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نتیجه جستجو - Brazil

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 124
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Influencing factors on energy management in industries
تأثیر عوامل مؤثر بر مدیریت انرژی در صنایع-2020
Energy management has been considered in the global agenda as a way to improve energy performance and greenhouse gas reduction in organizations. Industries account for a significant part of energy use worldwide and present opportunities for energy efficiency improvements. Within the industry, energy management is a complex task, regarding scenarios with variables related to the following perspectives: economics, contingency, technological change and behavioural. This paper aims at analyzing the influencing factors on energy management in industries from these perspectives. A survey with 40 variables was carried out with middle managers from different industrial sectors in Brazil. The variables were divided into three groups: drivers for investments in energy efficiency; organizational processes and actions in energy management; involvement of middle managers. Initially, an exploratory factor analysis technique was employed aiming at specifying the main factors influencing energy management. In the sequence, a confirmatory factor analysis was used to associate the variables to the main factors as well as to know how the factors relate to each other. The study showed a positive correlation among all the factors identified. Statistical tests suggested that the factors could not be explained separately. Hypotheses tests were applied to verify the influence of the factors among the groups surveyed. The final model comprised eight factors into the three groups: organizational (strategic, operational), involvement (motivation, support), drivers (production, economics, competitiveness, environment). The results and the main implications of the study are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Energy management | ISO 50001 | Energy efficiency | Industries | Factor analysis
مقاله انگلیسی
2 An overview of longshore sediment transport on the Brazilian coast✩
مروری بر حمل و نقل رسوب longshore در سواحل برزیل-2020
The present study investigates the wave behavior and the longshore sediment transport rate on the Brazilian continental shelf, using a computational model and four different formulations, for the period between 1979–2015. The average significant wave height is substantially variable along the study region, with the largest values occurring in southern Brazil, whereas the smaller values occur in northern Brazil. The longshore sediment transport rates are well within the range of values presented in previous works and indicate which method performs best in estimating annual mean rates of sediment transport. The highest sediment transport rates were found in the sector situated within the northern coast of the Bahia state and the Alagoas state, reaching 460 000 m3 year−1. On the other hand, the opposite was found between the Rio de Janeiro and southern Bahia coast, where the smallest transport rates occurred with a global average of 109 000 m3 year−1. Additionally, it is important to emphasize that small variations in the wave incidence angle may cause significant changes in the longshore drift of sediments, favoring the occurrence of zones of convergence and divergence along the coast. The novel results presented for the entire Brazilian shore contribute to the literature related to wave and sediment transport along the Brazilian coast and can be useful for future engineering projects that consider the sustainable management of the coastal zone.
Keywords: Numerical modeling | TOMAWAC | CERC | Kamphuis | Longshore sediment transport | Coastal zone
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Leading successful government-academia collaborations using FLOSS and agile values
پیشرو همکاریهای موفق دولت و آکادمی با استفاده از FLOSS و مقادیر چابک-2020
Government and academia share concerns for efficiently and effectively servicing societal demands, which includes the development of e-government software. Government-academia partnerships can be a valu- able approach for improving productivity in achieving these goals. However, governmental and academic institutions tend to have very different agendas and organizational and managerial structures, which can hinder the success of such collaborative projects. In order to identify effective approaches to overcome collaboration barriers, we systematically studied the case of the Brazilian Public Software portal project, a 30-month government-academia collaboration that, using Free/Libre/Open Source Software practices and agile methods for project management, developed an unprecedented platform in the context of the Brazil- ian government. We gathered information from experience reports and data collection from repositories and interviews to derive a collection of practices that contributed to the success of the collaboration. In this paper, we describe how the data analysis led to the identification of a set of three high-level decisions supported by the adoption of nine best practices that improved the project performance and enabled professional training of the whole team.
Keywords: Project management | Government-Academia collaboration | Free software | Open source software | Agile methodologies | e-Government
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Complementarity modeling of monthly streamflow and wind speed regimes based on a copula-entropy approach: A Brazilian case study
مدل سازی مکمل رژیم های ماهانه جریان و سرعت باد بر اساس یک رویکرد کوپل-آنتروپی: یک مطالعه موردی برزیل-2020
Wind power energy has been showing significant growth in installed capacity around the world. This opportunity presents big challenges to operate power systems with high wind power penetration levels, considering the variability and intermittent behavior of this type of power source. To reduce uncertainties associated with this kind of power systems, researchers have explored the integration of wind power energy with other renewable energy sources, like solar and hydropower. For instance, the integration of wind and hydro systems can deal with the spatial and temporal complementarity of hydrological and wind regimes to produce energy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the stochastic behavior and the dependence structures between these variables to define better operational policies. This study explores the spatial correlation of hydrological and wind regimes in different regions of Brazil and defines an entropy-copula-based model for the joint simulation of monthly streamflow and wind speed time series to evaluate the potential integration of hydro and wind energy sources. The proposed model showed a good adherence to the periodic behavior for both variables, and the results indicate that simulated scenarios preserved statistical features of historical data
Keywords: Hydro-wind complementary | Renewable energy | Stochastic modeling
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Biology, ecology and behavior of the acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepade, , 1801) according to the local knowledge of fishermen in the northern coast of Brazil
زیست شناسی، بوم شناسی و رفتار acoupa weakfish Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepade، 1801) با توجه به دانش محلی ماهیگیران در سواحل شمالی برزیل-2020
Local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishers and other actors involved in the fishery can be provide information on the life cycle of fish species they harvest, help defining low-cost sampling projects, new biological hypotheses, management activities and policy measures. This study focuses on fishers’ LEK on diet, feeding, spawning grounds, reproductive size, exploited sizes and perceived changes in abundance over the years of the acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa), a commercially important marine species. Results from interviews with 240 actors (fishers, captains and boat owners) involved in C. acoupa fisheries in eight municipalities in the northern coast of Brazil indicated that: (a) C. acoupa feeds in areas with rocky bottoms down to the depth of 30 m, eating mainly fish, particularly another weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon) and sardines (Engraulidae); (b) this fish spawns in rocky and non-estuarine habitats; (c) the spawning period mentioned by fishers coincided with the harvest period, but was in disagreement with published scientific information; (d) the median minimum length of individuals of C. acoupa carrying eggs according to interviews was of 70 cm, which was smaller than the length reported in biological studies, possible due to the selectiveness of fishing; (e) there is an overall perception of a decrease in the abundance of C. acoupa among the interviewed fishers, which is compatible with studies on stock exploitation of this species. The current dearth of financial and human resources available for scientific research underlines the importance of making use of LEK to improve fishery policy and management.
Keywords: Fisheries management | Commercial fisheries | Fish reproduction | Stock abundance | Exploited sizes | Spawning periods
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Identifying regionalized co-variate driving factors to assess spatial distributions of saturated soil hydraulic conductivity using multivariate and state-space analyses
شناسایی عوامل محرک متغیر منطقه ای برای ارزیابی توزیع مکانی هدایت هیدرولیکی خاک اشباع شده با استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل چند متغیره فضای دولت-2020
Saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) is a key factor in hydrological management projects and its variability along the landscape hinders its correct use in the formulation of such projects. Ksat varies under different climatic and hydrological conditions at spatial scales as reported in several studies. However, co-regionalization of Ksat remains a challenging aspect with regard to identifying supportive co-variates and suitable spatial models. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify factors that relate Ksat with soil and topographic attributes and land-use systems along a 15-km transect using principal component analysis, and (ii) describe the spatial continuum of Ksat across the transect through co-regionalization with autoregressive state-space models. The transect was established in the Fragata River Watershed (FRW), Southern Brazil. One hundred soil sampling points were distributed along the transect at equal distances (150 m). Clay and sand fractions, soil organic carbon content, soil bulk density, soil macroporosity, Ksat, and the soil water retention curve were determined for the 0–20 cm layer at each point. Topographic attributes were derived from the digital elevation model and a land-use map was derived from satellite images. The highest and lowest spatial variabilities were exhibited by Ksat and soil organic carbon content, respectively. Applying the state-space approach, spatial relationships among Ksat and soil and topographic attributes, and land-use systems along the transect, could be found. Principal component analysis used jointly with state-space showed that macroporosity could be used as a proxy to estimate the spatial variation of Ksat in the FRW watershed, assessing surface and subsurface runoff potentials at areas of different land-use. Further studies should be carried out to investigate the use of the type of land-use system as a soil structural predictor of the spatial variations of Ksat at the watershed scale since it is nowadays an “easy-to-measure” variable from satellite images.
Keywords: Ksat | Soil and topographic attributes | Spatial variability | Land-use system
مقاله انگلیسی
7 A Two-Layer EMS for Cooperative Sugarcane-based Microgrids
EMS دو لایه برای ریزشبکه های مبتنی بر نیشکر تعاونی-2020
This paper presents a solution for the energy magement and resource sharing problem of cooperative renewableenergy- based microgrids. Such solution is based on a two-level hierarchical optimization procedure to coordinate the operation of networked microgrids and optimally share their combined energetic resources, aiming to enlarge the renewable generation share while guaranteeing maximal efficiency and profit. The supervision layer is a Real-Time Optimization scheme, designed to determine energy-generation setpoints for the distributed plants as well as resource sharing rules, taking into account their models, operational constraints and future predicted behaviour of the renewable sources. The lower layer is a Model Predictive Control loop, designed to follow energy generation set-points passed top-down by the upper layer and abide by demands, while respecting operational constraints. This work is focused on cooperative microgrids based on Brazilian sugarcane industries. Such plants are usually located in various sites, while being owned by the same company that has a fixed energy contract with the Distribution Network Operator. The biomass sources may be transported from one plant to another, if deemed convenient. This case study is taken into account and high-fidelity numerical simulations are presented to assess the effectiveness and qualities of the proposed energy management strategy, which yields overall good results.
Keywords: Model predictive control | Cooperative energy management | Microgrids
مقاله انگلیسی
8 LPV-MPC fault-tolerant energy management strategy for renewable microgrids
استراتژی مدیریت انرژی تحمل گسل LPV-MPC برای ریز شبکه قابل تجدید-2020
This paper presents a solution for the Fault-Tolerant Energy Management problem of renewable energy microgrids. This solution is a Energy Management System (EMS) derived from a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) synthesized upon a Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) prediction model. This model describes the energy-generation process in both healthy and faulty operation conditions. The MPC is tuned to adequately coordinate the operation of the microgrid, aiming to optimally use its energetic resources, enlarge the renewable generation share and guarantee maximal efficiency and profit, despite the presence of faults (or even failures) in its subsystems. The quantification of the level of faults in the energy system is provided by an extended-state LPV fault estimation observer that works in parallel to the MPC. The proposed EMS, that acts at an hourly rate, finds timevarying control policies, that are passed as energy-generation set-points for the lower-layer subsystems, with respect to operational constraints, internal demands and taking into account the future (estimation) behaviour of the renewables. To validate the proposed fault-tolerant control scheme, a realistic, high-fidelity case study from the Brazilian sugarcane industry is considered. The achieved simulation results assess the effectiveness and qualities of the proposed energy management strategy; an overall good behaviour is exhibited in both faulty and healthy energy-generation conditions.
Keywords: Fault-tolerant control | Fault estimation | Linear parameter varying | Model predictive control | Microgrids
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Evaluating innovation development among Brazilian micro and small businesses in view of management level: Insights from the local innovation agents program
ارزیابی توسعه نوآوری در بین مشاغل خرد و کوچک برزیل با توجه به سطح مدیریت: بینش از برنامه عوامل محلی نوآوری-2020
This research aims to analyze management and innovation patterns among micro and small businesses (MSBs) that participated during 2015–2016 in the Local Innovation Agents (LIA) Program from the Brazilian Micro and Small Business Support Service (SEBRAE). Complemented by factor analyses, two-step cluster analysis was applied on 6674 MSBs’ management dimensions to identify group patterns and statistical tests explored further cluster differences regarding management and innovation dimensions, besides innovation improvement throughout the program. Results were multifaceted. First, complementary factor analyses showed that management dimensions compose one factor with similar loadings, thus in accordance with their predictive importance found in the cluster analysis. Second, two main clusters were identified in terms of management level, which also presented significant differences regarding innovation levels. Third, considering a before-and-after self-comparison, by and large, innovation was significantly improved by both clusters. Fourth, the highest developed cluster presented higher improvement rates in most innovation dimensions, thus benefiting more from the program, except for two marketing-related innovations, which improved similarly by both clusters. Overall, even though the LIA Program was effective to leverage MSBs innovation, higher efficiency rates would be bounded to fewer participating MSBs, and hence policy planners should be aware of this tradeoff.
Keywords: Micro and small enterprises | Innovation | Support | Program | Innovation radar | Brazilian Micro and Small Business Support | Service (SEBRAE)
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Economic analysis of a shared municipal solid waste management facility in a metropolitan region
تجزیه و تحلیل اقتصادی از یک مرکز مدیریت زباله جامد شهری در یک منطقه شهری-2020
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management in dense urban areas is a challenge for municipalities, especially in developing countries, which commonly have deficient waste management. For example, the metropolitan region of Goiás State, Brazil, has 19 municipalities that dispose of about 72.5% of total MSW in unlicensed MSW final disposal facilities. Therefore, this study analysed the investment and operating costs, and revenues of a municipal solid waste management facility, projected for 20 years, shared among these 19 municipalities. The economic viability analysis, has shown that, regardless of the management facility type, MSW collection and transport are the most expensive cost components, accounting for about 60% of MSW management operating costs. For an Internal Rate of Return of 0%, anaerobic digestion is 11% more expensive (in total) than using community composting. For 2040 (last year), the monthly MSW management tariffs will vary between 3.5 and 10.8 R$inhabitant1month1, depending on the municipality. So, as the unit price of biowaste treatments lowers with waste quantities, for the municipalities with large biowaste quantities, anaerobic digestion becomes recommended for its economic attractiveness. This study can serve as a model for other municipalities in Brazil and elsewhere, helping public decision makers to establish a strategy for MSW management.
Keywords: Economic analysis | Municipal solid waste (MSW) | Shared management | Tariff | Brazil
مقاله انگلیسی
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