Simultaneous energy management and optimal components sizing of a zeroemission ferry boat
مدیریت همزمان انرژی و اندازه بهینه اجزای یک کشتی بدون حرکت-2020
Due to environmental and economic issues as well as the high performance of marine vessels, efficient energy using has been becoming more demanding. Also, in order to have a zero-emission ship, the utilization of a fuel cell combined with energy storage such as batteries gets more and more attention. In this work, a zero-emission hybrid energy system, including fuel cells, batteries, and cold-ironing, is employed to have an environmentally friendly vessel, and to create condition in which ship operates with high performance, both energy management and components sizing of fuel cells and batteries using real data of ferry boat and intelligent optimization method are done simultaneously. In addition, all constraints related to energy management and component sizing with the topography of the boat and electric power sources are represented and analyzed thoroughly. Ultimately, hourly energy management and component sizing for one specific day are considered in this work, and to optimize this problem, the Improved Sine Cosine Algorithm (ISCA) is utilized. According to obtained results, the proposed energy management and component sizing result in the high-performance ship which could be utilized in the marine industry.
Keywords: Energy management | Proton exchange membrane fuel cell | Component Sizing | Zero-emission ships
Prediction and management of solar energy to power electrochemical processes for the treatment of wastewater effluents
پیش بینی و مدیریت انرژی خورشیدی به قدرت فرآیندهای الکتروشیمیایی برای تصفیه پساب فاضلاب-2020
A highly versatile software tool able to predict and manage the solar power coming from photovoltaic panels and to assess the environmental remediation of wastewater effluents has been developed. The prediction software tool is made up of four modules. The first one predicts the solar radiation by a phenomenological model. Secondly, an energy optimization algorithm manages the solar power towards the third and fourth modules, an environmental remediation treatment (electrooxidation) and an energy storage system (redox flow battery), respectively. The software tool is aimed to the best solar power management to obtain the highest remediation treatment. Results shows a daily solar radiation prediction with a high accuracy, attaining correlation coefficients of 0.89. Furthermore, the prediction of the removal of an organochlorinated compound from a wastewater effluent at different time of the year was studied. Different percentages of the total solar power are sent directly to the electrooxidation reactor and to the redox flow battery. At non-solar production hours, the electrooxidation reactor is powered by the redox flow battery in order to exploit the total solar power produced. The results show that, the higher the solar radiation, the higher the power percentage that must be directly sent to the electrooxidation treatment in order to attain the best energy management and the higher remediation. Thus, an 82.5% of the total solar power must be sent to the electrooxidation treatment in summer days in contrast to the 25% that have to be powered in winter days to attain the highest removal of pollutant. Consequently, it is important to evaluate the connection between devices to get the best green energy management and the lower energy losses.
Keywords: Energy management | Solar power | Green sources | Electrolysis | Redox flow batteries | Forecasting
Toward a Safer Battery Management System: A Critical Review on Diagnosis and Prognosis of Battery Short Circuit
به سمت یک سیستم مدیریت باتری ایمن تر: یک بررسی مهم در تشخیص و پیش بینی اتصال کوتاه باتری-2020
Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used as sources of power for electric vehicles (EVs). Battery safety is a major concern, due to a large number of accidents, for which short circuit has been considered as one of the main causes. Therefore, diagnosing and prognosticating short circuit are of great significance to improve EV safety. This work reviews the current state of the art about the diagnosis and prognosis of short circuit, covering the method and the key indicators. The findings provide important insights regarding how to improve the battery safety.
Experimental evaluation of the performance of virtual storage units in hybrid micro grids
ارزیابی تجربی عملکرد واحدهای ذخیره سازی مجازی در شبکه های میکرو ترکیبی-2020
The work presented in this article proposes a new energy management algorithm for hybrid micro grids consisting of higher penetration of DC non-critical (NC) loads and renewable energy sources. The methodology suggested in this work is a rule based approach and tries to make the micro grids more autonomous. During generation deficits in the micro grids, the suggested control strategy proposes to make the hybrid micro grids self-dependent to a possible extent, without the incorporation of actual storage devices. Instead of using actual storage elements like the batteries or super capacitors, the projected approach uses virtual storage devices, like the DC electric springs for its functionality. The electric springs used in this work operate the DC NC loads in accordance with the voltage produced by the renewable sources, which in turn reduces the power import from the main grid during generation deficits in the micro grid. Further, the work presented in the due course only studies about the efficiency of the proposed algorithm by operating the DC NC loads as per the requirement, without intervening with the AC and DC critical loads operation. In order to test the robustness of the proposed methodology a scaled down hybrid micro grid is developed in the laboratory using dSPACE 1104 real time interface.
Keywords: Hybrid micro grid | Energy management | Virtual storage units | DC electric spring
Residential community with PV and batteries: Reserve provision under grid constraints
اجتماع مسکونی با PV و باتری: تأمین رزرو تحت محدودیت های شبکه-2020
Technological advances in residential-scale batteries are paving the way towards self-sufficient communities to make the most use of their photovoltaic systems to support local energy consumption needs. To effectively utilize capabilities of batteries, the community can participate in the provision of short term operating reserve (STOR) services. To do so, adequate energy reserves in batteries are maintained during prescribed time windows to be utilized by electricity system operators. However, this may reduce energy sufficiency of the community. Further, the actual delivery of reserve could create distribution network congestions. To adequately understand the capability of a community to provide reserve, this work proposed a residential community energy management system formulated as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. This model aims to maximize energy sufficiency by optimal scheduling of batteries whilst considering reserve constraints. The model also maintains the aggregate power of houses within export/import limits that are defined offline using an iterative approach to ensure that the reserve provision does not breach distribution network constraints. The model is demonstrated on a residential community. The maximum committed reserve power with minimal impact on energy sufficiency is determined. Results also show that the capability of a community to provide reserve could be overestimated unless distribution network constraints are adequately considered.
Keywords: Batteries | Community management systems | Distribution networks | Energy storage | Photovoltaics | Sufficiency
Operation of a stationary hydrogen energy system using TiFe-based alloy tanks under various weather conditions
بهره برداری از سیستم انرژی هیدروژن ثابت با استفاده از مخازن آلیاژ مبتنی بر TiFe در شرایط مختلف آب و هوایی-2020
We describe the operation of a bench-scale stationary hydrogen energy system comprising photovoltaic (PV) panels, a water electrolyzer (Ely), metal hydride tanks fabricated using an AB-type TiFe-based alloy (TiFe-based tanks), fuel cells (FC), and batteries under various weather conditions. The FC and TiFe-based tanks are thermally coupled to transfer heat when necessary to stabilize the output power, and automatic control is provided via a building energy management system (BEMS), which plans the operating schedule up to 48 h in advance based on the weather forecast and expected demands of the building. Experiments were conducted for 24-h operation on a fine day, 48-h operations on partly cloudy and partly cloudy days, and 48-h operations on partly cloudy and rainy days in order to verify the system. Each operation was performed as planned. Our results show that it is possible to operate the hydrogen system all year round without external heat sources.
Keywords: Stationary hydrogen energy system | TiFe-Based alloy | Fuel cell | Building energy management | system | Thermal coupling
Improvement of ultracapacitors-energy usage in fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle
بهبود استفاده از انرژی ماورا بنفش در خودروی برقی هیبریدی مبتنی بر سلول سوختی-2020
Hybrid electric power systems based on fuel cell stack and energy storage sources like batteries and ultracapacitors are a plausible solution to vehicle electrification due to their balance between acceleration performance and range. Having a high degree of hybridization can be advantageous, considering the different characteristics of the power sources. Some parameters to be considered are: specific power and energy, energy and power density, lifetime, cost among others. Ultracapacitors (UC) are of particular interest in electric vehicle applications due to its high-power capability, which is commonly required during acceleration. UCs are commonly used without a power electronics interface due to the high-power processing requirement. Although connecting UCs directly to the DC bus, without using a power converter, presents considerable advantages, the main disadvantage is related to the UC energy-usage capability, which is limited by constant DC bus control. This paper proposes a novel energy-management strategy based on a fuzzy inference system, for fuel-cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid electric vehicles. The proposed strategy is able to control the charge and discharge of the UC bank in order to take advantage of its energy storage capability. Experimental results show that the proposed strategy reduces the waste of energy due to dynamic brake in 14%. This represents a reduction in energy consumption from 218 Wh/km to 192 Wh/km for the same driving conditions. By using the proposed energy management strategy, the estimated fuel efficiency in miles per gallon equivalent was also increase from 96 mpge to 109 mpge.
Keywords: PEMFC | Hybrid electric vehicles | Energy management | Ultracapacitors
Zebrafish neuro-behavioral profiles altered by acesulfame (ACE) within the range of “no observed effect concentrations (NOECs)”
پروفایل های رفتاری عصبی Zebrafish تغییر یافته توسط acesulfame (ACE) در محدوده "no observed effect concentrations (NOECs)"-2020
Recently, artificial sweeteners have received widespread attention as the emerging environmental pollutants, among which, acesulfame (ACE) is ubiquitously present and extremely persistent in the ecosystem. Although the environmental behavior of ACE has already been well studied, its chronic ecotoxicological effects on aquatic organisms are rarely reported. Thus, more researches should be performed to determine the concentration which exerted the observable toxicological effect. Herein, we examined neuro-behavioral effects of ACE at 1, 10 and 100 mg/L on adult zebrafish via performing the behavioral test batteries including light/dark preference test, novel tank diving test, novel object exploration test, social preference test and colour-enhanced CPP test. In addition, in order to fully phenotype the behavioral alteration induced by ACE, we applied the techniques deriving from behavioral phenomics to analyze and interpret the big data from a large number of behavioral variables. Furthermore, the alterations of neurotransmitter in brain were also assayed to confirm the behavioral results. We found that ACE within the concentration range of No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) had remarkably altered the neuro-behavioral profiles: altered the preference for light/dark, reduced the exploration ability of zebrafish in the novel tank and novel object exploration test, affected the group preference of zebrafish, changed the colour preference, learning and memory ability of zebrafish and disturbed the quantitative patterns of neurotransmitter in brain. As a result, this research can offer a reference for readjusting the NOECs of ACE and assessing neurotoxicity of artificial sweeteners.
Keywords: Acesulfame (ACE) | Neuro-behavior | No observed effect concentrations (NOECs)
Optimized energy management strategy for grid connected double storage (pumped storage-battery) system powered by renewable energy resources
استراتژی مدیریت انرژی بهینه سازی شده برای سیستم ذخیره دوگانه متصل به شبکه (پمپ باتری ذخیره شده) که از منابع انرژی تجدید پذیر استفاده می شود-2020
This paper presents a grid-connected double storage system (DSS) consisting of pumped-storage hydropower (PSH) and battery. The system is supplied by photovoltaics and wind turbines. In the proposed hybrid system, batteries absorb excess renewable energy that cannot be stored in PSH and they cover loads that cannot be supplied from the water turbine. To improve the system performance, a novel energy management strategy for the DSS is proposed. The strategy is based on an optimized factor that governs the charging process of the DSS. The problem of the optimal system design is solved by a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). The multi-objective function considers simultaneously the minimal investment cost and minimal CO2 emissions. A comparative study of photovoltaic/wind/ pumped-storage hydropower and photovoltaic/wind/double storage system is performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy in terms of system economic and environmental performance. The considered location of the PSH station is on Attaqa Mountain at Suez (Egypt). The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy for the storage system from economic and environmental perspectives. Coupling the battery with the PSH reduces the electricity cost by 22.2% and results in minimal energy exchange with the national grid (5% of the annual demand). A sensitivity analysis shows the largest variation of the electricity cost with changing the capital cost of the solar and wind generators. Also, it is observed that when the load increases, the optimal size of the system components increases, but it isn’t proportional with the demand increase as could be expected.
Keywords: Pumped-storage hydropower | Battery | Double storage system | Renewable energy sources | NSGA-II | Hybrid energy system
Vanadium redox flow battery parameters optimization in a transportation microgrid: A case study
بهینه سازی پارامترهای باتری بادی جریان وانادیوم در یک شبکه انتقال : یک مطالعه موردی-2020
This paper addresses the concept of vanadium redox flow batteries as stationary energy storage for achieving optimum parameters of energy and cost-effectiveness in transportation microgrids. Such energy storage has two main purposes: to utilize the energy recovered from braking trains, and shave power peaks. With abovementioned purposes, economic feasibility is the main driver of measures to optimize the battery parameters, including joint energy and power capacity, as well as and energy management strategy parameters. The optimization results obtained from the genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm were compared, and the comparison demonstrates that the second method operates more sufficiently. The case study shows that the implementation of the proposed battery system in a traction substation allows one to achieve approximately 7 year payback period and decrease peak power and daily consumption by 581 kW and 1.77 MWh, respectively. In addition, sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the impact of certain factors and battery parameters on the resulting payback period. The results show that the effect of deviation of energy management strategy parameters from optimum values on payback period is four times more profound than deviation of battery parameters, which demonstrates how important energy management strategy is.
Keywords: Vanadium redox flow battery | Transportation system microgrid | Energy management strategy | Traction substation | Regenerative braking | Peak power sheaving