A socio-legal deconstruction of homicide victims and perpetrators: Israeli femicide case law
ساختارشکنی اجتماعی و قانونی قربانیان قتل و عاملان: قانون پرونده قتل در اسرائیل-2020
This interpretive paper explores the ways in which criminal law is applied to femicide victims and perpetrators and how it socially constructs and legitimizes genderbased violence in the form of femicide (the killing of a woman), when applying the doctrine of provocation. In doing so the paper discusses the socio-cultural underpinnings of the criminal legal mitigation available for defendants who claim to have killed their wives while being provoked. Conceptualizing the critical deconstruction within gendered socio-cultural predispositions and ensuing criminal legal doctrine and social norms, the paper demonstrates the ways in which Israeli social norms, attitudes and beliefs towards sexual jealousy, matrimony, loss of control, morality, gender and homicide – are entangled and intertwined in the structure and function of Israeli criminal law. The paper offers a critical analysis of the underlying discriminating gendered basic assumptions that structure current Israeli application of the doctrine of provocation and the way in which such a socio-legal structure constructs the Israeli ‘unfaithful’ woman, and her corresponding ‘reasonable’, and ‘normative’, so to speak, killer. Such men are considered less morally guilty when they kill ‘unfaithful’ women, consequently awarded lenient convictions and sentences. At the same time, Israeli women are blamed for morally instigating and provoking their own killing – thus precipitating their gruesome, premature and undue death. As the Israeli criminal legal structure is deeply rooted in English common law, its substantive criminal doctrine of provocation is widely shared by many countries. In this respect the papers exploration of Israeli criminal doctrine of provocation may provide a significant contribution to socio-legal discourse in many other countries with legal structures similarly steeped in English common law.
Do laws shape attitudes? Evidence from same-sex relationship recognition policies in Europe
آیا قوانین نگرش را شکل می دهند؟ شواهدی از سیاستهای تشخیص روابط همجنس در اروپا-2020
Understanding whether laws shape or simply reflect citizens’ attitudes is important but empirically difficult. We provide new evidence on this question by studying the relation between legal same-sex relationship recognition policies (SSRRPs) and attitudes toward sexual minorities in Europe. Using data from the European Social Surveys covering 2002–2016 and exploiting variation in the timing of SSRRPs across countries, we show that legal relationship recognition is associated with statistically significant improvements in atti- tudes toward sexual minorities. These effects are widespread across demographic groups but are consistently larger for more conservative groups in countries with less gender equality. Our results suggest that laws can exert a powerful influence in shaping societal attitudes.
Keywords: Public opinion | Same-sex relationship recognition policies | LGB attitudes
Comparing views on civil commitment for drug misuse and for mental illness among persons with opioid use disorder
مقایسه دیدگاه ها در مورد تعهد مدنی برای سو مصرف مواد و بیماری روانی در بین افراد مبتلا به اختلال استفاده از مواد افیونی-2020
Despite the growing use of civil commitment for drug use disorders, little is known about attitudes among individuals who might be subject to civil commitment. This study examined attitudes of persons with opioid use disorder toward civil commitment for drug misuse and for psychiatric illness. Consecutive persons entering a brief, inpatient opioid detoxification (n = 254) were surveyed regarding their attitudes about civil commitment for mental illness and for drug use, and responses were compared by commitment type and by individual history of being civilly committed for opioid misuse. Participants endorsed high support for civil commitment (both psychiatric and drug misuse-related) when used to address risk of harm to self, to others, and of criminal activity. Respondents were more likely to support civil commitment for psychiatric disorders than for drug misuse, expressing higher support for civil commitment in general, higher agreement with the criteria used to justify civil commitment, and greater perceived efficacy of commitment. Individuals previously committed for opioid misuse were less likely to support drug misuserelated commitment on the basis of its perceived efficacy. These results suggest individuals with opioid use disorder hold more favorable views toward civil commitment for mental health disorders than for drug misuse, and reinforce the need for more research on the procedures and outcomes related to civil commitment for drug misuse.
شناسایی و مدیریت سوء تغذیه در بیماران بستری: بررسی دانش و نگرش کارکنان
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 11 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 21
زمينه و هدف: سوء تغذيه موجب كاهش عملكرد و پيامدهاي باليني ناچیز در بيماران بستري می شود. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی دانش کارکنان بالینی در مورد شناسایی و مدیریت سوء تغذیه، ارزیابی نگرش و دانش سوء تغذیه به صورت مسئولیت مشترک بین رشته¬ای انجام شده است.
مواد و روشها: اين مطالعه به منظور توزیع کارکنان باليني (پزشكي ، پرستاري ، رژيم غذايي و بهداشت) در سه دانشگاه بيمارستاني از جمله مكان هاي حاد، کمی حاد و توانبخشي انجام شد.
نتایج: نتایج حاصل از نظرسنجي 14٪ كاركنان باليني واجد شرايط (116 پرستار ، 68 پزشك ، 20 متخصص تغذيه و 98 نفر از كاركنان بهداشت) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به استثنای متخصصین رژیم غذایی ، پاسخ به سؤالات مربوط به مهارت و دانش در زمینه های شناسایی سوء تغذیه ، تشخیص ، درمان و مدیریت ، کمتر از حد مطلوب بود. تنها پاسخ 60٪ از كاركنان پزشكي / جراحي و 42٪ از كاركنان پرستاري توانایی خود را در تشخيص سوء تغذيه گزارش كرده اند. پاسخ به سوالات مربوط به مسئولیت سوء تغذیه بسیار متغیر بود و هیچ کسی "مالکیت مشترک" سوء تغذیه را در مسئولیت بالینی پیشنهاد نکرد.
نتيجه گيري: به غير از متخصصان رژيم غذايي ، مهارت هاي مديريت سوء تغذيه متوسط بود و شکاف دانش در کارمندان باليني دیده شد. در مورد مسئولیت مراقبت از سوء تغذیه بیماران بستری نوعی سردرگمی نیز وجود داشت. برای بهبود تغذیه بیماران بستری ممکن است نیاز به درگیر شدن بیش از حد چند رشته و آموزش بهبود یافته باشد.
واژههای کلیدی: سوء تغذیه | تیم بین رشته ای | دانش | نگرش ریسک | بیماران بستری (بستری)
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
A quantitative investigation on criminalization of airline pilots: Consumer and pilot perspectives
بررسی کمی در مورد جرم انگاری خلبانان هواپیمایی: دیدگاه های مصرف کننده و خلبان-2020
The foundation of many safety programs within the aviation industry relies on voluntary safety reporting. The premise of these programs is for participants (usually all members of the organization) to feel comfortable submitting voluntary safety reports whenever there are accidents, incidents, or a safety hazard is perceived. However, around the world, the last decade has seen a rise in the calls for the criminalization of those who are perceived to be responsible for accidents. This trend is a growing concern for those in the safety profession as the short-term demand for perceived justice may be a significant detriment to long-term safety goals. Flight crewmembers fearing criminal prosecution for unintentional actions may severely reduce the number of voluntary reports they are willing to submit. The purpose of these two studies was to examine perceptions of both consumers and pilots to determine their level of agreement with the criminalization of pilots in a series of cases. Using a sample of 3,000 participants across two studies, we found significant differences in attitudes toward criminalization between consumers and pilots, along with a significant interaction. In Study 1, pilots indicated less support for criminalization in all cases compared to consumers, and consumers were less supportive of criminalization in cases where it appeared the circumstances were beyond the pilot’s control. In Study 2, pilots provided additional measures on two select cases to include the level of severity and willingness to file voluntary safety reports on themselves and others.
Keywords: Criminalization | Safety | Aviation | Pilot perceptions | Consumer perceptions
“You are not clean until youre not on anything”: Perceptions of medicationassisted treatment in rural Appalachia
"شما تمیز نیستید تا وقتی که در هر چیزی هستید": برداشت از درمان با کمک دارو در دهستان آپالاچیا-2020
Background: Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is an evidence-based strategy to treat opioid use disorder (OUD). However, MAT-related stigma reduces MAT uptake, which is particularly low in rural areas. To date, perceptions and attitudes towards MAT in rural settings have not been described. Objective: This qualitative study aims to characterize perceptions and attitudes towards MAT and the environmental factors contributing to these views in Appalachian Ohio. Methods: From February to July 2018, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 stakeholders (12 healthcare professionals, 12 substance use treatment providers, 7 law enforcement agents and judicial officials, and 3 members of relevant organizations) in three rural counties in Appalachian Ohio. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed to characterize the risk environment and participants’ perceptions and attitudes towards MAT. Results: Participants expressed or described pervasive MAT-related stigma in the region. Participants consistently described three elements of the environment affecting stigma: (1) a “conservative” culture in which abstinence is necessary to be in recovery successfully, (2) fear of medication diversion and abuse, and (3) drug court policies that keep MAT out of the criminal justice system. Conclusion: MAT-related stigma will need to be addressed to tackle the opioid epidemic through evidence-based treatment effectively.
Keywords: Medication-assisted treatment | Opioid use disorder | Stigma | Appalachia | Rural | Risk environment
A Scoping Review of Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation of Medications for Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder within the Criminal Justice System
مروری گسترده از موانع و تسهیل کننده های اجرای داروها برای درمان اختلال استفاده از مواد افیونی در سیستم عدالت کیفری-2020
Background: Policies aimed at addressing the high rates of opioid overdose have prioritized increasing access to medications for treatment of opioid use disorder (MOUD). Numerous barriers exist to providing MOUD within the criminal justice system and/or to justice-involved populations. The aim of this study was to conduct a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on implementation of MOUD within criminal justice settings and with justice-involved populations. Methods: A systematic search process identified 53 papers that addressed issues pertaining to implementation barriers or facilitators of MOUD within correctional settings or with justice-involved populations; these were coded and qualitatively analyzed for common themes. Results: Over half of the papers were published outside of the U.S. (n = 28); the most common study designs were surveys or structured interviews (n = 20) and qualitative interviews/focus groups (n = 18) conducted with correctional or treatment staff and with incarcerated individuals. Four categories of barriers and facilitators were identified: institutional, programmatic, attitudinal, and systemic. Institutional barriers typically limited capacity to provide MOUD to justice-involved individuals, which led to programmatic practices in which MOUD was not implemented following clinical guidelines, often resulting in forcible withdrawal or inadequate treatment. These programmatic practices commonly led to aversive experiences among justice-involved individuals, who consequently espoused negative attitudes about MOUD and were reluctant to seek treatment with MOUD following their release to the community. Facilitators of MOUD implementation included increased knowledge and information from training interventions and favorable prior experiences with individuals being treated with MOUD among correctional and treatment staff. Few systemic facilitators to implementing MOUD with justiceinvolved individuals were evident in the literature. Conclusion: Barriers to implementing MOUD in criminal justice settings and/or with justice-involved populations are pervasive, multi-leveled, and inter-dependent. More work is needed on facilitators of MOUD implementation.
Keywords: opioid use disorder | medication | criminal justice system | implementation | barriers | facilitators
Legal Remedies For a Forgiving Society: Children’s rights, data protection rights and the value of forgiveness in AI-mediated risk profiling of children by Dutch authorities
راه حل های قانونی برای یک جامعه بخشنده: حقوق کودکان ، حقوق محافظت از داده ها و ارزش بخشش در مشخصات ریسک کودکان با استفاده از هوش مصنوعی توسط مقامات هلندی-2020
30 years after the United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) and two years after the new EU data protection regime, the social value of forgiveness is not part of these legal instruments. The lack of this value within these legal instruments and the lack of re- search on the subject of forgiveness in relation to improving the legal position of children require urgent addressing especially when children are exposed to artificial intelligence (AI)- mediated risk profiling practices by Dutch government authorities. Developmental psychol- ogists underline that the erosion of this value could hamper children’s ability to develop flourishing human relationships. This article contributes to fill this niche. It investigates how this value can be enforced in order to benefit children below the age of 12 years that are exposed to risk profiling by Dutch law enforcement and youth care authorities. Children who are victims, witnesses, or falsely accused provide a particular narrowing of focus in this article as these groups cannot be held responsible for their correlations to crime. Strengthening children’s legal position is crucial because their position is much weaker compared to adults when it comes to question a risk correlation about themselves. These children correlated to crime, as this paper argues, not only can feel unjustifiably punished, ‘unforgiven’, and hampered in their choices, but can also develop low self-worth and (negative) judgmental attitudes towards others. Based on input from developmental psychology, empirical material, and legal desk research, this article seeks to answer: What remedies can the Law Enforcement Directive (LED) 2016/680, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) offer against the detrimental implications of risk profiling children by the ProKid 12- SI system and the Crime Anticipation System (CAS) in The Netherlands? How can the social value of forgiveness strengthen these instruments and the legal position of children in light of security interests and the best interests of the child? The analysis concludes that the CRC offers the broadest room for incorporating the principle of forgiveness into balancing tests, but certain LED and GDPR prescriptions could also support the value of forgiveness for children, such as the right to erasure. The analysis concludes that incorporating forgiveness into the mentioned legal instruments would not only benefit individual children but would also foster public safety as a result.
Keywords: Forgiveness | Risk profiles | Children rights | Data protection | AI | Correlations
Linking AI quality performance and customer engagement: The moderating effect of AI preference
پیوند عملکرد کیفیت هوش مصنوعی و تعامل مشتری: اثر تعدیل کننده ترجیح هوش مصنوعی-2020
Drawing upon affordance theory, this study positions artificial intelligence (AI) as a commercial service in examining its influence on customer engagement in the hotel context. In particular, we seek to understand linkages between customer perceptions of AI service quality, AI customer satisfaction and engagement. Given the multiplicity of services offered by service organisations, customers’ preference for AI service is modelled as a moderator of customer perceptions and attitudes towards AI. Data was collected from a sample of hotel customers in Australia who had previously used AI tools or services. Our results reveal a significant chain effect between AI service indicators, service quality perceptions, AI satisfaction and customer engagement. AI preference has a significant moderation effect on information quality and satisfaction. These findings provide new insights into the consumer services literature and have important implications for marketing practitioners.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence | AI satisfaction | AI preference | Service quality | Customer engagement
An experimental contingent valuation of users’ attitudes towards a Crowd Management System
یک ارزیابی تجربی از نگرش کاربران نسبت به یک سیستم مدیریت جمعیت-2020
Smart city projects are being launched globally to enhance the well-being of citizens. Meanwhile, the valueadded of the projects is not easy to evaluate due to the non-market nature of the public services provided. This study intends to investigate the attitudes of potential users of a Crowd Management System (CMS) to help with the decision-making on smart city projects. The CMS studied in this paper is applied in large-scale events to enable safe and efficient dissipation of event participants as one of the pilot Smart City projects in Hong Kong. It does so by providing real-time information on public transport for their return journeys when a large number of participants all finish their activities within a short time span. Reducing injuries of pedestrians can be achieved in major gatherings to improve safety. This paper presents an experimental analysis of users’ attitudes towards the CMS with the Contingent Valuation (CV) method. A marathon event in Hong Kong was chosen for an on-thespot survey of actual users as part of an experimental study. Subsequently a similar survey was carried out offsite among marathon runners not participating in that event (as a control group) for data reliability comparison. The Willingness-to-Pay value is also derived from the pooled samples to evaluate users’ attitudes. Besides, the results indicate that runners’ perceived usefulness and online payment habit significantly influence the stated Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) for the CMS in question.
Keywords: Crowd Management System | Contingent Valuation method | Willingness-to-pay | Information and Communication Technology | Smart city