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نتیجه جستجو - Asylum

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 5
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 The rise of psychological physicians: The certification of insanity and the teaching of medical psychology
ظهور پزشکان روانشناس: گواهی جنون و آموزش روانشناسی پزشکی-2020
This paper investigates the nexus between the legal provisions for the certification of insanity and the intro- duction of psychological medicine into British medical education. Considering legal and published sources, it shows that the 1853 Lunatic Asylums Act proved fundamental for the promotion of medical psychology as part of medical training. By giving doctors the authority to report “facts of insanity”, this law created the need for “psychological physicians” capable of certifying lunacy. I explore this connection in three sections. First, I introduce the emergence of medical certificates in the context of asylum committal. Second, I focus on the certification procedure introduced in 1853 which required “facts of insanity personally observed”. Third, I consider how British asylum doctors advocated for the diffusion of psychological medicine as an essential university subject for certifying practitioners. This paper emphasizes the relevance of confinement legislation in the development of psychiatry as a medical specialty.
Keywords: Certification | Asylum | Confinement | Education | Expertise | Law
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Unaccompanied minors and court mandated institutional care: A national registry-based study in Sweden
خردسالان زیر سن قانونی و مراقبت های نهادی در دادگاه اجبازی : یک مطالعه ملی مبتنی بر رجیستری در سوئد-2020
Background: Sweden received, in 2016, 40% of EUs asylum seeking unaccompanied minors (UAM) (individuals less than 18 years of age). Some of these youth end up in a court mandated compulsory-care institution within months upon their arrival. A key concern is the appropriateness of UAMs ending up in an institutional care system which is aimed at youth with significant criminal justice, violence and/or drug problems. A second concern is that UAMs in compulsory care may display behavioral and acting out behaviors while in care due to their history of trauma and confusion regarding being institutionalized. The research question examined is whether UAMs in compulsory care receive more restrictive actions by compulsory care staff compared to their counterparts who are non-UAMs. Materials and methods: The research team used national compulsory-care registry data from 2014-2016 to compare a range of restrictive actions taken by institution staff between UAMs versus non-UAMs while in care. Differences in the rate of compulsory care restrictive actions reported between UAMs and non-UAMs, while in care, were examined using chi-square test and Poisson regression methods. Results: A total of 2398 children and youth were placed in compulsory institutional care during the study period, of whom 423 (17.5%) were unaccompanied. The Poisson regression model identified that being subjected to body search, limited body inspection, drug use testing, and care in locked unit were used significantly less often for UAMs individuals compared to non-AUMs. In addition, repeated number of intakes in compulsory care and number of dropouts were lower among UAMs during this time period. Conclusion: The finding of this national registry study revealed that restrictive actions by institutional staff within compulsory care were significantly less common for UAMs versus non-UAMs. This study roughly suggests that the Swedish policy makers overseeing NSBIC need to consider and evaluate other care alternatives for UAMs, in addition to youth compulsory institutional care.
Keywords: Unaccompanied minor | Compulsory care | Restrictive action | Sweden
مقاله انگلیسی
3 تولید ضایعات و فاضلاب شهری در کمپ های پناهندگی اروپا: مورد لسووس، یونان
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 18
از سال 2015 جزیره لسووس (یونان) یک مکان ورودی کلیدی برای افرادی بوده است که به دنبال پناهندگی در اروپا هستند. این مقاله اطلاعاتی را درباره تولید ضایعات و فاضلاب جامد شهری در موریا و قارا تپه که مکان های پذیرش پناهنده ها هستند برای دوره زمانی بین می 216 تا آوریل 2017 ارائه می کند. برطبق نتایج به دست آمده، تولید سالانه ضایعات و فاضلاب شهری جامد در کمپ های پناهندگی به ترتیب برابر با 1464 تن و 95550 مترمکعب بوده است. با درنظر گرفتن میزان تولید انجام شده، میانگین سرانه روزانه تولید ضایعات جامد شهری به ازای هر پناهنده در هر روز برابر با 88/0 کیلوگرم بوده است که به صورت قابل توجهی پایین تر از میزان محاسبه شده برای جمعیت دائمی همین دوره زمانی می باشد (39/1 کیلوگرم به ازای هر ساکن در روز). تولید روزانه فاضلاب به ازای هر پناهنده در هر روز برابر با 54 لیتر بوده است درحالیکه مقدار متناظر با آن برای جمعیت دائمی برابر با 211 لیتر به ازای هر ساکن در هر روز می باشد. مقدار کل انتشار متان از تولید ضایعات و فاضلاب جامد شهری در کمپ های پناهندگی مطالعه شده برابر با 6/178 تن به ازای هر سال یا 5/35 کیلوگرم متان به ازای هر پناهنده در هر سال تخمین زده می شود. به منظور تضمین طراحی و عملکرد ماندگار این مکان ها، بررسی بیشتری برای شناسایی مشخصات ضایعات و فاضلاب جامد شهری تولید شده نیاز است.
مقاله ترجمه شده
4 Monitoring migrants or making migrants ‘misfit’? Data protection and human rights perspectives on Dutch identity management practices regarding migrants
نظارت بر مهاجران و یا ایجاد، غیر متجانس با محیط مهاجران؟ حفاظت از داده ها و حقوق بشر در شیوه های مدیریت هویت هلندی در مورد مهاجران-2016
Record numbers of migrants and refugees fleeing violence and poverty in parts of Africa and the Middle East present the European Union with unprecedented challenges, including in determining their identity as well as status. In recent years problems of identifying immigrants have been addressed in order to fight identity fraud and illegal entry of migrants. As a result, a wide variety of digital systems have been introduced to orchestrate an effective, preventative modus of identification of migrants. Digital systems are in particular geared towards spotting those migrants who (are about to) commit identity fraud or who enter the territory of EU member states illegally. Although the key aim of the digital systems is framed to protect the administrative, geographic and legal borders of the member state and the safety of its population, empirically based studies demonstrate that these systems bring new risks for migrants themselves. This article intends to contribute to the discussion on the use of digital systems for managing the movement of migrants by analysing identification and risk assessment systems from the perspective of the new European data protection regime and the European Convention on Human Rights. For this purpose, two identification systems – the so-called INS console within the Dutch immigration and border sector, and the PROGIS console within the law enforcement sector – are analysed. A third is the Advanced Passenger Information system operated at Schiphol Airport by border control and immigration services. Against the background of the position of many migrants finding themselves at risk in their home country and of the two legislative frameworks mentioned above, this article addresses two issues. First, the analysis focuses on how migrants are perceived by digital monitoring practices: are they themselves at risk, non-risk or do they pose a risk? In the EU, migrants must prove that their case is worthy of asylum status because they are ‘at risk’ from political unrest or other life-threatening circumstances in their home country.Yet, empirical data gathered through semi-structured interviews show that simply abiding by the standards during an enrolment process of the INS console, rather than being ‘at risk’, a migrant can easily be categorised as ‘posing a risk’ (La Fors-Owczynik & Van der Ploeg, 2015). Second, this article aims to investigate what the capacity of the new data protection regime is in protecting migrants from being framed as ‘a risk’ or a ‘misfit’ stemming from the use of digital systems. Given this second aim, the following discussion also intends to explore the extent to which the European Convention on Human Rights can provide an additional legal remedy for migrants being digitally categorised in a manner that is detrimental to them.
Keywords: Migrants | Data protection | Human rights | Risk | Biometrics | Identification | profiling | Immigration | Border control | Law enforcement
مقاله انگلیسی
5 مسئولیت واسطه برای تخلف در حق نشر آنلاین در اتحادیه ی اروپا: تحولات و ابهامات
سال انتشار: 2015 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 11 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 18
حدوداً پانزده سال قبل و از زمان استفاده از راهنمای تجارت الکترونیک 2000/31/EC اینگونه تصور می شد که صدور مسئولیت واسطه در اروپا از طریق ایجاد رژیم ”پناهگاه امن” ( safe harbor) به وجود آمده و از مدل آمریکایی الهام گرفته است. این مقاله بر تو تفسیر فقهی اخیر در زمینه ی مسئله ی مسئولیت واسطه تمرکز می کند: دادگاه عدالت اتحادیه ی اروپا (CJEU) قضاوت تله¬کابل Telekabel)) و قضاوت دادگاه های حقوق بشر اروپا (ECtHR) در مورد دلفی و استونی Delfi v) (Estonia. محقق این تحولات را تحلیل کرده و تأیید می کند که پناهندگی واسطه در واقع کمتر از آنچه به نظر می رسد کامل است. مقاله همچنین نشان می دهد که پناهگاه امن واسطه با درک حقوق انسانی ارتباط دارد که می تواند افق های جدیدی را برای توسعه ی مقررات مسئولیت واسطه بگشاید.
کلیدواژه ها: تله کابل | دلفی و استونی | راهنمای تجارت الکترونیک (2000/31/EC).
مقاله ترجمه شده
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