Effect of REDDþ projects on local livelihood assets in Keo Seima and Oddar Meanchey, Cambodia
تأثیر پروژه های REDDþ بر دارایی های معیشت محلی در Keo Seima و Oddar Meanchey ، کامبوج-2020
Climate-change mitigation projects are expected to improve local livelihoods in targeted areas. Several REDDþ projects aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conserving and enhancing forest carbon stocks, and sustainably managing forests have been implemented in Cambodia but few studies have examined the effects on local livelihoods before and during project implementation. Our study applies a sustainable livelihood framework to assess the livelihood assets of local communities in the Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima REDDþ project sites in Cambodia before and during project implementation. Five capital assets, namely natural, physical, human, financial, and social capital, are assessed and scored on a 1-to-5 Likert scale. Data analysis collected through 252 interviews in Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima reveals a slight increase in livelihood assets in both sites from project validation to implementation. Generally, the mean scores for local livelihood assets increased from 2.81 0.07 (is followed by the standard error) and 2.66 0.06 to 3.07 0.09 and 3.06 0.08 in Oddar Meanchey and Keo Seima, respectively. Nevertheless, natural capital assets sharply declined from 3.50 and 3.32 to 2.09 and 2.25, respectively. Respondents mainly blamed illegal logging for the decline, suggesting that strict patrolling and enforcement must be implemented. Furthermore, the scarcity of carbon-credit buyers and the projects’ inability to generate carbon-based revenues has led to dissatisfaction among local communities, inducing avoidable illegal activities in pursuit of short-term benefits. A financial mechanism to ensure sufficient and sustained financial support regardless of carbon-market volatility is urgently needed.
Keywords: Business | Economics | Livelihood improvement | REDDþ | Natural capital | Physical capital | Human capital | Financial capital | Carbon credit | Agricultural policy | Agroforestry | Ecological restoration | Forestry | Human geography | Natural resource management | Sustainable development | Ecosystem services | Biodiversity
Identifying safety archetypes of construction workers using system dynamics and content analysis
شناسایی الگوی اصلی ایمنی کارگران ساختمانی با استفاده از پویایی سیستم و تحلیل محتوا-2020
Construction accidents have unique features on the surface, while further investigation often reveals common underlying systemic patterns that lead to accidents. By identifying these patterns, organizations can better understand past accidents, monitor risk, and reduce the likelihood of future accidents. Further, construction project management is such a complex effort due to the unique, dynamic, and temporary nature of the construction industry. Furthermore, there is lack of research on exploring the systematic patterns responsible for occurrence of accidents. To address this gap in knowledge, this paper aims to better understand the dynamic complexity of construction safety by identifying behavioral patterns of workers that recur in construction projects continuously. Content analysis and ground theory method (GTM) were adopted for this research. In total, 100 papers were reviewed to explore the influential factors affecting the safety in construction projects. Furthermore, 20 interviews were conducted with experts in the field of construction health and safety. The results showed that there are four archetypes of construction workers: (1) blame on workers, (2) construction delay, (3) incentive programs, and (4) subcontractors’ financial status. The identified archetypes have been illustrated at different steps including the dynamic theory, behavior over time, and the leverage point to show how to manage the archetype. The developed archetypes could be useful for decision-makers and help them be aware of the longterm effects of their decisions in the projects. They also provide systemic vision for project managers helping them understand the dynamic complexity of construction safety management.
Keywords: Construction management | Safety | Systems thinking | Content analysis | System dynamics | Archetypes | Worker
A socio-legal deconstruction of homicide victims and perpetrators: Israeli femicide case law
ساختارشکنی حقوقی اجتماعی قربانیان و مرتکبان قتل: دادرسی اسرائیلی در زمینه قتل-2020
This interpretive paper explores the ways in which criminal law is applied to femicide victims and perpetrators and how it socially constructs and legitimizes genderbased violence in the form of femicide (the killing of a woman), when applying the doctrine of provocation. In doing so the paper discusses the socio-cultural underpinnings of the criminal legal mitigation available for defendants who claim to have killed their wives while being provoked. Conceptualizing the critical deconstruction within gendered socio-cultural predispositions and ensuing criminal legal doctrine and social norms, the paper demonstrates the ways in which Israeli social norms, attitudes and beliefs towards sexual jealousy, matrimony, loss of control, morality, gender and homicide – are entangled and intertwined in the structure and function of Israeli criminal law. The paper offers a critical analysis of the underlying discriminating gendered basic assumptions that structure current Israeli application of the doctrine of provocation and the way in which such a socio-legal structure constructs the Israeli ‘unfaithful’ woman, and her corresponding ‘reasonable’, and ‘normative’, so to speak, killer. Such men are considered less morally guilty when they kill ‘unfaithful’ women, consequently awarded lenient convictions and sentences. At the same time, Israeli women are blamed for morally instigating and provoking their own killing – thus precipitating their gruesome, premature and undue death. As the Israeli criminal legal structure is deeply rooted in English common law, its substantive criminal doctrine of provocation is widely shared by many countries. In this respect the papers exploration of Israeli criminal doctrine of provocation may provide a significant contribution to socio-legal discourse in many other countries with legal structures similarly steeped in English common law.
Knowledge transfer for occupational health and safety: Cultivating health and safety learning culture in construction firms
انتقال دانش برای بهداشت و ایمنی شغلی: پرورش فرهنگ یادگیری بهداشت و ایمنی در شرکتهای ساختمانی-2020
Within the last decades the incidence of workspace injuries and fatalities in the UK construction industry has declined markedly following the developments in occupational health and safety (OHS) management systems. However, safety statistics have reached a plateau and actions for further improvement of OHS management systems are called for. OHS is a form of organizational expertise that has both tacit and explicit dimensions and is situated in the ongoing practices. There is a need for institutionalization and for the transfer of knowledge across and along construction supply chains to reduce OHS risks and facilitate cultural change. The focus of this article is the factors that facilitate OHS knowledge transfer in and between organizations involved in construction projects. An interpretative methodology is used in this research to embrace tacit aspects of knowledge transfer and application. Thematic analysis is supported by a cognitive mapping technique that allows understanding of interrelationships among the concepts expressed by the respondents. This paper demonstrates inconsistency in OHS practices in construction organizations and highlights the importance of cultivating a positive safety culture to encourage transfer of lessons learnt from good practices, incidents, near misses and failures between projects, from projects to programmes and across supply chains. Governmental health and safety regulations, norms and guidelines do not include all possible safety issues specific to different working environments and tied to work contexts. The OHS system should encourage employees to report near misses, incidents and failures in a ‘no-blame’ context and to take appropriate actions. This research provides foundation for construction project practitioners to adopt more socially oriented approaches towards promoting learning-rich organizational contexts to overcome variation in the OHS and move beyond the current plateau reached in safety statistics..
Keywords: Occupational health and safety | Safety culture | Knowledge transfer | Knowledge management | Organizational learning | Construction industry
No luck for moral luck
بدون شانس برای شانس اخلاقی-2019
Moral philosophers and psychologists often assume that people judge morally lucky and morally unlucky agents differently, an assumption that stands at the heart of the Puzzle of Moral Luck. We examine whether the asymmetry is found for reflective intuitions regarding wrongness, blame, permissibility, and punishment judg- ments, whether people’s concrete, case-based judgments align with their explicit, abstract principles regarding moral luck, and what psychological mechanisms might drive the effect. Our experiments produce three findings: First, in within-subjects experiments favorable to reflective deliberation, the vast majority of people judge a lucky and an unlucky agent as equally blameworthy, and their actions as equally wrong and permissible. The philosophical Puzzle of Moral Luck, and the challenge to the very possibility of systematic ethics it is frequently taken to engender, thus simply do not arise. Second, punishment judgments are significantly more outcome- dependent than wrongness, blame, and permissibility judgments. While this constitutes evidence in favor of current Dual Process Theories of moral judgment, the latter need to be qualified: punishment and blame judgments do not seem to be driven by the same process, as is commonly argued in the literature. Third, in between-subjects experiments, outcome has an effect on all four types of moral judgments. This effect is mediated by negligence ascriptions and can ultimately be explained as due to differing probability ascriptions across cases.
Keywords: Moral luck | Moral judgment | Outcome eﬀect | Dual process theory of moral judgment | Hindsight bias
The dilemma of rape avoidance advice: Acknowledging womens agency without blaming victims of sexual assault
معضل مشاوره برای جلوگیری از تجاوز جنسی: تصدیق آژانس زنان بدون مذمت قربانیان تجاوز جنسی-2019
This article addresses the question of whether there is a legitimate role for rape avoidance advice for women as part of a larger suite of efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of mens sexual violence. It highlights an apparent dilemma between acknowledging womens agency and placing the blame for sexual violence on perpetrators rather than victims. The article builds upon analysis of the phenomenon of responsibility by moral and political philosophers to suggest a clearer way of thinking about this dilemma. I argue that because causal responsibility is a necessary but not sufficient element of moral responsibility, it is logically possible to hold that some victims could have prevented their rape and at the same time hold they are not blameworthy. I go on to argue that this poses a dilemma for feminists concerned to end rape, in that the practical interests of individual women in avoiding rape might at times be in conflict with womens strategic interests in ensuring that the burden (task responsibility) for ending rape rests with men (as potential perpetrators). I argue that while it is logically possible that some rape avoidance advice could help some women reduce their likelihood of being raped, the legitimate role for rape avoidance advice is circumscribed by its impact on womens strategic interests. The worth of rape avoidance advice in general should not be dismissed out of hand. However, the legitimacy of particular pieces of advice need to be assessed in terms of their impact on womens strategic and practical interests and this will vary depending on the quality and source of the advice
Keywords: Agency | Blame | Victims | Rape prevention | Sexual assault
Understanding outcome bias
درک تعصب نتیجه-2019
Disentangling effort and luck is critical when evaluating outcomes. In a principal-agent experiment, we demonstrate that principals’ judgments of agents are biased by luck, despite perfectly observable effort. This erodes the power of incentives to stimulate effort. We explore two potential solutions to this “outcome bias”–information control, and outsourcing judgment to independent third parties. Both are ineffective. When principals control information about luck, they do not avoid it. When agents control information, they manipulate principals’ outcome bias to minimize punishments. We also find that even independent third parties exhibit outcome bias. These findings suggest that outcome bias cannot be driven solely by disappointment nor distributional preferences. Instead, we hypothesize that luck directly affects principals’ inference about agent type even though effort is observed. We elicit the beliefs of third parties and principals and find that lucky agents are believed to be harder workers than identical, unlucky agents.
Keywords: Experiment | Reciprocity | Outcome bias | Attribution bias | Blame
Another look at TLS ecosystems in networked devices vs: Web servers
نگاهی دیگر به اکوسیستم های TLS در دستگاه های تحت شبکه در مقابل سرورهای وب-2019
High-speed IPv4 scanners, such as ZMap, now enable rapid and timely collection of TLS certificates and other security-sensitive parameters. Such large datasets led to the devel- opment of the Censys search interface, facilitating comprehensive analysis of TLS deploy- ments in the wild. Several recent studies analyzed TLS certificates as deployed in web servers. Beyond public web servers, TLS is deployed in many other Internet-connected devices, at home and enterprise environments, cyber physical systems, and at network back- bones. In April 2017, we reported the results of a preliminary analysis based on measure- ment data of TLS deployments in such devices (e.g., routers, modems, NAS, printers, SCADA, and IoT devices in general) collected in Oct. 2016 using Censys. We also compared certificates and TLS connection parameters from a security perspective, as found in common devices against top Alexa sites. Censys has evolved since then and its data volume has increased with the addition of several new device types. In this paper, we perform a similar but more comprehensive measurement study to assess TLS vulnerabilities in devices, and compare our current results with our 2016 findings, showing how such systems have evolved in the last one and half year. Indeed, there are noticeable improvements in the TLS ecosystem for devices, especially in terms of adoption of TLS itself (from 29.4% in 2016 to 73.7% in 2018) and stronger cryptographic primitives. However, we also note the continuity of significant weaknesses in devices for which immediate remediation is warranted (e.g., the use of known private keys, SSLv3, MD5-RSA, and RC4). We have also contacted the top manufacturers of vulnerable devices to convey our findings. Most of them blamed users for not updating their devices with latest firmware images that apparently would mitigate the reported findings.
Keywords:CPS | IoT | SCADA | TLS | Certificates | Cryptographic primitives
Collective corruptioneHow to live with it: Towards a projection theory of post-crisis corruption perpetuation
فساد جمعی چگونه با آن زندگی می کنند: به سوی یک تئوری پیش بینی فساد بعد از بحران-2018
This article draws on social psychology to explore the unconscious cognitive processes allowing for perpetuation of collective corruption in organisations in the aftermath of crises. In particular, we argue that, when faced with the cognitive dissonance produced by exposed collective corruption, and having to choose between changing behaviour or changing cognition, projection theory provides support for the latter. Thus, we identify the role of projection theory in overcoming cognitive dissonance in groups by projecting blame on to their leaders while continuing practices of corruption. These insights contribute to our understanding of perpetuation of collective corruption in organisations as well as at a societal level.
Keywords: Collective corruption ، Collective ، Crisis ، Attributive projection ، Social psychology
Questioning network governance for disaster risk management: Lessons learnt from landslide risk management in Uganda
نظارت بر شبکه های پرسش و پاسخ برای مدیریت ریسک فاجعه: درس هایی که از مدیریت ریسک لغزش در اوگاندا گرفته شده است-2018
The international agenda for disaster risk reduction, through the Hyogo Framework for Action and the Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction, promotes decentralised platforms as an indispensable strategy to achieve effective and efficient disaster risk management. Based on empirical data from the Rwenzori Mountains region, we question the implications of this type of network governance for disaster risk management. We embed our observations in an analytical framework that combines literature on network governance with insights from politics of disaster, notably scale and blame theories. In this study, we investigate the implications for disaster risk reduction through the analysis of three processes of scale structuration observed in contemporary West Uganda: (i) incomplete decentralisation, (ii) blame dissolution, and (iii) scale jumping. We argue that decen tralised platforms in Uganda co-produce unequal risk, as they are used as spatial tactics to centralise power for the ruling party and enable blame dissolution and scale jumping. From our analysis we draw broader conclusions on drivers and implications of the implementation of disaster network governance in countries that are primarily governed hierarchically and that endorse the international frameworks of disaster risk reduction.
Kewords: Decentralisation ، Platforms ، Scale ، Disaster politics ، Blame dissolution