Efficient biometric-based identity management on the Blockchain for smart industrial applications
مدیریت هویت مبتنی بر بیومتریک کارآمد در Blockchain برای کاربردهای صنعتی هوشمند-2021
In this work, we propose a new Blockchain-based Identity Management system for smart industry. First, we describe an efficient biometric-based anonymous credential scheme, which supports selective disclosure, suspension/thaw and revocation of credentials/entities. Our system provides non-transferability through a freshly computed hidden biometric attribute, which is generated using a secure fuzzy extractor during each authentication. This mechanism combined with offchain storage guarantees GDPR compliance, which is required for protecting user’s data. We define blinded (Brands) DLRep scheme to provide multi-show unlinkability, which is a lacking feature in Brands’ credential based systems. For larger organizations, we re-design the system by replacing the Merkle Tree with an accumulator to improve scalability. The new system enables auditing by adapting the standard Industrial IoT (IIoT) Identity Management Lifecycle to Blockchain. Finally, we show that the new proposal outperforms BASS, i.e. the most recent blockchain-based anonymous credential scheme designed for smart industry. The computational cost at the user-side (can be a weak IoT device) of our scheme is 8-times less than that of BASS. Thus, our system is more suitable for IIoT.© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Identity management | Smart industry | Blockchain | Non-transferability | Biometrics | DLRep | Multi-show unlinkability | Selective disclosure | Accumulators
Digital Livestock Farming
As the global human population increases, livestock agriculture must adapt to provide more livestock products and with improved efficiency while also addressing concerns about animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the current state of the art in digitalizing animal agriculture with Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies, specifically biometric sensors, big data, and blockchain technology. Biometric sensors include either noninvasive or invasive sensors that monitor an individual animal’s health and behavior in real time, allowing farmers to integrate this data for population-level analyses. Real-time information from biometric sensors is processed and integrated using big data analytics systems that rely on statistical algorithms to sort through large, complex data sets to provide farmers with relevant trending patterns and decision-making tools. Sensors enabled blockchain technology affords secure and guaranteed traceability of animal products from farm to table, a key advantage in monitoring disease outbreaks and preventing related economic losses and food-related health pandemics. Thanks to PLF technologies, livestock agriculture has the potential to address the abovementioned pressing concerns by becoming more transparent and fostering increased consumer trust. However, new PLF technologies are still evolving and core component technologies (such as blockchain) are still in their infancy and insufficiently validated at scale. The next generation of PLF technologies calls for preventive and predictive analytics platforms that can sort through massive amounts of data while accounting for specific variables accurately and accessibly. Issues with data privacy, security, and integration need to be addressed before the deployment of multi-farm shared PLF solutions be- comes commercially feasible. Implications Advanced digitalization technologies can help modern farms optimize economic contribution per animal, reduce the drudgery of repetitive farming tasks, and overcome less effective isolated solutions. There is now a strong cultural emphasis on reducing animal experiments and physical contact with animals in-order-to enhance animal welfare and avoid disease outbreaks. This trend has the potential to fuel more research on the use of novel biometric sensors, big data, and blockchain technology for the mutual benefit of livestock producers, consumers, and the farm animals themselves. Farmers’ autonomy and data-driven farming approaches compared to experience-driven animal manage- ment practices are just several of the multiple barriers that digitalization must overcome before it can become widely implemented.
Keywords: Precision Livestock Farming | digitalization | Digital Technologies in Livestock Systems | sensor technology | big data | blockchain | data models | livestock agriculture
Digital extraction: Blockchain traceability in mineral supply chains
استخراج دیجیتال: قابلیت ردیابی بلاکچین در زنجیره های تأمین مواد معدنی-2021
Digital data — including technologically-mediated data generated by blockchain-enabled traceability — is performing an increasingly integral role in extractive operations, but scarce attention has been paid to the structuring effect of these digital technologies or the socio-economic spatiality of data-driven mining operations. Drawing on extensive qualitative research (interviews, participant observation, and two sets of survey data among actors relevant to these mineral supply chains), this article advances the notion of “digital extraction” todescribe the collection, analysis, and instrumentalization of digital data generated under the banner of blockchain-based due diligence, chain of custody certifications, and various transparency mechanisms, situated alongside and in support of mineral extraction. The article mobilizes concepts from political geography and political ecology to argue that digital technologies of traceability in extractive processes potentially create new forms of control and exclusion or exacerbate existing social, political, and territorial dispossession through asymmetric relations of power and knowledge in mineral supply chains. Despite industry efforts to make mineral supply chains more sustainable by resorting to digital certification and traceability, the strategic uses of un- certainty, ignorance, and ambiguity undergirding blockchain-enabled traceability systems fail to challenge existing inequalities in resource use and access or fulfill the promise of transparency and accountability.
Keywords: Blockchain | Traceability | Mining | Digital extraction | Certification | Digital technology | Political ecology
ECB2: A novel encryption scheme using face biometrics for signing blockchain transactions
ECB2: یک طرح رمزگذاری جدید با استفاده از بیومتریک چهره برای امضای تراکنش های بلاک چین-2021
Blockchain is the technology on the basis of the recent smart and digital contracts. It ensures at this system the required characteristics to be effectively applied. In this work, we propose a novel encryption scheme specifically built to authorize and sign transactions in digital or smart contracts. The face is used as a biometric key, encoded through the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), FaceNet. Then, this encoding is fused with an RSA key by using the Hybrid Information Fusion algorithm (BNIF). The results show a combined key that ensures the identity of the user that is executing the transaction by preserving privacy. Experiments reveal that, even in strong heterogeneous acquisition conditions for the biometric trait, the identity of the user is ensured and the contract is properly signed in less than 1.86 s. The proposed ECB2 encryption scheme is also very fast in the user template creation (0.05s) and requires at most four attempts to recognize the user with an accuracy of 94%.
Uncovering research streams on agri-food supply chain management: A bibliometric study
کشف جریانهای تحقیق در مورد مدیریت زنجیره تأمین مواد غذایی کشاورزی: یک مطالعه کتابشناختی-2021
This study carried out a bibliometric analysis to critically review the evolution of the agri-food supply chain (AFSC) research field over the period of 2008–2019. A set of 1236 articles was analyzed from the Web of Science database. Besides using different analytical scientometric tools (topic mapping, co-citation, co-authorship and overlay visualization networks), this study identified frequently-used keywords, new and hot research topics and frequently-studied supply chain management (SCM) practices. Frequently used keywords are food supply chain, food waste, sustainability, food safety, SCM, food industry, and food security. New research themes include contract, blockchain, internet of things, resilience, and short food supply chain, a topic that demands further research especially due to the international COVID-19 pandemic and the need of farmers to be closer to the consumers. Hot research topics, that is, subjects that have been studied in highly cited papers were also identified include life cycle assessment, environmental impact, packaging, water use, food waste prevention, food waste generation, blockchain and carbon footprint. Among SCM practices, this study observed that risk and sustainable SCM are frequently used keywords. Procurement and reverse logistics were observed in fewer studies. SCM, food waste, food quality, GHG emissions and risk management are sustainable SCM practices frequently observed.
Keywords: Agri-food supply chain | Bibliometric analysis | Co-authorship | Co-citation analysis | Scientometrics | Supply chain management practices
Investigation and assessment of blockchain technology adoption in the pharmaceutical supply chain
بررسی و ارزیابی پذیرش فناوری بلاکچین در زنجیره تأمین دارویی-2021
The global pharmaceutical industry has gone through several changes in the past decade related to the adoption of new technologies. The challenges that are faced by this industry mostly involve counterfeit drugs and operational issues. The involvement of cold chain for vaccines, medicine etc. is also impacting the secure logistics and transportation. Newly introduce blockchain technologies have capabilities to address these issues. The challenge which needs to address is the requirement of tracking the product authenticity from start production to consumption point to prevent further financial losses. The present study has proposed the investigation and assessment of blockchain for integration in the supply chain model of the pharmaceutical to securely record transactions between parties enhancing trust and transparency. The blockchain adaptation and implementation to address the supply chain challenges are discussed.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Confer- ence on Technological Advancements in Materials Science and Manufacturing.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical supply chain | Blockchain technology | Decentralised system | Conceptual model | Assessment model
Impact of ambidexterity of blockchain technology and social factors on new product development: A supply chain and Industry 4:0 perspective
تأثیر دوسویه فناوری بلاکچین و عوامل اجتماعی بر توسعه محصول جدید: زنجیره تامین و چشم انداز صنعت 4:0-2021
This study develops a technology and social capital process aided product innovation conceptual model based on dynamic capability and supply chain ambidexterity theory. The strategy of organizational ambidexterity unbalancing technological and relational social capital factors between buyers and suppliers leads to a higher level of digital manufacturing capabilities and enhances buyers’ innovation potential, considering the sustainable practices in their processes to cope with Industry 4.0 manufacturing processes and sustainability challenges. The study empirically validates the model using data collected from 379 French manufacturing companies. This is the first study that examines how buyers perceive the role of blockchain technology in exploring and exploiting innovation management in the Industry 4.0 era. The study advances understanding on the theory of ambidex-terity of supply chains in buyer–supplier relationships. The study results show the positive effect between internal integration and blockchain technology as well as relational social capital factors in buyer–supplier relationships. The findings underscore the critical role of relational and technological capital in buyer–supplier relationships, specifically to act as a catalyst for exploiting internal capabilities to achieve the innovation targets. The unique findings state blockchain technology mediation is dominant in exploiting the internal capabilities and benefits buyers’ innovation orientation.
Keywords: Buyer innovation | Blockchain technology | Supply chain ambidexterity | Relational capital | Industry 4.0 | Sustainability
Conflict minerals and battery materials supply chains: A mapping review of responsible sourcing initiatives
زنجیره های تأمین مواد معدنی و مواد باتری درگیری: بررسی نقشه ابتکارهای مسئول تهیه منابع-2021
Responsible mineral sourcing is a major issue on the global sustainability agenda. Spurred by “conflict minerals”, debates about the ethics of mineral supply chains now encompass a broad set of concerns including child labor, corruption, environmental degradation, and a green transition away from fossil fuels. The past two decades have seen a flurry of initiatives to clean up supply chains and protect the reputation of major companies. Based on a mapping review of 220 studies of responsible mineral supply chains, this study highlights the approaches that responsible minerals sourcing initiatives have taken, focusing on conflict minerals (tin, tungsten tantalum and gold) as well as metals and minerals needed for renewable energy technologies in a transition to a low carbon economy (cobalt, graphite, lithium, manganese and nickel). We briefly describe the evolution of these initiatives, contrast arguments about mandatory and voluntary approaches, summarize findings regarding their impacts on local communities and corporate actors, and discuss the challenges and opportunities of new technologies and traceability systems.
Keywords: Responsible sourcing | CSR | Supply chains | Blockchain | Conflict minerals | Cobalt
Factors influencing blockchain adoption in supply chain management practices: A study based on the oil industry
عوامل موثر بر پذیرش بلاکچین در راهکارهای مدیریت زنجیره تامین: مطالعه ای مبتنی بر صنعت نفت-2021
Planning to adopt the Blockchain is very active in many industries, especially in supply chains. Researchers believe that the Radio-frequency identification (RFIDs), yesterday’s Blockchain, is now obsolete. The strongest reason that the Blockchain is the tool of this era is its unique features; real-time information sharing, cyber-security, transparency, reliability, traceability, and visibility, all of which boost the supply-chain performance. Despite the extensive literature on Blockchain, in recent years, no clear framework has defined whether a supply chain should implement Blockchain or not. This study attempts to fill this gap by proposing a framework for complex supply chain networks. In doing so, first, we identified the supply-chain practices of the oil industry in Pakistan, then we empirically analyzed the impact of these practices on operational performance. The results show that the supply chain management (SCM) practices positively impact operational performance. On the other hand, with the help of literature, we identified different Blockchain features and their influence on different supply chain practices. This study guides managers and decision-makers to evaluate their current supply-chain practices and understand the relationship between supply-chain practices and Blockchain features, and how different Blockchain features can help improving supply-chain practices and ultimately improving operational performance.
Keywords: Blockchain | Blockchain features | Supply chain management | Supply chain management practices | Operational performance, oil industry | supply Chain
Blockchain and sustainable supply chain management in developing countries
بلاکچین و مدیریت پایدار زنجیره تامین در کشورهای در حال توسعه-2021
Theoretical, empirical and anecdotal evidence suggests that there are more violations of sustainability principles in supply chains in developing countries than in developed countries. Recent research has demonstrated that blockchain can play an important role in promoting supply chain sustainability. In this paper we argue that blockchain’s characteristics are especially important for enforcing sustainability standards in developing coun- tries. We analyze multiple case studies of blockchain projects implemented in supply chains in developing countries to assess product quality, environmental accounting and social impact measurement. We have developed seven propositions, which describe how blockchain can help address a number of challenges various stakeholders face in promoting sustainable supply chains in developing countries. The challenges that the propositions deal with include those associated with an unfavorable institutional environment, high costs, technological limitations, unequal power distribution among supply chain partners and porosity and opacity of value delivery networks.
Keywords: Blockchain | Developing countries | Ethical dilemmas | Institutions | Smart contract | Supply chain | Sustainability | Traceability