کارآفرینی بینالمللی در دنیای پساکرونا
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 7 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 26
دنیای پساکرونا چگونه خواهد بود؟ نقش کارآفرینی بینالمللی (IE) در دنیای جدید چه خواهد بود؟ این مقاله در تلاشش است به دو پرسش پاسخ دهد و بر تغییرات ایجادشده توسط کووید و نحوهی اثرگذاری احتمالی آن بر حوزه و نوع فعالیتهای کارآفرینی بینالمللی در سالیان پیش رو تأکید دارد. این مقاله به بررسی عملکرد احتمالی کارآفرینان و شکلدهی نظم جهانی نوظهور میپردازد. مقالهی پیش رو با تشریح پیامدهای این تغییرات برای کارآفرینی IE، الگویی برای پژوهش آینده ارائه میدهد.
کلیدواژه ها: کارآفرینی بینالمللی | سرمایهگذاریهای جدید بینالمللی (INV ها) | کووید-19 | تغییرات سازمانی | دیجیتالی شدن | نوآوری | الگوی پژوهشی
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Impact of COVID-19 on the Indian seaport transportation and maritime supply chain
تأثیر COVID-19 در حمل و نقل و تأمین دریایی بندر دریایی هند-2021
Impacts of COVID-19 in maritime transportation and its related policy measures have been investigated by more and more organizations and researchers across the world. This paper aims to examine the impacts of COVID-19 on seaport transportation and the maritime supply chain field and its related issues in India. Secondary data are used to analyze the performance indicators of major seaports in India before and during the COVID-19 crisis. We further explore and discuss the expert’s views about the impact, preparedness, response, and recovery aspects for the maritime-related sector in India. The results on the quantitative performance of Indian major seaports during the COVID-19 indicate a negative growth in the cargo traffic and a decrease in the number of vessel traffic compared to pre-COVID-19. The expert survey results suggest a lack of preparedness for COVID-19 and the need for developing future strategies by maritime organizations. The overall findings of the study shall assist in formulating maritime strategies by enhancing supply chain resilience and sustainable business recovery process while preparing for a post-COVID-19 crisis. The study also notes that the Covid-19 crisis is still an ongoing concern, as the government, maritime organizations, and stakeholders face towards providing vaccine and remedial treatment to infected people. Further, this study can be expanded to the global maritime supply chain business context and to conduct interdisciplinary research in marine technical fields and maritime environment to measure the impact of COVID-19.
Keywords: COVID-19 | India | Seaports | Maritime | Supply chain | Stakeholders | Sustainability
COVID-19 pandemic related supply chain studies: A systematic review
مطالعات زنجیره تامین مرتبط با همه گیری COVID-19 : مرور سیستماتیک-2021
The global spread of the novel coronavirus, also known as the COVID-19 pandemic, has had a devastating impact on supply chains. Since the pandemic started, scholars have been researching and publishing their studies on the various supply-chain-related issues raised by COVID-19. However, while the number of articles on this subject has been steadily increasing, due to the absence of any systematic literature reviews, it remains unclear what aspects of this disruption have already been studied and what aspects still need to be investigated. The present study systematically reviews existing research on the COVID-19 pandemic in supply chain disciplines. Through a rigorous and systematic search, we identify 74 relevant articles published on or before 28 September 2020. The synthesis of the findings reveals that four broad themes recur in the published work: namely, impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, resilience strategies for managing impacts and recovery, the role of technology in implementing resilience strategies, and supply chain sustainability in the light of the pandemic. Alongside the synthesis of the findings, this study describes the methodologies, context, and theories used in each piece of research. Our analysis reveals that there is a lack of empirically designed and theoretically grounded studies in this area; hence, the generalizability of the findings, thus far, is limited. Moreover, the analysis reveals that most studies have focused on supply chains for high-demand essential goods and healthcare products, while low-demand items and SMEs have been largely ignored. We also re- view the literature on prior epidemic outbreaks and other disruptions in supply chain disciplines. By considering the findings of these articles alongside research on the COVID-19 pandemic, this study offers research questions and directions for further investigation. These directions can guide scholars in designing and conducting impactful research in the field.
Keywords: Supply chain disciplines | COVID-19 pandemic | Supply chain disruptions | Epidemic outbreaks | Literature review
Cardiac biometric variables and arrhythmic events during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in patients with an implantable cardiac monitor for syncope work-up
متغیرهای بیومتریک قلب و رویدادهای آریتمی در طول قرنطینه همه گیر COVID-19 در بیماران دارای مانیتور قلبی قابل کاشت برای کار سنکوپ-2021
Aim: To assess the changes induced by the COVID-19 lockdown on cardiac biometric variables recorded using an implantable cardiac monitor (ICM) in a patient population monitored for syncope work-up, as well to assess whether there has been an effect on arrhythmic events among the patients. Methods: Longitudinal cohort study. We included 245 adult patients monitored with an ICM indicated for the investigation of syncope. The records from days 1 to 12 March 2020 (prior to the institution of lockdown by the state government) with days 16 to 28 March 2020 were compared. Results: Daily physical exercise reduced markedly after the imposition of lockdown (132 [55–233] minutes vs. 78 [21–154] minutes). The mean daytime HR prior to lockdown was 77 [69–85] bpm, whereas during lockdown it was 74 [66–81] bpm. During the lockdown period, a drop in the variability in heart rate (114 [94–136] ms vs. 111 [92–133] ms) was observed. Although the incidence of AF was similar over both periods, the daily AF burden was significantly higher post-lockdown (405 [391–425] minutes vs. 423 [423–537] minutes). No differences in the number of other arrhythmias were found. Conclusions: The establishment of mandatory lockdown has led to a marked drop in daily physical activity in this population which probably explains changes observed in other cardiac biometric variables. Although, in the short term, we have not documented an increased risk of arrhythmia, we cannot rule out an effect in the medium to long term or in other populations of at-risk patients.
Keywords: COVID-19 | Lockdown | Physical exercise | Arrhythmic burden
Blurry vision: Supply chain visibility for personal protective equipment during COVID-19
تاری دید: دید زنجیره تامین برای تجهیزات محافظتی شخصی در طول COVID-19-2021
We explore supply chain visibility challenges in the context of our contemporary COVID pandemic, and offer insights, models and potential solutions to remove barriers to clear supply chain visibility. In this paper, we describe how visibility and velocity are the two key attributes that are required to enabling critical decision making accuracy which will in turn increase the ability of local, state and federal healthcare and public health decision-makers to response to shifts in the U.S. system. We describe the problems in current systems due to the lack of visibility of material in global supply chains, which in turn leads to problems such as the lack of PPE that occurred during the COVID pandemic. We conclude with recommendations on how to render inventory more visible for the future.
Keywords: COVID | Public purchasing | Inventory | Visibility | Global sourcing
Gaining from disorder: Making the case for antifragility in purchasing and supply chain management
به دست آوردن اختلال: ایجاد شرایط ضد انعطاف پذیری در خرید و مدیریت زنجیره تامین-2021
The purchasing and supply chain management (P&SCM) discipline assumes that supply chains are fragile systems, hence taking a “negative” approach toward disorder. Building on Taleb’s concept of antifragility—the ability to gain from disorder rather than avoiding it—, we challenge this traditional assumption. The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed that some companies were indeed able to gain from disorder, whereas some of those that focused too much on robustness and resilience lost ground. Building robust and resilient supply chains may no longer be enough to thrive in today’s highly volatile business world. This article sparks a new debate by introducing antifragility to the P&SCM literature and provides new directions for future research.
Keywords: Antifragility | Antifragile supply chain | Supply chain disruption | Resilient supply chain | Purchasing | Robust supply chain | Supply chain management | COVID-19
Utilizing IoT to design a relief supply chain network for the SARS-COV-2 pandemic
استفاده از اینترنت اشیا برای طراحی شبکه زنجیره تأمین امداد برای همه گیری SARS-COV-2-2021
The current universally challenging SARS-COV-2 pandemic has transcended all the social, logical, economic, and mortal boundaries regarding global operations. Although myriad global societies tried to address this issue, most of the employed efforts seem superficial and failed to deal with the problem, especially in the healthcare sector. On the other hand, the Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled healthcare system for both better understanding of the patient’s condition and appropriate monitoring in a remote fashion. However, there has always been a gap for utilizing this approach on the healthcare system especially in agitated condition of the pandemics. Therefore, in this study, we develop two innovative approaches to design a relief supply chain network is by using IoT to address multiple suspected cases during a pandemic like the SARS-COV-2 outbreak. The first approach (prioritizing approach) minimizes the maximum ambulances response time, while the second approach (allocating approach) minimizes the total critical response time. Each approach is validated and investigated utilizing several test problems and a real case in Iran as well. A set of efficient meta-heuristics and hybrid ones is developed to optimize the proposed models. The proposed approaches have shown their versatility in various harsh SARS-COV-2 pandemic situations being dealt with by managers. Finally, we compare the two proposed approaches in terms of response time and route optimization using a real case study in Iran. Implementing the proposed IoT-based methodology in three consecutive weeks, the results showed 35.54% decrease in the number of confirmed cases.© 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Supply chain design | Epidemic outbreaks | Industry 4.0 | COVID-19 | SARS-COV-2
Supply chain design to tackle coronavirus pandemic crisis by tourism management
طراحی زنجیره تامین برای مقابله با بحران همه گیری ویروس کرونا توسط مدیریت گردشگری-2021
The rapid growth of the COVID-19 pandemic in the world and the importance of controlling it in all regions have made managing this crisis a great challenge for all countries. In addition to imposing various monetary costs on countries, this pandemic has left many serious damages and casualties. Proper control of this crisis will provide better medical services. Controlling travel and tourists in this crisis is also an effective factor. Hence, the proposed model wants to control the crisis by controlling the volume of incoming tourists to each city and region by closing the entry points of that region, which reduces the inpatients. The proposed multi-objective model is designed to aim at minimizing total costs, minimizing the tourist patients, and maximizing the number of city patients. The Improved Multi-choice Goal programming (IMCGP) method has been used to solve the multi-objective problem. The model examines the results by considering a case study. Sensitivity analyses and managerial insight are also provided. According to the results obtained from the model and case study, two medical centers with the capacity of 300 and 700 should be opened if the entry points are not closed.© 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pandemic control | COVID-19 | Multi-objective supply chain optimization | IMCGP | Tourism management
Paradoxes and mysteries in virus-infected supply chains: Hidden bottlenecks, changing consumer behaviors, and other non-usual suspects
پارادوکس ها و رمز و رازها در زنجیره های تأمین آلوده به ویروس: گلوگاه های پنهان ، تغییر رفتار مصرف کننده و سایر مظنونان غیر معمول-2021
In the early onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., consumers experienced surprising shortages of essential goods such as toilet paper, yeast and flour, and some of their favorite meat cuts that appeared to be unrelated to the pandemic at first look. The “usual” explanations attributing these shortages to “demand spikes” (e.g., foreign suppliers, trade wars and tariffs, and “hoarding behavior” of panicked consumers) often failed to explain them, and in the best of cases, predicted only temporary shortages. However, shortages in these supply chains ended up being in many cases real “supply chain struggles,” with their true causes going beyond the “usual” ones, and revealing a set of deeper and “unusual causes.” Our detailed analysis of the affected supply chains identifies these overlooked failure factors and hidden causes. Our underestimated causes include demand shifts among market segments, siloed demand planning, bottlenecks in shared resources such as transportation and distribution, and supply chain structures driven by the economics of an efficiency era that failed in a risk-fraught environment. We conclude on the profound lessons learned from the pandemic crisis on supply chains, and the implied challenges to address for building resilient supply chains for the future. The resilient supply chains of the future require rethinking the relevant “systems” we plan and optimize (e.g., firm, industry, region, global factor resources, etc.). The usual answer of building firm-specific redundancy of assets and operational flexibility might be prohibitive in the level of investment required for any one firm, or their financial stakeholders, to pursue and accept.
Keywords: supply chain | pandemic | essential goods | shortages
Uncovering research streams on agri-food supply chain management: A bibliometric study
کشف جریانهای تحقیق در مورد مدیریت زنجیره تأمین مواد غذایی کشاورزی: یک مطالعه کتابشناختی-2021
This study carried out a bibliometric analysis to critically review the evolution of the agri-food supply chain (AFSC) research field over the period of 2008–2019. A set of 1236 articles was analyzed from the Web of Science database. Besides using different analytical scientometric tools (topic mapping, co-citation, co-authorship and overlay visualization networks), this study identified frequently-used keywords, new and hot research topics and frequently-studied supply chain management (SCM) practices. Frequently used keywords are food supply chain, food waste, sustainability, food safety, SCM, food industry, and food security. New research themes include contract, blockchain, internet of things, resilience, and short food supply chain, a topic that demands further research especially due to the international COVID-19 pandemic and the need of farmers to be closer to the consumers. Hot research topics, that is, subjects that have been studied in highly cited papers were also identified include life cycle assessment, environmental impact, packaging, water use, food waste prevention, food waste generation, blockchain and carbon footprint. Among SCM practices, this study observed that risk and sustainable SCM are frequently used keywords. Procurement and reverse logistics were observed in fewer studies. SCM, food waste, food quality, GHG emissions and risk management are sustainable SCM practices frequently observed.
Keywords: Agri-food supply chain | Bibliometric analysis | Co-authorship | Co-citation analysis | Scientometrics | Supply chain management practices