شدت و پتانسیل انتقال کرونا در کره جنوبی
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 6 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 14
اهداف: ازآنجایی که اولین مورد کروناویروس جدید 2019(کوید-19) در 20 ژانویۀ 2020 در کرۀ شمالی شناسایی شد، تعداد موارد به سرعت افزایش یافت به طوری که تا 6 مارس 2020، منجربه ابتلای6284 مورد و فوت42 نفر شد. اولین تحقیق درمورد گزارش تعداد تکثیر کوید-19 در کرۀ جنوبی را برای بررسی سرعت شیوع بیماری، ارائه می دهیم.
روش کار: موارد روزانۀ تأیید شدۀ کوید-19 در کرۀ جنوبی از منابع عمومی موجود استخراج شد. با استفاده از توزیع تجربی گزارشات دارای تأخیر و شبیه سازی مدل رشد کلی، تعداد تکثیر مؤثر را برمبنای توزیع احتمال گسستۀ فاصلۀ زایشی ارزیابی کردیم.
نتایج: چهار گروه اصلی را شناسایی و تعداد تکثیر را 1.5(1.6-1.4 CI: 95%) برآورد کردیم. به علاوه، نرخ رشد طبیعی 0.6 (0.7، 0.6 CI: 95%) و مقیاس بندی پارامتر رشد 0.8 (0.8،0.7 CI: 95%) برآورد شدند، که نشان-دهندۀ پویایی رشد زیر نمایی کوید-19 می باشد. نرخ مرگ و میر موارد خام در بین مردان (1.1%) در مقایسه با زنان (0.4%) بیشتر است و با افزایش سن افزایش می یابد.
نتیجه گیری: نتایج ما انتقال پایدار اولیۀ کوید-19 در کرۀ جنوبی را نشان می دهد و از اجرای اقدامات فاصله گذاری اجتماعی برای کنترل سریع شیوع بیماری حمایت می کند.
کلمات کلیدی: کروناویروس | کوید-19 | کره | تعداد تکثیر
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Explainable AI and Mass Surveillance System-Based Healthcare Framework to Combat COVID-19 Like Pandemics
چارچوب بهداشتی مبتنی بر سیستم نظارت گسترده و هوش مصنوعی برای مبارزه با COVID-19 مانند موارد همه گیر-2020
Tactile edge technology that focuses on 5G or beyond 5G reveals an exciting approach to control infectious diseases such as COVID-19 internationally. The control of epidemics such as COVID-19 can be managed effectively by exploiting edge computation through the 5G wireless connectivity network. The implementation of a hierarchical edge computing system provides many advantages, such as low latency, scalability, and the protection of application and training model data, enabling COVID-19 to be evaluated by a dependable local edge server. In addition, many deep learning (DL) algorithms suffer from two crucial disadvantages: first, training requires a large COVID-19 dataset consisting of various aspects, which will pose challenges for local councils; second, to acknowledge the outcome, the findings of deep learning require ethical acceptance and clarification by the health care sector, as well as other contributors. In this article, we propose a B5G framework that utilizes the 5G network’s low-latency, high-bandwidth functionality to detect COVID-19 using chest X-ray or CT scan images, and to develop a mass surveillance system to monitor social distancing, mask wearing, and body temperature. Three DL models, ResNet50, Deep tree, and Inception v3, are investigated in the proposed framework. Furthermore, blockchain technology is also used to ensure the security of healthcare data.
Considerations for development and use of AI in response to COVID-19
ملاحظاتی برای توسعه و استفاده از هوش مصنوعی در پاسخ به COVID-19-2020
Artificial intelligence (AI) is playing a key supporting role in the fight against COVID-19 and perhaps will contribute to solutions quicker than we would otherwise achieve in many fields and applications. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, there has been an upsurge in the exploration and use of AI, and other data analytic tools, in a multitude of areas. This paper addresses some of the many considerations for managing the development and deployment of AI applications, including planning; unpredictable, unexpected, or biased results; repurposing; the importance of data; and diversity in AI team membership. We provide implications for research and for practice, according to each of the considerations. Finally we conclude that we need to plan and carefully consider the issues associated with the development and use of AI as we look for quick solutions.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence | AI | Machine learning | COVID-19 | Coronavirus | AI applications | Strategy | Bias | Repurposed AI | Data | Team diversity
The AI-discovered aetiology of COVID-19 and rationale of the irinotecan+ etoposide combination therapy for critically ill COVID-19 patients
اتیولوژی هوش مصنوعی COVID-19 و منطق درمان ترکیبی irinotecan + etoposide برای بیماران COVID-19 که به شدت بیمار هستند کشف شده است-2020
We present the AI-discovered aetiology of COVID-19, based on a precise disease model of COVID-19 built under five weeks that best matches the epidemiological characteristics, transmission dynamics, clinical features, and biological properties of COVID-19 and consistently explains the rapidly expanding COVID-19 literature. We present that SARS-CoV-2 implements a unique unbiased survival strategy of balancing viral replication with viral spread by increasing its dependence on (i) ACE2-expressing cells for viral entry and spread, (ii) PI3K signaling in ACE2-expressing cells for viral replication and egress, and (iii) viral- non-structural-and-accessory-protein-dependent immunomodulation to balance viral spread and viral replication. We further propose the combination of irinotecan (an in-market topoisomerase I inhibitor) and etoposide (an in-market topoisomerase II inhibitor) could potentially be an exceptionally effective treatment to protect critically ill patients from death caused by COVID-19-specific cytokine storms triggered by sepsis, ARDS, and other fatal comorbidities
Keywords: Aetiology | Treatment | Cytokine storm | ICU | COVID-19 | ACE2 Irinotecan | Etoposide | SARS-CoV-2
AI governance in the public sector: Three tales from the frontiers of automated decision-making in democratic settings
حکمرانی هوش مصنوعی در بخش عمومی: سه داستان از مرزهای تصمیم گیری خودکار در تنظیمات دموکراتیک-2020
The rush to understand new socio-economic contexts created by the wide adoption of AI is justified by its far-ranging consequences, spanning almost every walk of life. Yet, the public sector’s predicament is a tragic double bind: its obligations to protect citizens from potential algorithmic harms are at odds with the temptation to increase its own efficiency - or in other words - to govern algorithms, while governing by algorithms. Whether such dual role is even possible, has been a matter of debate, the challenge stemming from algorithms’ intrinsic properties, that make them distinct from other digital solutions, long embraced by the governments, create externalities that rule-based programming lacks. As the pressures to deploy automated decision making systems in the public sector become prevalent, this paper aims to examine how the use of AI in the public sector in relation to existing data governance regimes and national regulatory practices can be intensifying existing power asymmetries. To this end, investigating the legal and policy instruments associated with the use of AI for strenghtening the immigration process control system in Canada; “optimising” the employment services” in Poland, and personalising the digital service experience in Finland, the paper advocates for the need of a common framework to evaluate the potential impact of the use of AI in the public sector. In this regard, it discusses the specific effects of automated decision support systems on public services and the growing expectations for governments to play a more prevalent role in the digital society and to ensure that the potential of technology is harnessed, while negative effects are controlled and possibly avoided. This is of particular importance in light of the current COVID-19 emergency crisis where AI and the underpinning regulatory framework of data ecosystems, have become crucial policy issues as more and more innovations are based on large scale data collections from digital devices, and the real-time accessibility of information and services, contact and relationships between institutions and citizens could strengthen – or undermine - trust in governance systems and democracy.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence | Public sector innovation | Automated decision making | Algorithmic accountability
Are your IT staff ready for the pandemic-driven insider threat?
آیا کارکنان IT شما برای تهدیدات داخلی همه گیر محور آماده هستند؟-2020
As this article is being written it’s mid-March. The situation likely will have changed significantly by the time you read this, as it does by the day and even the hour. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has declared Covid-19 to be a global pandemic and the UK Government has stepped up its response from the ‘contain’ to the ‘delay’ phase. Public spaces and transport are noticeably quieter and many workplaces are getting emptier as staff members work from home.
Scottish mental health and capacity law: The normal, pandemic and ‘new normal’
بهداشت روانی و قانون ظرفیت اسکاتلند: نرمال ، همه گیر و عادی جدید-2020
A states real commitment to its international human rights obligations is never more challenged than when it faces emergency situations. Addressing actual and potential resourcing pressures arising from the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in, amongst other things, modifications to Scottish mental health and capacity law and the issuing of new guidance relating to associated practice. Whether these emergency or ordinary measures are invoked during the crisis there are potential implications for the rights of persons with mental illness, learning disability and dementia notably those relating to individual autonomy and dignity. This article will consider areas of particular concern but how strict adherence to the legal, ethical and human rights framework in Scotland will help to reduce the risk of adverse consequences.
Keywords: COVID-19 | Scotland | Mental health and capacity law | Emergency measures | Human rights
Mental health and capacity laws in Northern Ireland and the COVID-19 pandemic: Examining powers, procedures and protections under emergency legislation
قوانین بهداشت و ظرفیت های روانی در ایرلند شمالی و بیماری همه گیر COVID-19: بررسی قدرت ، رویه ها و حمایت ها تحت قانون اضطراری-2020
This article examines the changes made to mental health and capacity laws in Northern Ireland through temporary emergency legislation, known as the Coronavirus Act 2020. The purpose of the legislation was to respond to the emergency situation created by the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular the increase pressure placed on health services in the United Kingdom. An overview is provided of the governments rationale for the changes to Northern Ireland mental health and capacity laws, as well as exploring how they are likely to be operationalised in practice. Consideration is also given as to how such changes may impact upon existing human rights protections for persons assessed as lacking mental capacity. It is argued that it is important that regular parliamentary oversight is maintained in relation to the potential impact and consequences of such changes during the period they are in force. This should be done in order to assess whether they remain a necessary, proportionate and least restrictive response to the challenges faced in managing mental health and capacity issues in Northern Ireland during this public health emergency.
Keywords: Mental capacity law | Mental health law | Human rights | Northern Ireland | COVID-19 | Coronavirus Act 2020 | Emergency legislation
COVID-19: Fear, quackery, false representations and the law
COVID-19: ترس ، حواس پرتی ، نمایش های دروغین و قانون-2020
Fear, anxiety and even paranoia can proliferate during a pandemic. Such conditions, even when subclinical, tend to be a product of personal and predispositional factors, as well as shared cultural influences, including religious, literary, film, and gaming, all of which can lead to emotional and less than rational responses. They can render people vulnerable to engage in implausible conspiracy theories about the causes of illness and governmental responses to it. They can also lead people to give credence to simplistic and unscientific misrepresentations about medications and devices which are claimed to prevent, treat or cure disease. In turn such vulnerability creates predatory opportunities for the unscrupulous. This article notes the eruption of quackery during the 1889-1892 Russian Flu and the 1918-1920 Spanish Flu and the emergence during 2020 of spurious claims during the COVID-19 pandemic. It identifies consumer protection strategies and interventions formulated during the 2020 pandemic. Using examples from the United States, Japan, Australia and the United Kingdom, it argues that during a pandemic there is a need for three responses by government to the risks posed by conspiracy theories and false representations: calm, scientifically-based messaging from public health authorities; cease and desist warnings directed toward those making extravagant or inappropriate claims; and the taking of assertive and well publicised legal action against individuals and entities that make false representations during a pandemic in order to protect consumers rendered vulnerable by their emotional responses to the phenomenology of the pandemic.
Key words: Pandemics | COVID-19 | vulnerabilities | false representations | conspiracy theories | apocalyptic computer games | pandemic films | pandemic literature | quackery | fear | dread | consumer protection | public health responses | cease and desist orders | prosecution
Show me a man or a woman alone and Ill show you a saint: Changes in the frequency of criminal incidents during the COVID-19 pandemic
یک مرد یا زن را به تنهایی به من نشان دهید و من یک قدیس را به شما نشان خواهم داد: تغییر در فراوانی حوادث جنایی در طول بیماری همه گیر COVID-19-2020
Objectives: To investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the frequency of various crime types (property, violent, and mischief) in Vancouver, Canada. Methods: Crime data representing residential burglary, commercial burglary, theft of vehicle, theft from vehicle, theft, violence, and mischief are analysed at the city level using interrupted time series techniques. Results: While COVID-19 has not had an impact on all crime types, statistically significant change has been identified in a number of cases. Depending on the crime type, the magnitude and direction of the change in frequency varies. It is argued that (mandated) social restrictions, shifted activity patterns and opportunity structures which are responsible for these findings. Conclusions: We find support for changes in the frequency of particular crime types during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is important for criminal justice and social service practitioners when operating within an extraordinary event.
Keywords: Pandemic | Extraordinary event | Crime | COVID-19 | Canada