Redefining recovery: Accounts of treatment experiences of dependent cannabis users in Nigeria
بازسازی دوباره بازیابی: حساب های تجربیات درمان از کاربران وابسته به کانابیس وابسته در نیجریه-2021
Background: Research on addiction recovery describes recovery as a process leading to cessation of drug use. Few researchers have explored alternative views of recovery, and the interplay of individuals’ agency and social context in the recovery process. This study explored situated understandings of recovery among cannabis users that emphasized process and contingency. Methods: We conducted the study in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. Participants were current (street-involved) cannabis users aged 21 to 34 (n = 97), recruited through time-location sampling. The study collected data through in-depth, individual interviews, which study staff transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically. Results: Participants’ accounts indicated a quest for treatment as a means of recovery and redemption (i.e., repairing an identity damaged by dependent cannabis use). Relapse affected recovery when participants defined the latter as abstinence. Framing recovery this way showed the effects of social and structural factors on indi- vidual agency and treatment experiences. Yet some participants’ accounts highlighted a redefinition of recovery as a process (“recovering”), measured by such outcomes as reduced drug use and improved overall well-being. Conclusions: Reframing recovery, as some participants’ accounts in our study capture, speaks to the need for treatment programs that are informed by the principles of harm reduction and health promotion. Instead of foisting a singular treatment goal defined as total abstinence onto drug users seeking treatment, treatment should be attuned to the experiences and life circumstances of users and support them in achieving their recovery goals.
keywords: آژانس | شاهدانه | هویت | نیجریه | بهبود | رفتار | Agency | Cannabis | Identity | Nigeria | Recovery | Treatment
The synthetic cannabinoid 5F-MDMB-PICA: A case series
کانابینوئید مصنوعی 5F-MDMB-PICA: یک سری مورد-2020
5F-MDMB-PICA has been detected in products sold on the internet as well as in biological samples since 2016. It is associated with serious adverse health and behavioral effects and even death. Herein we report on twelve cases with proven 5F-MDMB-PICA consumption, including three fatalities, four cases of driving under the influence of drugs and five other criminal acts. In these cases, 5F-MDMBPICA was detected in postmortem blood or serum. Concentrations ranged from 0.1–16 ng/mL. In some blood (serum) and urine samples, the hydrolysis metabolite of 5F-MDMB-PICA (M12) could also be detected. In this case series, co-consumption with other drugs occurred in 9 of 12 cases, most commonly alcohol, cannabis and other contemporary SCs. In five cases, 4F-MDMB-BINACA was also detected. The described cases demonstrate various adverse effects that might be associated with 5F-MDMBPICA. Observed physical adverse effects were mainly balance deficiencies and ocular effects such as reddened conjunctivae, glassy eyes and delayed or unresponsive pupil light reactions. Observed mental and behavioral effects were mainly changing moods, aggression, confusion, erratic behavior, mental leaps, disorientation, slowed reaction, logorrhea and slurred speech. Due to the fast changing market of synthetic cannabinoids, data on such new appearing substances are basically scarce. Because of the limited number of studies on pharmacological properties of synthetic cannabinoids, reports of findings in human samples along with corresponding case history descriptions can be valuable for the interpretation of upcoming routine cases.
Keywords: 5F-MDMB-PICA | Intoxication | Synthetic cannabinoids | DUID | Post mortem | High resolution mass spectrometry
Voices from ‘Igbo Bunks’: A qualitative study of the complicity of law-enforcement agents in marijuana use in a Nigerian community
صداهایی از Igbo Bunks : یک مطالعه کیفی از همدستی ماموران اجرای قانون در مصرف ماری جوانا در یک جامعه نیجریه-2020
There exists observable complicity by law enforcement agents in illicit drug networks for financial gain and yet the problem remains under-researched. Thus, this study explored the connection between cannabis use/users and the connivance of narcotic agents in Afikpo North LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were employed in selecting a sample of 21, comprising 18 regular ‘Igbo Bunks’ (specially designed marijuana-smoking joints) patronisers and three dealers (Bunk owners/managers). Qualitative thematic method was adopted in analysing the data generated from in-depth oral interviews. Findings revealed that three popular Bunks operate unhidden and were well-known to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and Nigeria Police Force (NPF), but little or no action has been taken to close them down. Although the outcome of the connivance has led to an increase in the price of cannabis due to illegal monetary compensation given to law enforcers to secure their approval, recurring use has also been recorded due to the ostensible comfort and protection these joints offer to customers. Organised marijuana smoking is a fast growing but underexplored ‘lawenforcement problem’ to watch and therefore further empirical studies on the phenomenon is suggested to further direct policy and action. There is urgent need for community responses and partnership with law enforcement agents. Since the most visible part of drug issue takes place in our neighbourhoods, this security synergy is necessary and timely for effective prevention and control of the phenomenon.
Keywords: Complicity | Igbo Bunks | Marijuana use | Law-enforcement agents | Qualitative study
Implications of Cannabis Legalization on Juvenile Justice Outcomes and Racial Disparities
پیامدهای قانونی شدن مواد مخدر بر نتایج عدالت نوجوانان و نابرابری های نژادی-2020
Introduction: The objective of this study is to assess the changes in rates of juvenile cannabis criminal allegations and racial disparities in Oregon after legalization of cannabis (July 2015) for adults. Methods: This study included all allegations for cannabis-related offenses that occurred from January 2012 to September 2018 in Oregon. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine monthly cannabis allegation rates over time, and tested differences between youth of color and white youth, adjusting for age, gender, and month the allegation occurred. Analysis was conducted in January−March 2019. Results: Cannabis allegation rates increased 28% among all youth and 32% among cannabis-using youth after legalization. Rates of allegations were highest for American Indian/Alaska Native and black youth. Rates for black youth were double that of whites before legalization, and this disparity decreased after legalization. For American Indian/Alaska Native youth, rates were higher than whites before legalization, and this disparity remained unchanged. Conclusions: Adult cannabis legalization in Oregon was associated with increased juvenile cannabis allegations; increases are not explained by changes in underage cannabis use. Relative disparities decreased for black youth but remained unchanged for American Indian/Alaska Native youth. Changing regulations following adult cannabis legalization could have unintended negative impacts on youth.
The impact of cannabis access laws on opioid prescribing
تأثیر قوانین دستیابی به حشیش بر تجویز مواد افیونی-2020
While recent research has shown that cannabis access laws can reduce the use of prescrip-tion opioids, the effect of these laws on opioid use is not well understood for all dimensionsof use and for the general United States population. Analyzing a dataset of over 1.5 bil-lion individual opioid prescriptions between 2011 and 2018, which were aggregated to theindividual provider-year level, we find that recreational and medical cannabis access lawsreduce the number of morphine milligram equivalents prescribed each year by 11.8 and 4.2percent, respectively. These laws also reduce the total days’ supply of opioids prescribed,the total number of patients receiving opioids, and the probability a provider prescribesany opioids net of any offsetting effects. Additionally, we find consistent evidence thatcannabis access laws have different effects across types of providers, physician specialties,and payers.
Keywords: Cannabis | Marijuana| Opioids
The Dark Web and cannabis use in the United States: Evidence from a big data research design
استفاده از وب تاریک و حشیش در ایالات متحده: شواهدی از طراحی تحقیقات داده های بزرگ-2020
Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly sold drugs on cryptomarkets. Because of the anonymitygranting functions of Tor, no study has traced the within-country effect of the Dark Web on cannabis consumption patterns. This article uses a big data research design to examine the association between revealed interest in the Dark Web and self-reported cannabis use within US states from 2011 when Silk Road launched to 2015 when Operation Onymous shuttered nine markets. Methods: This study uses mixed effects ordinary least squared regressions to analyze U.S. state/year panel data, using robust standard errors to correct for heteroscedasticity. Marginal effect plots illustrate substantive effects. The dataset consists of state-level variables drawn from the Uniform Crime Report (UCR), the American Community Survey (ACS), the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the Correlates of State Policy Project, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics Justice Expenditure and Employment Extracts. Data for the Dark Web interest measure are drawn from Google Trends. The proxy for Dark Web interest is an index of eight Dark Web related search queries. Results: The regression analysis indicates that Dark Web interest in US states positively correlates with cannabis consumption rates overall and among older adults (26+), but not youth (12–17) or younger adults (18–25). Additionally, Dark Web interest is positively associated with more frequent cannabis usage rates (i.e. use in the past month, excluding first time use) both overall and among older adults, but not among youth or younger adults. Dark Web interest does not correlate with casual use (i.e. use in the last year, excluding use in the past month) for any age bracket. Interacting Dark Web interest with state-level legalization regimes indicates that the association between Dark Web interest and cannabis consumption in the past year is no different in medically legalized states and amplified in states with recreational legalization. Lastly, the Dark Web interest term does not correlate with first time cannabis either overall or for any age category. Conclusions: Interest in the Dark Web is associated with increased cannabis use in U.S. states from 2011–2015, but the effect is concentrated in states with more frequent cannabis users, older users, and in states with recreational legalization of cannabis.
Keywords: Dark web | Cryptomarkets | Cannabis | Silk Road | Google Trends | Cannabis Legalization
The revolving prison door: Factors associated with repeat incarcerations in Spain
درب گردان زندان : عوامل مرتبط با حبس های مکرر در اسپانیا-2020
Aim of the present study was to test for the relationship of mental disorders, substance use, criminal and treatment variables with reincarceration. A sample of 2484 men from eight prisons in Spain participated. Logistic regression analyses with the number of incarcerations as dependent variable and mental disorders, drug use and treatment characteristics as independent variables were calculated. Odds ratios were calculated for prisoners with repeat incarcerations using the group for the first time in prison as reference category. Close to half of the participants was incarcerated for the second time or more (45.5%). Repeat incarceration was associated with older age (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96–0.98), Spanish nationals (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.41–2.28), unemployment (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.21–1.78), property offense (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.73–2.62), being sentenced (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.27–2.04) disciplinary infractions (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.46–2.20) and cannabis use (OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.44–2.27), heroin use (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.07–2.04), and the use of tranquilizers without prescription (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.19–2.11) during imprisonment. Repeat incarceration was not associated with self-reported mental disorders using multivariate regression, but with mental health (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.11–1.88) and drug use treatments (OR: 1.42, 95% 1.14–1.78) during imprisonment. This research suggests that mental health and substance use treatments in prison were typically provided to prisoners with repeat incarcerations who more likely commit disciplinary offenses such as drug use during imprisonment.
Keywords: Prison | Reincarceration | Mental health | Substance use | Spain
Acaricidal properties of hemp (Cannabis sativa L:) essential oil against Dermanyssus gallinae and Hyalomma dromedarii
خاصیت ضد عفونی کننده اسانس گیاه شاهدانه (Cannabis sativa L:) در برابر Dermanyssus gallinae و Hyalomma dromedarii-2020
The use of conventional pesticides in pest management is facing issues such as developing resistance in pests, environmental pollution and impact on human health, together with regulatory hurdles for approval and marketing of new eco-friendly pesticides to comply with the global trend for residue-free foodstuff. In this framework, botanical pesticides represent valuable alternative products to be exploited. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an eco-friendly, multipurpose crop that is known for its resistance against insects and parasites. This property is assured by the production of bioactive secondary metabolites such as terpenes and cannabinoids. Notably, the hemp essential oil (EO) contains several terpenoid compounds endowed with pesticide properties. On this basis, in the present work we assayed the toxicity of hemp EO on two ectoparasites of veterinary importance, i.e. Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer and Hyalomma dromedarii Koch. In order to identify the EO chemical constituents responsible for the toxicity on the two ectoparasites, the main monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes of hemp EO, namely α-pinene, myrcene, (E)-caryophyllene and α-humulene were tested as well. Mite contact toxicity assays were carried out at the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 μg/cm3. Tick larvicidal and ovicidal assays were done testing 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 μg/mL of the hemp EO and its main components. Results from mite contact toxicity showed that hemp EO was toxic to D. gallinae with LC50 values of 47.1 μg/mL. Larvicidal and ovicidal assays revealed the promising activity of the EO against tick larvae and eggs. Among all the tested compounds, (E)–caryophyllene and α-humulene were the most toxic for both ticks and mites, showing LC50 values lower than the whole EO. Myrcene was moderately toxic, with LC50 values higher than the whole EO, whereas α-pinene showed weak acaricidal activity. Taken together our results remarked the potential of hemp EO as a potential botanical acaricide in pest management programs and food production. The industrial scalability is assured by the great availability of land for the cultivation of hemp and its low cost of production.
Keywords: Hemp | Cannabis sativa | Essential oil | Mite | Tick | Pesticide
Clinical characteristics distinguishing tramadol-using adolescents from other substance-using adolescents in an out-patient treatment setting
ویژگی های بالینی ،نوجوانان مصرف کننده ترامادول را از سایر نوجوانان مصرف کننده مواد در یک محیط درمانی خارج از بیمار متمایز می کند-2020
Background: Non-medical Prescription Opioid Use (NMPOU) has increased worldwide during the last decades, and specifically, tramadol misuse may represent a novel pattern of substance use among adolescents. The present study aims to analyze characteristics distinguishing tramadol-using adolescents from other substanceusing adolescents seeking out-patient treatment. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of treatment-seeking patients between 13 and 24 years of age in an out-patient facility for substance use problems in Malmö, Sweden. A total of 526 treatment-seeking adolescents at an out-patient treatment center were included. Data on substance use, treatment history and sociodemographic variables were extracted through a semi-structured interview method aimed specifically for adolescents with alcohol or drug problems (Ung-DOK). Lifetime tramadol users were compared to non-users, and also, primary tramadol users were compared to remaining subjects. Results: Thirty-one percent (n = 162) were tramadol users (lifetime prevalence). In logistic regression, the tramadol group showed a significantly increased risk of tobacco use, problematic lifetime cocaine, benzodiazepine and amphetamine use, and were more likely to report contacts with the judicial system, and less likely to report contacts with child or adult psychiatry, and more likely to have parents born outside the Scandinavian countries. In logistic regression, primary tramadol use was negatively associated with frequent cannabis use. Conclusions: Tramadol use appears to be a novel pattern among treatment-seeking adolescents. They showed a significantly increased risk of initiation of other illicit drugs and criminal behaviour, despite less contact with psychiatric care. More attention may be needed to this relatively novel pattern of opioid use.
“Residual blood THC levels in frequent cannabis users after over four hours of abstinence: A systematic review.”
"سطح THC خون باقیمانده در مصرف کنندگان مکرر حشیش بعد از چهار ساعت ممتنع: یک بررسی منظم."-2020
Background: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis, causes psychomotor impairment and puts drivers at increased risk of motor vehicle collisions. Many jurisdictions have per se limits for THC, often 2 or 5 ng/mL, that make it illegal to drive with THC above the “legal limit”. People who use cannabis regularly develop partial tolerance to some of its impairing effects. Regular cannabis users may also have persistent elevation of THC even after a period of abstinence. Some stakeholders worry that current per se limits may criminalize unimpaired drivers simply because they use cannabis. We conducted a systematic review of published literature to investigate residual blood THC concentrations in frequent cannabis users after a period of abstinence. Methods: We identified relevant articles by combining terms for “cannabis” and “blood” and “concentration” and “abstinence” and searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We included studies that reported THC levels in frequent cannabis users after more than 4 hours of abstinence. Results: Our search identified 1612 articles of which 8 met our inclusion criteria. After accounting for duplicate publications, we had identified 6 independent studies. These studies show that blood THC over 2ng/mL does do not necessarily indicate recent cannabis use in frequent cannabis users. Five studies reported blood THC >2ng/mL (or plasma THC >3ng/mL) in some participants after six days of abstinence and two reported participants with blood THC >5ng/mL (or plasma THC >7.5ng/mL) after a day of abstinence. Conclusions: Blood THC >2ng/mL, and possibly even THC >5ng/mL, does not necessarily represent recent use of cannabis in frequent cannabis users.
KEYWORDS: Tetrahydrocannabinol | per se limits | systematic review