Paradoxes and mysteries in virus-infected supply chains: Hidden bottlenecks, changing consumer behaviors, and other non-usual suspects
پارادوکس ها و رمز و رازها در زنجیره های تأمین آلوده به ویروس: گلوگاه های پنهان ، تغییر رفتار مصرف کننده و سایر مظنونان غیر معمول-2021
In the early onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., consumers experienced surprising shortages of essential goods such as toilet paper, yeast and flour, and some of their favorite meat cuts that appeared to be unrelated to the pandemic at first look. The “usual” explanations attributing these shortages to “demand spikes” (e.g., foreign suppliers, trade wars and tariffs, and “hoarding behavior” of panicked consumers) often failed to explain them, and in the best of cases, predicted only temporary shortages. However, shortages in these supply chains ended up being in many cases real “supply chain struggles,” with their true causes going beyond the “usual” ones, and revealing a set of deeper and “unusual causes.” Our detailed analysis of the affected supply chains identifies these overlooked failure factors and hidden causes. Our underestimated causes include demand shifts among market segments, siloed demand planning, bottlenecks in shared resources such as transportation and distribution, and supply chain structures driven by the economics of an efficiency era that failed in a risk-fraught environment. We conclude on the profound lessons learned from the pandemic crisis on supply chains, and the implied challenges to address for building resilient supply chains for the future. The resilient supply chains of the future require rethinking the relevant “systems” we plan and optimize (e.g., firm, industry, region, global factor resources, etc.). The usual answer of building firm-specific redundancy of assets and operational flexibility might be prohibitive in the level of investment required for any one firm, or their financial stakeholders, to pursue and accept.
Keywords: supply chain | pandemic | essential goods | shortages
Uncovering research streams on agri-food supply chain management: A bibliometric study
کشف جریانهای تحقیق در مورد مدیریت زنجیره تأمین مواد غذایی کشاورزی: یک مطالعه کتابشناختی-2021
This study carried out a bibliometric analysis to critically review the evolution of the agri-food supply chain (AFSC) research field over the period of 2008–2019. A set of 1236 articles was analyzed from the Web of Science database. Besides using different analytical scientometric tools (topic mapping, co-citation, co-authorship and overlay visualization networks), this study identified frequently-used keywords, new and hot research topics and frequently-studied supply chain management (SCM) practices. Frequently used keywords are food supply chain, food waste, sustainability, food safety, SCM, food industry, and food security. New research themes include contract, blockchain, internet of things, resilience, and short food supply chain, a topic that demands further research especially due to the international COVID-19 pandemic and the need of farmers to be closer to the consumers. Hot research topics, that is, subjects that have been studied in highly cited papers were also identified include life cycle assessment, environmental impact, packaging, water use, food waste prevention, food waste generation, blockchain and carbon footprint. Among SCM practices, this study observed that risk and sustainable SCM are frequently used keywords. Procurement and reverse logistics were observed in fewer studies. SCM, food waste, food quality, GHG emissions and risk management are sustainable SCM practices frequently observed.
Keywords: Agri-food supply chain | Bibliometric analysis | Co-authorship | Co-citation analysis | Scientometrics | Supply chain management practices
Facilitating artificial intelligence powered supply chain analytics through alliance management during the pandemic crises in the B2B context
تسهیل تجزیه و تحلیل های زنجیره تامین مجهز به هوش مصنوعی از طریق مدیریت اتحاد در طول بحران های همه گیر در زمینه B2B-2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted global supply chains and exposed weak links in the chains far beyond what most people have witnessed in their living memory. The scale of disruption affects every nation and industry, and the sudden and dramatic changes in demand and supply that have occurred during the pandemic crisis clearly differentiate its impact from other crises. Using the dynamic capabilities view, we studied alliance management capability (AMC) and artificial intelligence (AI) driven supply chain analytics capability (AI-SCAC) as dynamic capabilities, under the moderating effect of environmental dynamism. We tested our four research hypotheses using survey data collected from the Indian auto components manufacturing industry. For data analysis we used Warp PLS 7.0 (a variance-based structural equation modelling tool). We found that alliance management capability under the mediating effect of artificial intelligence-powered supply chain analytics capability enhances the operational and financial performance of the organization. Moreover, we also observed that the alliance management capability has a significant effect on artificial intelligence-powered supply chain analytics capability under the moderating effect of environmental dynamism. The results of our study provide a nuanced understanding of the dynamic capabilities and the relational view of organization. Finally, we noted the limitations of our study and provide numerous research directions that may help answer some of the questions that arise from our study.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence | Supply chain analytics | Alliance management | Environmental dynamism | Dynamic capability view
The role of negative entropy within supply chain sustainability
نقش آنتروپی منفی در پایداری زنجیره تأمین-2021
With the COVID-19 pandemic, supply chains are today confronted with more uncertainties than ever before. In the face of unanticipated disruptions, being resilient and sustainable has been rewarding for supply chains in terms of competitive advantage. However, literature is still far from possessing an en compassing sustainable supply chain framework (SSCF). As a contribution to the extant literature, the present study expounds a prominent concept termed negative entropy and explores its role in the SSCF. To accomplish this goal, the effect of negative entropy on supply chain sustainability is tested. Following the open systems theory and drawing from the collaboration and information management aspects of the negative entropy, co-creation, open innovation and network governance concepts which are considered to be relevant in this context are selected to be the antecedents of negative entropy. The empirical research is conducted on prominent logistics service providers and ﬁrms from various sectors with approved research and development departments in Turkey. The obtained data were subjected to covariance-based structural equation modeling analysis via Lisrel program. According to results, negative entropy is found to be a robust element in explaining supply chain sustainability. Furthermore, whereas co-creation and network governance reﬂected signiﬁcant effects on negative entropy, surprisingly, open innovation demonstrated no substantial impact. This paper opens up a new front in sustainable supply chain management studies with a notable empirical study introducing negative entropy in the context of open systems theory.© 2021 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Supply chain sustainability | Resilience | Negative entropy | Co-creation | Open innovation | Network governance
چالشهای احیای زنجیرهی تأمین در پی همهگیری کووید-19
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 14 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 46
همهگیری کرونا شکننده بودن زنجیرههای تأمین جهانی در اثر کمبود مواد اولیه، اختلال در تولید و حمل و نقل، و فاصلهگذاری اجتماعی را آشکار نمود. بایستی شرکتها به دقت مشکلات مرتبط با احیا را پیشبینی نموده و راهبردهای مناسبی را برای اطمینان از بقای زنجیرههای تأمین و کسب و کارهای خود تدوین نمایند. برای افزایش آگاهی از این مسائل، هدف پژوهش پیش رو، شناسایی و مدلسازی چالشهای احیا در بستر صنعت پوشاک "دوختهفروش" بنگلادش است. روش آزمایش و آزمایشگاه ارزیابی و آزمون تصمیمگیری خاکستری مبتنی بر دلفی (DEMATEL) برای تحلیل دادهها استفاده شد. درحالیکه روش دلفی به شناسایی چالشهای اصلی احیای زنجیرهی تأمین ناشی از تأثیرات همهگیری کووید-19 کمک میکند، رویکرد DEMATEL خاکستری به دستهبندی روابط علّی میان این چالشهای کمک خواهد کرد. از بین 23 چالش احیای نهایی، 12 مورد، چالشهای علّی هستند. یافتههای این پژوهش میتواند به تصمیمگیرندگان در توسعهی سیاستهای راهبردی برای غلبه بر چالشهای احیای در دوران پساکرونا کمک کند.
کلیدواژه ها: همهگیری کووید-19 | مدیریت زنجیرهی تأمین | چالشهای احیا | روش دلفی | DEMATEL خاکستری.
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
نوآوری باز تجارت به تجارت: درس های COVID-19 برای شرکت های کوچک و توسط از بازارهای نوظهور
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 16
شرکتهای کوچک و متوسط (SMEs) از بازارهای نوظهور آسیبپذیرترین نوع شرکتها هستند، به ویژه در مواقع بحران به دلیل محدودیتهای زمانی و منابع. بنابراین، هدف این مقاله کمک به شرکتهای کوچک و متوسط از بازارهای نوظهور در انتخاب شرکای تجاری مناسب است که با آنها برای توسعه نوآوریهای مرتبط در دورههای بحرانی به طور کلی، و به طور خاص در طول همهگیری COVID-19 همکاری کنند. برای به دست آوردن دیدگاه های مرتبط، داده های کیفی از شرکت های کوچک و متوسط در بوسنی و هرزگوین در ماه مارس تا آوریل 2020 جمع آوری شد. یافته ها نشان می دهد که شرکت های کوچک و متوسط از همکاری های جدید با مشتریان تجاری و رقبا استقبال کرده اند و یک ذهنیت مشارکتی در مخالفت با روش سنتی رقابتی ایجاد کرده اند. این مقاله مجموعهای از توصیهها را برای مدیران ارائه میکند و چندین فرصت تحقیقاتی آینده را در مورد مدیریت باز بودن در زمینه SMEها از بازارهای نوظهور پیشنهاد میکند.
کلید واژه ها: همکاری نوآوری باز کسب و کار | کووید -19 | دوره های بحران | بازارهای نوظهور | شرکت های کوچک و متوسط
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Consumption responses to COVID-19 payments: Evidence from a natural experiment and bank account data
پاسخ های مصرف به پرداخت های Covid-19: شواهد از یک آزمایش طبیعی و اطلاعات حساب بانکی-2021
The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent lockdowns have had severe impacts on household budgets around the world. A large number of studies have documented drastic declines in income, spending, and debt payments in various countries, including the United States ( Baker et al., 2020a; Chetty et al., 2020; Coibion et al., 2020a; Cox et al., 2020 ), the United King- dom ( Hacioglu et al., 2020; Carvalho et al., 2020 ), Spain ( García-Montalvo and Reynal-Querol, 2020 ), Sweden and Denmark ( Sheridan et al., 2020 ), and Japan ( Watanabe, 2020 ). Moreover, the pandemic shock disproportionately affected groups with certain socioeconomic backgrounds and from different sectors; for instance, those in the face-to-face service industry, those
keywords: مصرف | بانک | کووید -19 | محرک | تمایل حاشیه ای برای مصرف | آزمایش طبیعی | ژاپن | Consumption | Bank | COVID-19 | Stimulus | Marginal propensity to consume | Natural experiment | Japan
Preliminary lessons from COVID-19 disruptions of small-scale fishery supply chains
دروس مقدماتی مربوط به اختلالات COVID-19 در زنجیره های تامین شیلات در مقیاس کوچک-2021
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and associated mitigation measures have disrupted global systems that support the health, food and nutrition security, and livelihoods of billions of people. These disruptions have likewise affected the small-scale fishery (SSF) sector, disrupting SSF supply chains and exposing weaknesses in the global seafood distribution system. To inform future development of adaptive capacity and resilience in the sector, it is important to understand how supply chain actors are responding in the face of a macroeconomic shock. Comparing across seven SSF case studies in four countries, we explore how actors are responding to COVID-19 disruptions, identify constraints to adaptive responses, and describe patterns of disruption and response across cases. In all cases examined, actors shifted focus to local and regional distribution channels and particularly drew on flexibility, organization, and learning to re-purpose pre-existing networks and use technology to their advantage. Key constraints to reaching domestic consumers included domestic restrictions on movement and labor, reduced spending power amongst domestic consumers, and lack of existing distribution channels. In addition, the lack of recogni- tion of SSFs as essential food-producers and inequities in access to technology hampered efforts to continue local seafood supply. We suggest that the initial impacts from COVID-19 highlight the risks in of over-reliance on global trade networks. The SSFs that were able to change strategies most success- fully had local organizations and connections in place that they leveraged in innovative ways. As such, supporting local and domestic networks and flexible organizations within the supply chain may help build resilience in the face of future macroeconomic shocks. Importantly, bolstering financial wellbeing and security within the domestic market both before and during such large-scale disruptions is crucial for supporting ongoing supply chain operations and continued food provision during macroeconomic crises.
Keywords: Small-scale fisheries | COVID-19 | Adaptive capacity | Supply chain | Resilience | Global seafood distribution system
Resilient regional food supply chains and rethinking the way forward: Key takeaways from the COVID-19 pandemic
زنجیره های تأمین مواد غذایی منطقه ای انعطاف پذیر و بازنگری در مسیر پیش رو: اقداماتی اساسی از بیماری همه گیر COVID-19-2021
Context: The U.S. food supply system relies heavily on vertically-integrated food supply chains (FSCs), which leverage large-scale production, streamlined operations, and centralized planning and control to provide consumers with a consistent supply of food. However, these FSCs were seriously disrupted upon the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. During the height of the crisis, they were slow to respond to production system failures and sudden and widespread changes in consumer demand. By contrast, many regionalized food supply chains (RFSCs) proved to be adaptive and responsive to changes in demand and delivery requirements, quickly pivoting to distribute products directly to consumers safely.
Objective: The objective of this research is to explore how RFSCs can improve the resilience of the U.S. food supply system in the face of large-scale disruptions like the COVID-19 crisis. In particular, this research seeks to gain a greater understanding of how RFSCs can leverage logistics best practices for efficient and reliable distribution to consumers in normal times and during disasters.
Methods: This study presents seven case studies of RFSCs in Texas and Iowa that adopted logistics best practices to enable them to provide their customers with convenient and safe purchasing mechanisms during the COVID- 19 emergency. A description of how the strategies adopted by each participant promote the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development goals is provided.
Results and conclusions: The successes experienced by these farmers and distributors at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic were a consequence of their willingness to adopt new distribution and logistics strategies. Collaboration among RFSC actors was a particularly effective strategy, as well as the adoption of scale- appropriate information and communication technologies, which helped to facilitate collaboration. Further, these case studies demonstrate how improved logistics performance allowed RFSCs to contribute to the health and well-being of their communities in a time of need.
Significance: These case studies demonstrate the potential of RFSCs to support a resilient and socially-sustainable food system that communities can rely on, even in the face of a major disruption like COVID-19. The adoption of logistics best practices helped these RFSCs to develop new organizational strengths that will likely support sustainable development in their communities after the crisis ends.
Keywords: UN Sustainable Development Goals | Regional food supply chains | Resilience | COVID-19 | Logistics best practices | Case studies
COVID-19 impacts on Flemish food supply chains and lessons for agri-food system resilience
تأثیرات COVID-19 بر روی زنجیره های تأمین مواد غذایی فلاندی و درس هایی برای انعطاف پذیری سیستم کشاورزی-غذایی-2021
Context: Resilience represents the ability of systems to anticipate, withstand, or adapt to challenges. Times of great stress and disturbance offer opportunity to identify and confirm key contributors to agri-food system resilience. The COVID-19 pandemic and its related consequences constituted major shock, challenging the resilience of many agri-food systems worldwide.
Objective: This paper aimed to report the immediate effects of the COVID-19 crisis on various key actors from Flemish food supply chains. By analysing and assessing the observed impacts of and reactions to this crisis from a resilience perspective, it also aimed to gain empirical evidence on resilience-enhancing characteristics of agri-food systems to sudden shocks.
Methods: A first, quantitative step of our mixed method approach measured 718 farmers’ experienced impacts and applied strategies following the crisis through an online survey. A second, qualitative step captured impacts and responses from other key actors downstream the food supply chain through 22 in-depth interviews and 18 on-line questionnaires. Data gathering and interpretation followed a conceptual framework for analysing resilience of agri-food systems to external challenges, that we developed based on the literature. The framework states that resilience actions stem from three types of resilience capacities: anticipatory, coping and responsive capacities. These are determined by both resources allocated by system actors, as well as by resilience attributes from the system.
Results and conclusions: The COVID-19 crisis induced a simultaneous dropped demand for food products in the hospitality industry and risen demand in retail. This shifted demand significantly disturbed food production, processing and marketing processes in terms of labour organization, planning, operation, logistics, and economic returns. Perceived impacts varied extensively across actors from the agri-food system, mostly depending on their marketing strategy, customer base, and flexibility and diversity of their practices. Reported reactions to this crisis revealed that resilience capacities varied according to actors’ abilities to negotiate prices, adjust production processes, and maintain or reorient sales. Some agri-food sectors showed higher responsive capacity because of a higher connectivity and self-organization within the system.
Significance: Our findings suggest that flexibility and diversity, despite their tendency to diminish price optimums, increase resilience capacities, which may be more beneficial to systems for thriving in turbulent and uncertain environments. A more tangible, operationalized understanding of resilience is necessary to effectively improve agri-food system resilience. Our conceptual framework proved a valuable tool for operationalizing resilience assessments to major shocks.
Keywords: COVID-19 | Farmers | Resilience | Shocks | Agri-food system | Food supply chain