No luck for moral luck
بدون شانس برای شانس اخلاقی-2019
Moral philosophers and psychologists often assume that people judge morally lucky and morally unlucky agents differently, an assumption that stands at the heart of the Puzzle of Moral Luck. We examine whether the asymmetry is found for reflective intuitions regarding wrongness, blame, permissibility, and punishment judg- ments, whether people’s concrete, case-based judgments align with their explicit, abstract principles regarding moral luck, and what psychological mechanisms might drive the effect. Our experiments produce three findings: First, in within-subjects experiments favorable to reflective deliberation, the vast majority of people judge a lucky and an unlucky agent as equally blameworthy, and their actions as equally wrong and permissible. The philosophical Puzzle of Moral Luck, and the challenge to the very possibility of systematic ethics it is frequently taken to engender, thus simply do not arise. Second, punishment judgments are significantly more outcome- dependent than wrongness, blame, and permissibility judgments. While this constitutes evidence in favor of current Dual Process Theories of moral judgment, the latter need to be qualified: punishment and blame judgments do not seem to be driven by the same process, as is commonly argued in the literature. Third, in between-subjects experiments, outcome has an effect on all four types of moral judgments. This effect is mediated by negligence ascriptions and can ultimately be explained as due to differing probability ascriptions across cases.
Keywords: Moral luck | Moral judgment | Outcome eﬀect | Dual process theory of moral judgment | Hindsight bias
The dilemma of rape avoidance advice: Acknowledging womens agency without blaming victims of sexual assault
معضل مشاوره برای جلوگیری از تجاوز جنسی: تصدیق آژانس زنان بدون مذمت قربانیان تجاوز جنسی-2019
This article addresses the question of whether there is a legitimate role for rape avoidance advice for women as part of a larger suite of efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of mens sexual violence. It highlights an apparent dilemma between acknowledging womens agency and placing the blame for sexual violence on perpetrators rather than victims. The article builds upon analysis of the phenomenon of responsibility by moral and political philosophers to suggest a clearer way of thinking about this dilemma. I argue that because causal responsibility is a necessary but not sufficient element of moral responsibility, it is logically possible to hold that some victims could have prevented their rape and at the same time hold they are not blameworthy. I go on to argue that this poses a dilemma for feminists concerned to end rape, in that the practical interests of individual women in avoiding rape might at times be in conflict with womens strategic interests in ensuring that the burden (task responsibility) for ending rape rests with men (as potential perpetrators). I argue that while it is logically possible that some rape avoidance advice could help some women reduce their likelihood of being raped, the legitimate role for rape avoidance advice is circumscribed by its impact on womens strategic interests. The worth of rape avoidance advice in general should not be dismissed out of hand. However, the legitimacy of particular pieces of advice need to be assessed in terms of their impact on womens strategic and practical interests and this will vary depending on the quality and source of the advice
Keywords: Agency | Blame | Victims | Rape prevention | Sexual assault
Understanding outcome bias
درک تعصب نتیجه-2019
Disentangling effort and luck is critical when evaluating outcomes. In a principal-agent experiment, we demonstrate that principals’ judgments of agents are biased by luck, despite perfectly observable effort. This erodes the power of incentives to stimulate effort. We explore two potential solutions to this “outcome bias”–information control, and outsourcing judgment to independent third parties. Both are ineffective. When principals control information about luck, they do not avoid it. When agents control information, they manipulate principals’ outcome bias to minimize punishments. We also find that even independent third parties exhibit outcome bias. These findings suggest that outcome bias cannot be driven solely by disappointment nor distributional preferences. Instead, we hypothesize that luck directly affects principals’ inference about agent type even though effort is observed. We elicit the beliefs of third parties and principals and find that lucky agents are believed to be harder workers than identical, unlucky agents.
Keywords: Experiment | Reciprocity | Outcome bias | Attribution bias | Blame
Another look at TLS ecosystems in networked devices vs: Web servers
نگاهی دیگر به اکوسیستم های TLS در دستگاه های تحت شبکه در مقابل سرورهای وب-2019
High-speed IPv4 scanners, such as ZMap, now enable rapid and timely collection of TLS certificates and other security-sensitive parameters. Such large datasets led to the devel- opment of the Censys search interface, facilitating comprehensive analysis of TLS deploy- ments in the wild. Several recent studies analyzed TLS certificates as deployed in web servers. Beyond public web servers, TLS is deployed in many other Internet-connected devices, at home and enterprise environments, cyber physical systems, and at network back- bones. In April 2017, we reported the results of a preliminary analysis based on measure- ment data of TLS deployments in such devices (e.g., routers, modems, NAS, printers, SCADA, and IoT devices in general) collected in Oct. 2016 using Censys. We also compared certificates and TLS connection parameters from a security perspective, as found in common devices against top Alexa sites. Censys has evolved since then and its data volume has increased with the addition of several new device types. In this paper, we perform a similar but more comprehensive measurement study to assess TLS vulnerabilities in devices, and compare our current results with our 2016 findings, showing how such systems have evolved in the last one and half year. Indeed, there are noticeable improvements in the TLS ecosystem for devices, especially in terms of adoption of TLS itself (from 29.4% in 2016 to 73.7% in 2018) and stronger cryptographic primitives. However, we also note the continuity of significant weaknesses in devices for which immediate remediation is warranted (e.g., the use of known private keys, SSLv3, MD5-RSA, and RC4). We have also contacted the top manufacturers of vulnerable devices to convey our findings. Most of them blamed users for not updating their devices with latest firmware images that apparently would mitigate the reported findings.
Keywords:CPS | IoT | SCADA | TLS | Certificates | Cryptographic primitives
Collective corruptioneHow to live with it: Towards a projection theory of post-crisis corruption perpetuation
فساد جمعی چگونه با آن زندگی می کنند: به سوی یک تئوری پیش بینی فساد بعد از بحران-2018
This article draws on social psychology to explore the unconscious cognitive processes allowing for perpetuation of collective corruption in organisations in the aftermath of crises. In particular, we argue that, when faced with the cognitive dissonance produced by exposed collective corruption, and having to choose between changing behaviour or changing cognition, projection theory provides support for the latter. Thus, we identify the role of projection theory in overcoming cognitive dissonance in groups by projecting blame on to their leaders while continuing practices of corruption. These insights contribute to our understanding of perpetuation of collective corruption in organisations as well as at a societal level.
Keywords: Collective corruption ، Collective ، Crisis ، Attributive projection ، Social psychology
Questioning network governance for disaster risk management: Lessons learnt from landslide risk management in Uganda
نظارت بر شبکه های پرسش و پاسخ برای مدیریت ریسک فاجعه: درس هایی که از مدیریت ریسک لغزش در اوگاندا گرفته شده است-2018
The international agenda for disaster risk reduction, through the Hyogo Framework for Action and the Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction, promotes decentralised platforms as an indispensable strategy to achieve effective and efficient disaster risk management. Based on empirical data from the Rwenzori Mountains region, we question the implications of this type of network governance for disaster risk management. We embed our observations in an analytical framework that combines literature on network governance with insights from politics of disaster, notably scale and blame theories. In this study, we investigate the implications for disaster risk reduction through the analysis of three processes of scale structuration observed in contemporary West Uganda: (i) incomplete decentralisation, (ii) blame dissolution, and (iii) scale jumping. We argue that decen tralised platforms in Uganda co-produce unequal risk, as they are used as spatial tactics to centralise power for the ruling party and enable blame dissolution and scale jumping. From our analysis we draw broader conclusions on drivers and implications of the implementation of disaster network governance in countries that are primarily governed hierarchically and that endorse the international frameworks of disaster risk reduction.
Kewords: Decentralisation ، Platforms ، Scale ، Disaster politics ، Blame dissolution
تحقیقات حسابداری در بانکداری – بررسی
سال انتشار: 2017 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 7 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 14
صنعت بانکی برای اقتصادهای ملی و جهانی بسیار مهم است.بانک ها در اقتصاد داخلی کشور در نقش خود به عنوان نهاد های سپرده گذاری و وام دهنده به افراد و شرکت ها بسیار حیاتی هستند.به عنوان مثال Fields و همکارانش برآورد کردند که بانک ها بیش از بیست درصد از کل سرمایه در بازار سهام ایالات متحده را برعهده دارند. در مقایسه با شرکت های صنعتی، شرکت ها در صنعت بانکداری دارای ویژگی های مشخصی هستند که پیشنهادات جالبی را برای تحقیق ارائه می نمایند. اولا، بانک ها با توجه به ضریب قدرت نفوذی که تا 90٪ در بخش بانکی گزارش شده است ،درجه بالایی از قدرت نفوذ نسبت به دیگر شرکت ها دارند. استفاده از مدل تحلیلی، DeAngelo و Stulz نشان می دهد که چرا برای بانک ها بسیار مهم است تا از قدرت نفوذ بالایی برخوردار باشند. در مدل آنها،قدرت نفوذ بالای بانک ها نتیجه ای از به زیرپا گذاشتن اخلاق، ماليات يا هرگونه تحريف مربوط به قدرت نفوذ که توسط Modigliani و Miller مشخص شده،نيست. در یک محیط آرمانی بدون هیچ گونه تحریف، تنها انگیزه برای یک بانک برای صدور وام، ارزش تولید شده توسط سرویس دهی تقاضا برای مطالبات بی خطر /قابل نقدشدن دارای ارزش اجتماعی است. دوم، بانک ها دارای ساختار حاکمیتی متفاوت از شرکت های غیر مالی هستند. Kroszner و Strahan دریافتند که بانک ها در 1992 Forbes 500 نسبت به شرکت های غیر مالی دارای هیئت مدیره بزرگتری بوده و کسری کمتر از خودشان بودند. Adams همچنین گزارش می دهد که هیئت مدیره بانک بزرگتر و مستقل تر از هیئت مدیره های شرکت های غیر مالی در پایگاه داده Riskmetrics از1500شرکت S & P در بین سال های 1996 تا 2007 بود. با این حال، پیشنهادات اخیر مانند آنچه که توسط Walker بیان شده است،برای بهبود حاکمیت بانکی بود،.وی پیشنهاد می کند که ساختارهای حاکمیتی بانکی به دلیل اختلافات آنها با شرکت های غیر مالی، بی اثر هستند.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
How ‘‘ought” exceeds but implies ‘‘can”: Description and encouragement in moral judgment
چگونه باید فراتر از "اما " دلالت " می تواند " : شرح و تشویق در قضاوت اخلاقی-2017
This paper tests a theory about the relationship between two important topics in moral philosophy and psychology. One topic is the function of normative language, specifically claims that one ‘‘ought” to do something. Do these claims function to describe moral responsibilities, encourage specific behavior, or both? The other topic is the relationship between saying that one ‘‘ought” to do something and one’s abil ity to do it. In what respect, if any, does what one ‘‘ought” to do exceed what one ‘‘can” do? The theory tested here has two parts: (1) ‘‘ought” claims function to both describe responsibilities and encourage people to fulfill them (the dual-function hypothesis); (2) the two functions relate differently to ability, because the encouragement function is limited by the person’s ability, but the descriptive function is not (the interaction hypothesis). If this theory is correct, then in one respect ‘‘ought implies can” is false because people have responsibilities that exceed their abilities. But in another respect ‘‘ought implies can” is legitimate because it is not worthwhile to encourage people to do things that exceed their ability. Results from two behavioral experiments support the theory that ‘‘ought” exceeds but implies ‘‘can.” Results from a third experiment provide further evidence regarding an ‘‘ought” claim’s primary function and how contextual features can affect the interpretation of its functions.
Keywords: Responsibility | Ability | Blame | Moral psychology| Speech acts
The dynamic role of tourism investment on tourism development and CO2 emissions
نقش پویا سرمایه گذاری گردشگری در توسعه گردشگری و انتشار CO2-2017
It is well documented in the previous literature that the tourism sector plays an important role for employment oppor tunities, raising foreign exchange reserves and also for socio-economic development. Despite of significant contribution to the economic prosperity, the tourism sector is often blamed for its adverse effect on the environment. As a result of this, a number of countries have initiated sustainable tourism investments into tourism sector to promote the tourism industry without damaging the environment. However, there is no empirical evidence on the role of tourism investment on tourism development and CO2 emissions.
Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process (STAMP) safety modelling applied to an aircraft rapid decompression event
سیستم های نظری مدل حوادث و مدل سازی (STAMP) ایمنی فرآیند اعمال شده به یک رویداد رفع فشار سریع هواپیما-2017
Understanding a crew’s response to a rapid decompression, and factors which can influence the decisions crew members make, can facilitate a safe resolution of a potentially life threatening hazard. Anticipating the Human Factors issues is an appropriate way to assess potential risk factors before such an event hap pens. The Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process (STAMP) and its predictive risk assessment method, System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA), is a systemic approach to safety analysis. This approach is ideal when considering complex systems, such as aviation. The scenario of an aircraft expe riencing a decompression event was analysed using STAMP-STPA across a series of workshops during which key safety elements were identified and reflected upon. It was found that the use of the STAMP-STPA methodology successfully identified factors central to the Helios 522 accident. Based on the outputs of this research, it is suggested that, due to its inherent utility, the STAMP-STPA method can be used to elicit a variety of safety critical insights, and does so in a way that considers individuals, organisations and technology at the same level of granularity, in a way that does not attribute blame to any single agent.
Keywords: STAMP | Systemic safety | Aviation | Systems thinking