions of specific raw emotions emerged at the deepest level of exposure, and at that level, anger was the most prominent emotion. Our findings raise some skepticism regarding the prosecutor image as a completely rational and provide the insight that prosecutors emotional world is boiling underneath the surface. Moreover, the exposure of the continuous tension between acceptance and rejection of emotions provides an explanation for the prosecutors difficulty in acknowledging their emotions in full. This tension negatively impacts the prosecutors personal and professional lives inways that resemble psychological symptoms of secondary trauma. The findings may contribute to the development of a “knowledge base” of emotional experiences of prosecutors that could enable the creation of models for regulating and managing emotions of legal agents, for the benefit of litigants, legal agents, and the legal process more broadly
Keywords: Therapeutic jurisprudence | Emotions | Prosecutors | Qualitative research | Anger | Secondary trauma
Intelligent fault diagnosis for rotating machinery using deep Q-network based health state classification: A deep reinforcement learning approach
تشخیص خطای هوشمند برای ماشین آلات در حال چرخش با استفاده از طبقه بندی حالت سلامت مبتنی بر شبکه Q عمقی: یک روش یادگیری تقویتی عمیق-2019
Fault diagnosis methods for rotating machinery have always been a hot research topic, and artificial intelligencebased approaches have attracted increasing attention from both researchers and engineers. Among those related studies and methods, artificial neural networks, especially deep learning-based methods, are widely used to extract fault features or classify fault features obtained by other signal processing techniques. Although such methods could solve the fault diagnosis problems of rotating machinery, there are still two deficiencies. (1) Unable to establish direct linear or non-linear mapping between raw data and the corresponding fault modes, the performance of such fault diagnosis methods highly depends on the quality of the extracted features. (2) The optimization of neural network architecture and parameters, especially for deep neural networks, requires considerable manual modification and expert experience, which limits the applicability and generalization of such methods. As a remarkable breakthrough in artificial intelligence, AlphaGo, a representative achievement of deep reinforcement learning, provides inspiration and direction for the aforementioned shortcomings. Combining the advantages of deep learning and reinforcement learning, deep reinforcement learning is able to build an end-to-end fault diagnosis architecture that can directly map raw fault data to the corresponding fault modes. Thus, based on deep reinforcement learning, a novel intelligent diagnosis method is proposed that is able to overcome the shortcomings of the aforementioned diagnosis methods. Validation tests of the proposed method are carried out using datasets of two types of rotating machinery, rolling bearings and hydraulic pumps, which contain a large number of measured raw vibration signals under different health states and working conditions. The diagnosis results show that the proposed method is able to obtain intelligent fault diagnosis agents that can mine the relationships between the raw vibration signals and fault modes autonomously and effectively. Considering that the learning process of the proposed method depends only on the replayed memories of the agent and the overall rewards, which represent much weaker feedback than that obtained by the supervised learning-based method, the proposed method is promising in establishing a general fault diagnosis architecture for rotating machinery.
Keywords: Fault diagnosis | Rotating machinery | Deep reinforcement learning | Deep Q-network
Understanding outcome bias
درک تعصب نتیجه-2019
Disentangling effort and luck is critical when evaluating outcomes. In a principal-agent experiment, we demonstrate that principals’ judgments of agents are biased by luck, despite perfectly observable effort. This erodes the power of incentives to stimulate effort. We explore two potential solutions to this “outcome bias”–information control, and outsourcing judgment to independent third parties. Both are ineffective. When principals control information about luck, they do not avoid it. When agents control information, they manipulate principals’ outcome bias to minimize punishments. We also find that even independent third parties exhibit outcome bias. These findings suggest that outcome bias cannot be driven solely by disappointment nor distributional preferences. Instead, we hypothesize that luck directly affects principals’ inference about agent type even though effort is observed. We elicit the beliefs of third parties and principals and find that lucky agents are believed to be harder workers than identical, unlucky agents.
Keywords: Experiment | Reciprocity | Outcome bias | Attribution bias | Blame
Translating public order: Colonial, transnational and international genealogies
ترجمه نظم عمومی: شجره نامه استعماری ، فراملی و بین المللی-2019
Post-colonial legal geographies intersect productively with an emergent global War on Terror discourse, by embedding local cases within a powerful and growing narrative of international concern for security, translating “peace and harmony” into public order. This article traces translations of public order in three distinct but interlocking arena within which the legal circulates: the impact of British colonial legal frameworks on post-colonial legal decision making; the transnational practice of cross-jurisdictional citation and transjudicial communication; the effects of the international war on terror on internal security arrangements. Seeking the making of increasingly global notions of public order in domestic courts in Malaysia and Pakistan, it places common law practices and institutions in the context of a series of networked internationalisms underwritten by the colonial legacies of the British Indian empire, practices and institutions which are now implicated in new international networks undergirded by the security concerns of the United States. From the vantage point of these Muslim majority allies in the War on Terror, this article builds upon recent efforts to reconsider empire and law as key factors in the study of international history and international relations, making visible a series of interlinked domestic, transnational and global spaces in which agents, institutions and ideas travel, conditioned by both imperial and international logics. It finds that what the colonial legacy of British law made possible – legal logics in which religious freedom is understood through the calculus of internal security – the war on terror has made far more likely.
Capital regulation and banking bubbles
تنظیم سرمایه و حباب های بانکی-2019
This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model in infinite horizon with a regulated banking sector. We borrow the methodology of Miao and Wang (2015) to analyse how Basel capital requirement recommendations may generate and affect banking bubbles and macroeconomic key variables. We show that when banks face capital requirements based on credit risk, as in Basel I, bubbles cannot exist. Alternatively, under a regulatory framework where capital requirements are based on Value-at-Risk, as in Basel II and III, two different equilibria emerge and can coexist: the bubbleless and the bubbly equilibria. Bubbles can be positive or negative, depending on the tightness of capital requirements based on Value-at-Risk. We find a maximum value of capital requirement below which bubbles are positive and provide a larger welfare compared to the bubbleless equilibrium. Our results also suggest that a change in banking policies might lead to a crisis without external shocks
Keywords: Banking bubbles | Banking regulation | Dynamic general equilibrium | Infinitely lived agents | Value-at-risk | Capital requirements
Deriving ChaCha20 key streams from targeted memory analysis
استخراج جریان کلیدی ChaCha20 از تجزیه و تحلیل حافظه هدف-2019
There can be performance and vulnerability concerns with block ciphers, thus stream ciphers can used as an alternative. Although many symmetric key stream ciphers are fairly resistant to side-channel at- tacks, cryptographic artefacts may exist in memory. This paper identifies a significant vulnerability within OpenSSH and OpenSSL and which involves the discovery of cryptographic artefacts used within the ChaCha20 cipher. This can allow for the cracking of tunneled data using a single targeted memory ex- traction. With this, law enforcement agencies and/or malicious agents could use the vulnerability to take copies of the encryption keys used for each tunnelled connection. The user of a virtual machine would not be alerted to the capturing of the encryption key, as the method runs from an extraction of the running memory. Methods of mitigation include making cryptographic artefacts difficult to discover and limiting memory access.
Keywords: Network traffic | Decryption | Memory analysis | Virtual machine introspection | Secure shell | Transport layer security | Stream ciphers | Chacha20
Group recommender systems: A multi-agent solution
سیستم های توصیه گر: یک راه حل چند عاملی-2019
Providing recommendations to groups of users has become a promising research area, since many items tend to be consumed by groups of people. Various techniques have been developed aiming at making recommendations to a group as a whole. Most works use aggregation techniques to combine preferences, recommendations or profiles. However, satisfying all group members in an even way still remains as a challenge. To deal with this problem, we propose an extension of a multi-agent approach based on negotiation techniques for group recommendation. In the approach, we use the multilateral Monotonic Concession Protocol (MCP) to combine individual recommendations into a group recommendation. In this work, we extend the MCP protocol to allow users to personalize the behavior of the agents. This extension was evaluated in two different domains (movies and points of interest) with satisfactory results. We compared our approach against different baselines, namely: a preference aggregation algorithm, a recommendation aggregation algorithm, and a simple one-step negotiation. The results show evidence that, when using our negotiation approach, users in the groups are more uniformly satisfied than with traditional aggregation approaches.
Keywords: Recommender systems | Group recommendations | Multi-agent systems | Negotiation
Gas condensate treatment: A critical review of materials, methods, field applications, and new solutions
تصفیه میعانات گازی: بررسی مهم مواد ، روشها ، كاربردهای میدانی و راه حلهای جدید-2019
Recently, exploration operations for gas wells target deep reservoirs, where the temperature and pressure are very high. High temperature (more than 200 °C) and pressure (more than 5500 psi) result in degrading the complex organic molecules into dry gas or gas condensate. During gas production the reservoir pressure will decrease below the gas dew point and form a condensate bank near to the borehole. Condensate banking has been branded to cause serious drop in the gas effective permeability, gas productivity and results in formation damage. Numerous techniques have been adapted to mitigate gas condensate banking effects in gas wells. These approaches include the injection of solvents and chemicals to alter formation wettability to minimize condensate blockage. Other methods include acids injection, fracturing treatments, and drilling horizontal wells. These methods will lower the rate of pressure drop and permit the production of a single phase gas. This paper critically reviews the causes and instants of condensate banking in gas reservoirs. The developed models that capture and enumerate this phenomenon, and the most adapted mitigation techniques in accordance to the leading conditions are thoroughly discussed. The most successful agents for enhancing condensate production are reported and their effects on the condensate behavior is identified. Furthermore, novel and new technique for permanent condensate removal is presented in this paper. This review will fill the gap in the area of condensate removal treatments by critically analyzing and summarizing the techniques proposed in the literature.
Keywords: Condensate banking | Gas reservoirs | Sandstone rocks | Carbonate rocks | Thermochemical treatment