بهبود تولید بیودیزل با کمک اولتراسونیک حاصل از ضایعات صنعت گوشت (چربی خوک) با استفاده از نانوکاتالیزور اکسید مس سبز: مقایسه سطح پاسخ و مدل سازی شبکه عصبی
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 11 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 25
سوخت زیستی سبز ، تمیز و پایدار تنها گزینه به منظور کاهش کابرد سوخت های فسیلی ، پاسخگویی به تقاضای زیاد انرژی و کاهش آلودگی هوا است. تولید بیودیزل زمانی ارزان می شود که از یک پیش ماده ارزان ، کاتالیزور سازگار با محیط زیست و فرآیند مناسب استفاده کنیم. پیه خوک از صنعت گوشت حاوی اسید چرب بالا است و به عنوان یک پیش ماده موثر برای تهیه بیودیزل کاربرد دارد. این مطالعه بیودیزل را از روغن پیه خوک از طریق فرآیند استری سازی دو مرحله ای با کمک اولتراسونیک و کاتالیزور تولید می کند. عصاره Cinnamomum tamala (C. tamala) برای تهیه نانوذرات CuO مورد استفاده قرار گرفت و با استفاده از طیف مادون قرمز ، پراش اشعه ایکس ، توزیع اندازه ذرات ، میکروسکوپ الکترونی روبشی و انتقال مشخص شد. تولید بیودیزل با استفاده از طرح Box-Behnken (BBD) و شبکه عصبی مصنوعی (ANN) ، در محدوده متغیرهای زمان اولتراسونیک (us )(20-40 min)، بارگیری نانوکاتالیزور 1-3) CuO درصد وزنی( ، و متانول به قبل از نسبت مولی PTO (10:1e30:1) مدلسازی شد. آنالیز آماری ثابت کرد که مدل سازی شبکه عصبی بهتر از BBD است. عملکرد بهینه 97.82٪ با استفاده از الگوریتم ژنتیک (GA) در زمان US: 35.36 دقیقه ، بار کاتالیزور CuO: 2.07 درصد وزنی و نسبت مولی: 29.87: 1 به دست آمد. مقایسه با مطالعات قبلی ثابت کرد که اولتراسونیک به میزان قابل توجهی موجب کاهش بار نانوکاتالیزور CuO می شود ، و نسبت مولی را افزایش می دهد و این فرایند را بهبود می بخشد.
کلمات کلیدی: چربی خوک | التراسونیک | اکسید مس | سنتز سبز | شبکه عصبی | سطح پاسخ
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Development of a chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric method for quantitative simultaneous determination of Amlodipine and Valsartan in commercial tablet
توسعه یک روش اسپکتروفتومتری با کمک شیمیایی برای تعیین کمی همزمان آملودیپین و والرسارتان در قرص تجاری-2020
In this study, two drugs named Amlodipine (AML) and Valsartan (VAL) related to the high blood pressure were simultaneously determined in synthetic mixtures and Valzomix tablet. For this purpose, the chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric method was developed without any prepreparation. Artificial intelligence techniques, including artificial neural network (ANN) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) as chemometrics procedures were proposed. Feed-forward back-propagation neural network (FFBP-NN) with two different algorithms, containing Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) and gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate backpropagation (GDX) was applied. To select the best model, several layers and neurons were investigated. The results revealed that layer = 5 with 6 neurons and layer = 2 with 10 neurons had lower mean square error (MSE) (1.41 × 10−24, 1.16 × 10-23) for AML and VAL, respectively. In the LS-SVM method, gamma (γ) and sigma (σ) parameters were optimized. γ and σ were obtained 50, 30 and 40, 40 with the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.4290 and 0.5598 for AML and VAL, respectively. Analysis of the pharmaceutical formulation was evaluated through the chemometrics methods and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference technique. The obtained results were statistically compared with each other using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. There were no significant differences between them and the proposed method was satisfactory for estimating the components of the Valzomix tablet.
Keywords: Spectrophotometry | Amlodipine | Valsartan | Artificial neural network | Least squares support vector machine
Wake modeling of wind turbines using machine learning
مدل سازی توربین های بادی با استفاده از یادگیری ماشین-2020
In the paper, a novel framework that employs the machine learning and CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation to develop new wake velocity and turbulence models with high accuracy and good efficiency is proposed to improve the turbine wake predictions. An ANN (artificial neural network) model based on the backpropagation (BP) algorithm is designed to build the underlying spatial relationship between the inflow conditions and the three-dimensional wake flows. To save the computational cost, a reduced-order turbine model ADM-R (actuator disk model with rotation), is incorporated into RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations) simulations coupled with a modified k − ε turbulence model to provide big datasets of wake flow for training, testing, and validation of the ANN model. The numerical framework of RANS/ADM-R simulations is validated by a standalone Vestas V80 2MW wind turbine and NTNU wind tunnel test of double aligned turbines. In the ANN-based wake model, the inflow wind speed and turbulence intensity at hub height are selected as input variables, while the spatial velocity deficit and added turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) in wake field are taken as output variables. The ANN-based wake model is first deployed to a standalone turbine, and then the spatial wake characteristics and power generation of an aligned 8-turbine row as representation of Horns Rev wind farm are also validated against Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and field measurement. The results of ANNbased wake model show good agreement with the numerical simulations and measurement data, indicating that the ANN is capable of establishing the complex spatial relationship between inflow conditions and the wake flows. The machine learning techniques can remarkably improve the accuracy and efficiency of wake predictions.
Keywords: Wind turbine wake | Wake model | Artificial neural network (ANN) | Machine learning | ADM-R (actuator-disk model with rotation) | model | Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Prediction of the ground temperature with ANN, LS-SVM and fuzzy LS-SVM for GSHP application
پیش بینی دمای زمین با شبکه های عصبی، LS-SVM و LS-SVM فازی برای استفاده GSHP-2020
Ground source heat pump (GSHP) system has received more and more attentions for its energy-conserving and environmental-friendly properties. Acquisition of the undisturbed ground temperature is the prerequisite for designing of GSHP system. Measurement by burying temperature sensors underground is the conventional means for obtaining the ground temperature data. However, this way is usually time consuming and high investment, and also easily encounter with certain technical difficulties. The rapid development of intelligent computation algorithm provides solutions for many realistic difficult problems. Basing on a great number of the measured data of the ground temperature from two boreholes with 100m depth located in Chongqing, ground temperature prediction models basing on artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine based on least square (LS-SVM) are established, respectively. And then, two kinds of validation works, i.e., holdout validation and k-fold validation are conducted toward the two models, respectively. Furthermore, a new method that correlating fuzzy theory with LS-SVM is proposed to solve the big computation burden problem encountered by LS-SVM model. By comparing with the above two models, it is concluded that the newly proposed model can not only improve the calculation speed obviously but also be able to promote the prediction accuracy, especially superior to the single LS-SVM model.
Keywords: Ground temperature | Fuzzy | Support vector machine | Ground source heat pump
Multiple AI model integration strategy : Application to saturated hydraulic conductivity prediction from easily available soil properties
استراتژی یکپارچه سازی مدل هوش مصنوعی چندگانه: کاربرد در پیش بینی هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع شده از خصوصیات خاک که به راحتی در دسترس است-2020
A multiple model integration scheme driven by artificial neural network (ANN) (MM-ANN) was developed and tested to improve the prediction accuracy of soil hydraulic conductivity (Ks) in Tabriz plain, an arid region of Iran. The soil parameters such as silt, clay, organic matter (OM), bulk density (BD), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were used as model inputs to predict soil Ks. Standalone models including multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), M5 model tree (M5Tree), support vector machine (SVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM) were also implemented for comparative evaluation with MM-ANN model predictions. Based on several performance indicators such as Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), results showed that the calibrated MMANN model involving the predictions of MARS, M5Tree, SVM and ELM models by considering all the soil parameters used in this study as inputs provided superior soil Ks estimates. The proposed hybrid model (MMANN) emerged as a reliable intelligence model for the assessment of soil hydraulic conductivity with an NSE=0.939 & 0.917 during training and testing, respectively. Accurate prediction of field-scale soil hydraulic conductivity is crucial from the view point of agricultural sustainability and management prospects.
Keywords: Saturated hydraulic conductivity | Extreme learning machine | Multiple model strategy | Multivariate adaptive regression splines | M5Tree | Support | vector machine | Prediction
Application of optimized Artificial and Radial Basis neural networks by using modified Genetic Algorithm on discharge coefficient prediction of modified labyrinth side weir with two and four cycles
استفاده از شبکه های عصبی بهینه سازی شده مصنوعی و شعاعی با استفاده از الگوریتم ژنتیک اصلاح شده بر پیش بینی ضریب تخلیه ریزگرد سمت اصلاح شده با دو و چهار چرخه-2020
Determining the discharge coefficient is one of the most important processes in designing side weirs. In this study, the structure of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Radial Basis Neural Network (RBNN) methods are optimized by a modified Genetic Algorithm (GA). So two new hybrid methods of Genetic Algorithm Artificial neural network (GAA) and Genetic Algorithm Radial Basis neural network (GARB), were introduced and compared with each other. The modified GA was used to find the neuron number in the hidden layers of the ANN and to find the spread value and the neuron number of the RBNN method, as well. GAA and GARB were tested for predicting the discharge coefficient of a modified labyrinth side weir he GARB method could successfully predict the accurate discharge coefficient even in cases where there is a limited number of train datasets available.
Keywords: Artificial neural network | Discharge coefficient | Hybrid model | Labyrinth side weir | Modified | Genetic algorithm | Radial basis neural network
Designing a short-term load forecasting model in the urban smart grid system
طراحی یک مدل پیش بینی بار کوتاه مدت در سیستم شبکه هوشمند شهری-2020
The transition of the energy system from fossil fuel towards renewable energy (RE) is rising sharply, which provides a cleaner energy source to the urban smart grid system. However, owing to the volatility and intermittency of RE, it is challenging to design an accurate and reliable short-term load forecasting model. Recently, machine learning (ML) based forecasting models have been applied for short-term load forecasting whereas most of them ignore the importance of characteristics mining, parameters fine-tuning, and forecasting stability. To dissolve the above issues, a short-term load forecasting model is proposed that incorporates thorough data mining and multi-step rolling forecasting. To alleviate the chaos of short-term load, a de-noising method based on decomposition and reconstruction is used. Then, a phase space reconstruction (PSR) method is employed to dynamically determine the train-test ratios and neurons settings of the artificial neural network (ANN). Further, a multi-objective grasshopper optimization algorithm (MOGOA) is applied to optimize the parameters of ANNs. Case studies are conducted in the urban smart grid systems of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia. Simulation results show that the proposed model can forecast short-term load well with various measurement metrics. Multiple criterion and statistical evaluation also show the good performance of the proposed forecasting model in terms of accuracy and stability. To conclude, the proposed model achieves high accuracy and robustness, which will provide references to RE transitions and smart grid optimization, and offer guidance to sustainable city development.
Keywords: Smart grid | Short-term load forecasting | Neural networks | Multi-objective optimization algorithm | Urban sustainability
Verification and Testing Considerations of an In-Memory AI Chip
تایید و بررسی ملاحظات تراشه هوش مصنوعی در حافظه-2020
In-memory computing is a propitious solution for overcoming the memory bottleneck for future computer systems. In this work, we present the testing and validation considerations for a programmable artificial neural network (ANN) integrated within a phase change memory (PCM) chip, featuring a Nor- Flash compatible serial peripheral interface (SPI). In this paper, we introduce our method for validating the circuit components specific to the ANN application. In addition, high-density inmemory multi-layer ANNs cannot be manufactured without testing and repair of the memory array itself. Therefore, design for testability (DFT) features commonly used in commodity or embedded memory products must be maintained as well. The combination of these two test/characterization steps alleviates the need to test the actual inference functionality in hardware.
Index Terms: In-memory Computing | DFT | Scan Chain | PCM
Interpreting the Nature of Rainfall with AI and Big Data Models
تفسیر ماهیت باران با مدلهای هوش مصنوعی و داده های بزرگ-2020
Rainfall prediction is one of the most significant and testing task in the cutting edge world. When all is said in done, atmosphere and rainfall are profoundly non-linear and confounded marvels, which require propelled PC demonstrating and recreation for their precise prediction. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be utilized to foresee the conduct of such nonlinear frameworks. Right now, huge information architecture for street trac prediction in enormous metropolitan regions is proposed. The practical attributes of the architecture, that permits preparing of information from different sources, for example, urban and between urban trac information streams and web based life, is explored. Moreover, its calculated plan utilizing best in class computing technologies is figured it out.
Keywords: Rainfall | Artificial | Computing | Simulation | Architecture
Using of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict the thermal conductivity of Zinc Oxide–Silver (50%–50%)/Water hybrid Newtonian nanofluid
استفاده از شبکه های عصبی مصنوعی (ANN) برای پیش بینی هدایت حرارتی روی اکسید-نقره روی (50٪ -50٪) / نانوسیال نیوتنی ترکیبی آب-2020
In this study, after generating experimental data points of Zinc Oxide (ZnO)–Silver (Ag) (50%–50%)/Water nanofluid, an algorithm is proposed to calculate the best neuron number in the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and the performance and correlation coefficient for ANN has been calculated. Then, using the fitting method, a surface is fitted on the experimental data, and the correlation coefficient and performance of this method have been calculated. Finally, the absolute values of errors in both methods have been compared. It can be seen that the best neuron number in the hidden layer is 7 neurons. We concluded that both methods could predict the behavior of nanofluid, but the fitting method had smaller errors. Also, the ANN method had better ability in predicting the thermal conductivity of nanofluid based on the volume fraction of nanoparticles and temperature. Finally, we found that, in ANN, all outputs, the maximum absolute value of error is 0.0095, and the train performance is 1.6684e-05.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) | Thermal conductivity | Hybrid Newtonian nanofluid