دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Autism spectrum disorder::صفحه 1
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نتیجه جستجو - Autism spectrum disorder

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 20
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Vision-assisted recognition of stereotype behaviors for early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders
تشخیص رفتارهای کلیشه ای برای تشخیص زودهنگام اختلالات طیف اوتیسم با کمک بینایی ماشین-2021
Medical diagnosis supported by computer-assisted technologies is getting more popularity and acceptance among medical society. In this paper, we propose a non-intrusive vision-assisted method based on human action recognition to facilitate the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We collected a novel and comprehensive video dataset f the most distinctive Stereotype actions of this disorder with the assistance of professional clinicians. Several frameworks as a function of different input modalities were developed and used to produce extensive baseline results. Various local descriptors, which are commonly used within the Bag-of-Visual-Words approach, were tested with Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP), Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers for recognizing ASD associated behaviors. Additionally, we developed a framework that first receives articulated pose-based skeleton sequences as input and follows an LSTM network to learn the temporal evolution of the poses. Finally, obtained results were compared with two fine-tuned deep neural networks: ConvLSTM and 3DCNN. The results revealed that the Histogram of Optical Flow (HOF) descriptor achieves the best results when used with MLP classifier. The promising baseline results also confirmed that an action-recognition-based system can be potentially used to assist clinicians to provide a reliable, accurate, and timely diagnosis of ASD disorder.© 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Action recognition | Autism Spectrum Disorder | Patient monitoring | Bag-of-visual-words | Convolutional neural networks
مقاله انگلیسی
2 Association Between Abnormal Fetal Head Growth and Autism Spectrum Disorder
ارتباط بین رشد غیرطبیعی سر جنین و اختلال طیف اوتیسم-2021
Objective: Despite evidence for the prenatal onset of abnormal head growth in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), studies on fetal ultrasound data in ASD are limited and controversial.
Method: We conducted a longitudinal matched case-siblingcontrol study on prenatal ultrasound biometric measures of children with ASD, and 2 control groups: (1) their own typically developed sibling (TDS) and (2) typically developed population (TDP). The cohort comprised 528 children (72.7% male), 174 with ASD, 178 TDS, and 176 TDP.
Results: During the second trimester, ASD and TDS fetuses had significantly smaller biparietal diameter (BPD) than TDP fetuses (adjusted odds ratio for the z score of BPD [aORzBPD] ¼ 0.685, 95% CI ¼ 0.5270.890, and aORzBPD ¼ 0.587, 95% CI ¼ 0.4590.751, respectively). However, these differences became statistically indistinguishable in the third trimester. Interestingly, head biometric measures varied by sex, with male fetuses having larger heads than female fetuses within and across groups. A linear mixed-effect model assessing the effects of sex and group assignment on fetal longitudinal head growth indicated faster BPD growth in TDS versus both ASD and TDP in male fetuses (b ¼ 0.084 and b ¼ 0.100 respectively; p < .001) but not in female fetuses, suggesting an ASD–sex interaction in head growth during gestation. Finally, fetal head growth showed conflicting correlations with ASD severity in male and female children across different gestation periods, thus further supporting the sex effect on the association between fetal head growth and ASD.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that abnormal fetal head growth is a familial trait of ASD, which is modulated by sex and is associated with the severity of the disorder. Thus, it could serve as an early biomarker for ASD.
Key words: autism spectrum disorder | prenatal ultrasound | head growth | fetal development
مقاله انگلیسی
3 تأثیر آموزش شناختی مبتنی بر واقعیت مجازی بر کودکان مبتلا به اختلال طیف اوتیسم
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 17
واقعیت مجازی (VR) یک محیط مصنوعی است که از طریق محرک های حسی که یک رایانه ایجاد می‌کند، تجربه می شود. قابلیت VR برای شبیه سازی واقعیت دسترسی به درمان های روانی را تا حد زیادی افزایش می‌دهد. برای تحلیل تأثیر آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA روی کودکان مبتلا به اختلال طیف اوتیسم (ASD) مدل آموزش مداخله زود هنگام و بازخورد هوشمند جزئی ایجاد شد. برای کمک به شدت علائم و اثربخشی درمان آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA در کودکان مبتلا به ASD ، از لیست بررسی رفتار اوتیسم (ABC) ، مقیاس درجه‌بندی اوتیسم دوران کودکی (CARS) و مقیاس رفتار اوتیسم Clancy (کابین) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA برای کودکان مبتلا به ASD بسیار جذاب بود؛ آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA علائم معمول (اختلال ارتباط اجتماعی ، تاخیر گفتاری، کم توجهی و رفتار جدی) کودکان مبتلا به ASD را به طور چشمگیری بهبود بخشید و طی 4 هفته پس از درمان لیست بررسی رفتار اوتیسم (ABC)، مقیاس درجه‌بندی اوتیسم دوران کودکی (CARS) و مقیاس رفتار اوتیسم را بهبود بخشید (کابین ها). داده ها حاکی از آن است که آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA ممکن است روش خوبی برای درمان کودکان مبتلا به ASD باشد.
کلمات کلیدی : اختلال طیف اوتیسم | آموزش روانی کودکان | واقعیت مجازی | مداخله
مقاله ترجمه شده
4 Conceptualising social and communication vulnerabilities among detainees in the criminal justice system
مفهوم سازی آسیب پذیری های اجتماعی و ارتباطی در بین بازداشت شدگان در سیستم دادرسی کیفری-2020
More people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are now being identified in the criminal justice system, and in parallel with this increase, the prevalence of ASD in the community has risen more than 150 % in the same time period. In this article, I will argue that this increase is due to a reclassification of those individuals whose social, communicative and behavioural function is at the lower end of the normal range. Put simply, extremes of these quantitative traits are now being conceptualised as ‘disorder’. This has particular relevance for the criminal justice system as such traits are over-represented in this population: as such, it is likely that increasing numbers of people who are incarcerated will receive an ASD diagnosis. This will have major implications for where best, and how best, to manage such individuals using a framework of ‘disorder’ versus ‘difference’.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders | Neurodevelopmental disorders | Biology | Genetics | Psychopathology
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Appropriate adults: Their experiences and understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder
مناسب بزرگسالان : تجربیات و درک آنها از اختلال طیف اوتیسم-2020
An appropriate adult (AA) is required by law, to support juveniles and vulnerable adults during custody procedures. This paper explored the opinions and knowledge of AAs and how the characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) could disadvantage an individual within a police interview. A questionnaire was administered to AAs who had received training to carry out their duties (N = 55). AAs were asked a number of questions concerning suspects with ASD. Overall, the questionnaire found that AAs had some awareness of the key features of ASD. However, AAs were less aware of the possible impact these characteristics could have upon the interview process. Nevertheless, when asked about actual practice, fifteen incidents were reported where it was deemed that the characteristics of ASD disrupted interview procedures. For example, it was reported that suspects with ASD displayed repetitive and rigid behaviour patterns that interfered with the flow of the interview. Encouragingly, the self-reported data suggested that AAs were able to respond effectively to these actual incidents. That withstanding it is suggested that AA training should include information about how those with ASD might be at a disadvantage within the forensic interview environment and outline strategies that AAs could use to help a person with ASD fully engage within the criminal justice process.
Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder | Appropriate Adult | Criminal justice system | Vulnerability
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Perspectives from the ASD community on police interactions: Challenges & recommendations
چشم اندازهای جامعه ASD در مورد تعاملات پلیس: چالش ها و توصیه ها-2020
Background: Research shows that a substantial proportion of people with Autism come into contact with the police in their lifetime, and some research suggests that they are largely unsatisfied with their police interactions. Method: Thirty-five adults with ASD completed an online questionnaire regarding the challenges police may face when interacting with Autistic people, as well as provided recommendations as to how those interactions could be improved. Results: Respondents reported a variety of different potential challenges that could present in an interaction between the police and people with ASD. For example, respondents felt that typical Autistic behaviours, such as stimming or communication difficulties, could be misinterpreted by police officers and lead to adverse outcomes. Respondents discussed several recommendations aimed at improving police interactions with Autistic people, including involving Autisitc people in the training of police officers. Conclusions: The information collected in this study provides insights into how interactions between the police and people with ASD can be improved. These findings can be used in the development of police training programs or integrated into pre-existing training programs on Autism, contributing the invaluable perspective of the Autism community.
Keywords: Police | Police interactions | Autism spectrum disorder | Criminal justice system
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Enhancement of behavioral and linguistic outcome measures in autism spectrum disorder through neuro-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation: A pilot study
افزایش اقدامات نتیجه گیری رفتاری و زبانی در اختلال طیف اوتیسم از طریق تحریک مغناطیسی transcranial هدایت عصبی: یک مطالعه مقدماتی-2020
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a wide range of impairments in reciprocal social and communicative skills, as well as the presence of restrictive and/or repetitive patterns of behavior [1]. These lifelong impairments often introduce significant functional, financial, and health challenges [2]. While the environmental, genetic, and biological etiologies of ASD are not well understood [3], intense public and scientific interest in the disorder has bolstered a search for effective pharmacological and behavioral interventions [4], as well as the use of non-invasive brain stimulation via methods such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) [5]. This last approach has generated hope in the clinical community as a means of directly modulating cortical regions thought to underly behavioral function.
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Abnormal reinforcement learning in a mice model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid
یادگیری تقویتی غیر طبیعی در یک مدل موش اوتیسمی ناشی از قرار گرفتن در معرض بارداری به اسید والپروئیک-2020
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display dysfunction in learning from environmental stimulus that have positive or negative emotional values, posing obstacles to their everyday life. Unfortunately, mechanisms of the dysfunction are still unclear. Although early intervention for ASD victims based on reinforcement learning are commonly used, the mechanisms and characteristics of the improvement are also unknown. By using a mice model of ASD produced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), the present work discovered a delayed response-reinforcer forming, and an impaired habit forming in a negative reinforcement learning paradigm in VPA exposure male offspring. But the extinction of the learned skills was found to become faster than normal male animals. Since escape action of nosepoking and the motility remain unchanged in the VPA male offspring, the impaired learning and the accelerated extinction are caused by deficits in higher brain functions underlying association between the animals’ behavioral responses and the outcomes of such responses. The results further suggest that the rodent ASD model produced by prenatal exposure to VPA reproduces the deficits in reasoning or building the contingency between one’s own behaviors and the consequent outcomes of the behavior seen in ASD patients.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder | Reinforcement learning | Valproic acid
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Distinct Pathogenic Genes Causing Intellectual Disability and Autism Exhibit a Common Neuronal Network Hyperactivity Phenotype
ژنهای پاتوژن مشخص متمایز کننده ناتوانی ذهنی و اوتیسم از فنوتیپ بیش فعالی شبکه عصبی مشترک-2020
Pathogenic mutations in either one of the epigenetic modifiers EHMT1, MBD5, MLL3, or SMARCB1 have been identified to be causative for Kleefstra syndrome spectrum (KSS), a neurodevelopmental disorder with clinical features of both intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To understand how these variants lead to the phenotypic convergence in KSS, we employ a loss-of-function approach to assess neuronal network development at the molecular, single-cell, and network activity level. KSS-gene-deficient neuronal networks all develop into hyperactive networks with altered network organization and excitatory-inhibitory balance. Interestingly, even though transcriptional data reveal distinct regulatory mechanisms, KSS target genes share similar functions in regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic function, several of which are associated with ID and ASD. Our results show that KSS genes mainly converge at the level of neuronal network communication, providing insights into the pathophysiology of KSS and phenotypically congruent disorders.
مقاله انگلیسی
10 عملکرد اجرایی، مهارت های تطبیقی، مشخصات عاطفی و رفتاری: مقایسه بین اختلال طیف اوتیسم و فنیل کتونوری
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 8 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 26
نظریه های تأثیرگذار پذیرفته اند که برخی از علائم اصلی اختلال طیف اوتیسم (ASD) ممکن است ناشی از کسری در عملکردهای اجرایی (EF) باشد. نقص EF همچنین یک علامت عصبی در افراد تحت درمان اولیه با فنیل کتونوری (PKU) محسوب می شود. اهداف این مطالعه: بررسی صحت وقایع و الگوهای اختلالات خاص EF در هر دو گروه بالینی بود تا همزیستی تغییرات EF با مشکلات سازگاری، رفتاری و عاطفی در هر شرایط بالینی را بررسی کند.
مواد و روش ها: ما EF ، مشخصات سازگار، رفتاری و عاطفی را در 21 شرکت کننده با ASD ارزیابی کردیم، 15 فرد مبتلا به PKU زودرس درمان شده، قابل مقایسه با سن و ضریب هوشی و 14 نفر از گروه کنترل، از نظر سن با گروههای بالینی قابل مقایسه هستند (دامنه سنی: 7 تا 14 سال).
یافته ها: شرکت کنندگان ASD و PKU دو مورد متفاوت ارائه دادند، اما الگوهای اختلال EF با هم همپوشانی دارند. در حالی که شرکت کنندگان در ASD فقط در انعطاف پذیری شناختی کسری خاص را نشان دادند، افراد PKU دارای اختلال گسترده تر در EF با عملکرد ضعیف تر در دو حوزه EF هسته ای (مهار، انعطاف پذیری شناختی) نسبت به گروه کنترل سالم بودند. مشخصات روانشناختی و سازگاری در شرکت کنندگان PKU معمولی بود، در حالی که شرکت کنندگان در ASD رفتاری (علائم بیرونی)، عاطفی (علائم درونی سازی) و اختلالات سازگاری (حوزه های عمومی، عملی، اجتماعی) را تجربه کردند.
نتیجه گیری: نتایج حاضر از نمایشی برای تفکیک نسبی مشخصات تطبیقی و عاطفی- رفتاری با توجه به مهارت های EF پشتیبانی می کند و نشان می دهد که اختلالات دیگر به فنوتیپ چند بعدی شرکت کنندگان در ASD کمک می کند.
کلید واژه ها: اختلال طیف اوتیسم | فنیل کتونوری | عملکرد اجرایی | رفتار سازشی | درونی و بیرونی کردن علائم
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