Prediction of forest parameters and carbon accounting under different fire regimes in Miombo woodlands, Niassa Special Reserve, Northern Mozambique
پیش بینی پارامترهای جنگلی و حسابداری کربن تحت رژیم های مختلف آتش سوزی در جنگل های میومبو، رزرو ویژه NIASSA، شمال موزامبیک-2021
Miombo woodlands are the most extensive dry forest type in southern Africa, covering ca. 1.9 million km2 across seven countries. Fire is a key ecosystem process that has structured miombo for the last 200,000 years. However, how fires affect the ecosystems functioning is not well understood. In this study, we used the individual-based forest model called FORMIND to analyze the carbon balance in the miombo woodlands of Niassa Special Reserve (NSR), northern Mozambique. The 42.000 km2 NSR represents the most important conservation area in Mozambique (~31% of the total conservation area in the country) and of miombo woodlands worldwide. Longterm inventory data from 2004 to 2019 for NSR were used to calibrate FORMIND. The primary ecosystem processes of this model are tree growth, mortality, regeneration, and competition. Fire is set as one of the main factors that affect these processes, after the woodland reaches an equilibrium at 200 years of age. We also calculated the Net Present Value (NPV) of carbon credits resulting from altering the fire regime (e.g., reducing or eliminating fires). The FORMIND model successfully reproduced important characteristics of the woodlands (aboveground biomass, stem size distribution and basal area). NPV estimates of above-ground woody biomass carbon stocks were highly dependent on the woodland age. The maximum NPV estimates were generated for a 30-year project starting with 200 year old woodlands (the current forest age) at 192–1339 USD based on a realistic range of carbon values (i.e., 3–20 USD MgCO2e− 1). While fire plays an important role in miombo woodlands by reducing stock and changing species composition, its effects on the capacity of the woodland to mitigate the effects of climate change varies depending on the age of stands. Our results show that FORMIND model reliably reproduce the field inventory data, thus can be used to improve carbon accounting standards. We recommend the development of a fire management system to sustain the miombo woodlands of NSR for multiple reasons. NSR is a globally significant protected area, but perhaps more importantly it could become a regional example for how to improve miombo woodland management. Given that miombo woodlands provide a myriad of ecosystem services to rural Africans, investing in improving fire management could increase the benefits to local communities. Altering fire regimes could improve habitat quality and promote greater resilience to climate change while sequestering carbon. In addition, local employment opportunities in fire management could be created via carbon financing from a carbon project. However, much more outreach and education will be needed to local and national stakeholders for fire management to be perceived more positively and realize the potential to generate multiple benefits for nature and people.
keywords: مدل GAP Formind | دینامیک اکوسیستم | حسابداری کربن | مدیریت آتش نشانی | خط مشی آتش | FORMIND gap model | Ecosystem dynamics | Carbon accounting | Fire management | Fire policy
A more complete accounting of greenhouse gas emissions and sequestration in urban landscapes
یک حسابداری کاملتر از انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای و ترسیب در مناظر شهری-2021
Understanding interactions between complex human and natural systems involved in urban carbon cycling is important when balancing the dual goals of urban development to accommodate a growing population, while also achieving urban carbon neutrality. This study develops a systems breakdown accounting method to assess the urban carbon cycle. The method facilitates greater understanding of the complex interactions within and between systems involved in this cycle, in order to identify ways in which humans can adapt their interactions to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from urban regions. Testing the systems breakdown accounting method in Stockholm County, Sweden, we find that it provides new insights into the carbon interactions with urban green-blue areas in the region. Results show how Stockholm County can reduce its emissions and achieve its goal of local carbon net-neutrality, if the green areas protect its carbon sequestration potential and maintain it to offset projected remaining active emissions. Results also show that the inland surface waters and inner archipelago waters within Stockholm County are a considerable source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. A better understanding of these water emissions is necessary to formulate effective planning and policy measures that can reduce urban emissions. The insights gained from this study can also be applied in other regions. In particular, water bodies could play a significant role in the urban carbon cycle and using this knowledge for more complete carbon accounting, and a better understanding of green-blue interactions could help to reduce net urban emissions in many places.
keywords: انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای | جداسازی کربن | چرخه کربن شهری | تغییر استفاده از زمین | برنامه ریزی شهری پایدار | حسابداری کربن | Greenhouse gas emissions | Carbon sequestration | Urban carbon cycle | Land use change | Sustainable urban planning | Carbon accounting
Evaluating nature-based solutions for climate mitigation and conservation requires comprehensive carbon accounting
ارزیابی راه حل های مبتنی بر طبیعت برای کاهش و حفاظت از آب و هوا نیاز به حسابداری کربن جامع دارد-2021
Nature-based solutions (NbS) can address climate change, biodiversity loss, human well-being and their interactions in an integrated way. A major barrier to achieving this is the lack of comprehensiveness in current carbon accounting which has focused on flows rather than stocks of carbon and led to perverse outcomes. We propose a new comprehensive approach to carbon accounting based on the whole carbon cycle, covering both stocks and flows, and linking changes due to human activities with responses in the biosphere and atmosphere. We identify enhancements to accounting, namely; inclusion of all carbon reservoirs, changes in their condition and stability, disaggregated flows, and coverage of all land areas. This comprehensive approach recognises that both carbon stocks (as storage) and carbon flows (as sequestration) contribute to the ecosystem service of global climate regulation. In contrast, current ecosystem services measurement and accounting commonly use only carbon sequestration measured as net flows, while greenhouse gas inventories use flows from sources to sinks. This flow-based accounting has incentivised planting and maintaining young forests with high carbon uptake rates, resulting, perversely, in failing to reveal the greater mitigation benefit from protecting larger, more stable and resilient carbon stocks in natural forests. We demonstrate the benefits of carbon storage and sequestration for climate mitigation, in theory as ecosystem services within an ecosystem accounting framework, and in practice using field data that reveals differences in results between accounting for stocks or flows. Our proposed holistic and comprehensive carbon accounting makes transparent the benefits, trade-offs and shortcomings of NbS actions for climate mitigation and sustainability outcomes. Adopting this approach is imperative for revision of ecosystem accounting systems under the System of EnvironmentalEconomic Accounting and contributing to evidence-based decision-making for international conventions on climate (UNFCCC), biodiversity (CBD) and sustainability (SDGs).
keywords: راه حل های مبتنی بر طبیعت | حسابداری کربن | خدمات آب و هوا | ذخیره سازی کربن و جداسازی | یکپارچگی اکوسیستم | سیستم حسابداری محیط زیست اقتصادی | Nature-based solutions | Carbon accounting | Climate regulation service | Carbon storage and sequestration | Ecosystem integrity | System of Environmental-Economic Accounting
مسائل حسابداری : بررسی مجدد ادعای جداسازی و رشد سبز واقعی در کشورهای اسکاندیناوی را دارد
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 9 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 31
مدرنسازی اکولوژیکی به شکل حمایت از مفهوم رشد سبز , گفتمان غالب در سیاست زیستمحیطی در سطح جهانی باقی میماند . با این حال , پرسشهایی از محدودیتهای توسعه اقتصادی و رشد بر روی یک سیاره با منابع طبیعی محدود , حداقل از زمان 1970s در هسته گفتمانهای محیطی بودهاست . تلاش اخیر Stoknes و Rockstrom ( 2018 ) به دنبال متحد کردن مفاهیمی از محدودیتهای اکولوژیک با مفهوم رشد سبز با پیشنهاد رشد سبز واقعی به عنوان نشان دادن موقعیت زمانی است که رشد مرزهای سیارهای را مد نظر قرار میدهد. با تمرکز بر روی خط سیر جدید در شدت انتشار گازهای گلخانهای , آنها کشورهای اسکاندیناوی از جمله دانمارک را به عنوان نمونههایی از چنین رشد واقعی سبز برجسته میکنند . در این مقاله , ما نشان میدهیم که مفهومسازی خاص رشد سبز واقعی و ادعاهای حاصل در مورد کشورهای اسکاندیناوی براساس مفروضات خاص , به طور خاص مربوط به چارچوبهای حسابداری کربن سطح ملی و اندازه بقیه بودجه جهانی کربن است . با باز کردن این فرضیات برای تجزیه و تحلیل , جانبداری و ماهیت نادرست بالقوه مفهومسازی را نشان میدهیم .
واژه های کاربردی: رشد سبز | حسابداری کربن | شاخصها | اسکاندیناوی | پیشرفته سازی بومشناسی | حاکمیت محیطی
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Accounting matters: Revisiting claims of decoupling and genuine green growth in Nordic countries
مسائل حسابداری: بررسی مجدد ادعاهای جدایی و رشد سبز واقعی در کشورهای شمال اروپا-2021
Ecological modernisation in the form of support to the notion of green growth remains the dominant discourse in environmental policy globally. Still, questions of limits to economic expansion and growth on a planet with finite natural resources have been at the core of environmental discourses at least since the 1970s. A recent effort by Stoknes and Rockstr¨om (2018) seeks to unite notions of ecological limits with the concept of green growth by proposing genuine green growth as denoting a situation when growth respects planetary boundaries. Focusing on recent trajectories in emissions intensity, they highlight Nordic countries including Denmark as examples of such genuine green growth. In this article, we demonstrate that the specific conceptualization of genuine green growth and resulting claims about the Nordic countries rest on particular assumptions, specifically concerning national- level carbon accounting frameworks and the size of the remaining global carbon budget. By opening up these assumptions for analysis we illustrate the partiality and potentially misleading nature of the conceptualization of GGG.
keywords: رشد سبز | حسابداری کربن | شاخص ها | نوردیکس | مدرنیزاسیون زیست محیطی | حکومتداری محیط زیست | Green growth | Carbon accounting | Indicators | Nordics | Ecological modernisation | Environmental governance
On the fair accounting of carbon emissions in the global system using an exergy cost formation concept
حسابداری منصفانه انتشار کربن در سیستم جهانی با استفاده از مفهوم تشکیل هزینه اگزرژی-2021
Carbon accounting is necessary for designing effective climate change mitigation policies. A proper and fair accounting method should motivate both the producers toward cleaner production methods and the consumers toward reducing the embodied emissions of their consumption. This research work proposes a new approach to map the production chain of carbon emissions in which every subsystem is responsible for the level and efficiency of its production activities and embodied emissions for providing its economic activities or final demands. The exergy cost formation concept is used to track the emissions in the production chain. The results of this accounting present the total carbon loads on economic outputs either consumed locally or exported abroad (CExA). The CExA results are then compared to the results of conventional production-based (PBA) and consumption-based (CBA) carbon inventories. Here we show that, in addition to the levels of production and consumption, the economic structures of the countries and the efficiency of the production activities are important factors differentiating the roles of the countries in the global emissions. Our results show that the share of the imported emissions to the total CExA varies between 14% for developing countries to 34% for the developed countries. Moreover, although the ratio of CBA to PBA for the countries is highly dependent on their economic states (0.87 for developing countries and 1.21 for developed countries), the ratio of CExA to PBA does not follow a unique trend among developing or developed countries. The results demonstrate that, according to the proposed sharing approach, the import-oriented developed countries, which have benefited the most from the carbon leakage effect, are mostly penalized for the embodied emissions associated with the imports to their economy, and vice versa.
keywords: تغییرات اقلیمی | حسابداری کربن | مسیولیت تقسیم شده | انتشار کربن اضافه شده است | تجزیه و تحلیل ExergoEnviremental | هزینه اگزرژی | Climate change | Carbon accounting | Shared responsibility | Carbon emission added | Exergoenvironmental analysis | Exergy cost
Can energy efficiency rating and carbon accounting foster greener building design decision? An empirical study
آیا می توان نرخ بهره وری انرژی و حسابداری کربن سبزتر را با تصمیماتی طراحی نمود؟مطالعه تجربی-2015
Carbon accounting and energy efficiency rating systems are developed to foster carbon reduction at different stages of the building life cycle. The concepts of energy efficiency are familiar to construction practitioners in Australia. However, carbon accounting is yet to be considered as part of business as usual within the industry. This project aims to investigate if energy efficiency rating and carbon accounting can affect the industry practitioners' decisions in building design and operation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 industry professionals in Melbourne, Australia. The results indicate that the interviewees have a good understanding of energy efficiency and the concept of lifecycle costing. Yet, there is a general misconception about carbon accounting and its relevance to the industry and environment. This study demonstrates how carbon accounting and energy efficiency of a building can be estimated and used in the decision-making process by industry practitioners. Real construction project data was adopted and it was discovered that a higher building energy efficiency rating may, in fact, result in higher level of carbon consumed during the construction stage. Low-carbon construction was found to be dependent upon multiple factors including the practitioners’ ability to convince the clients with a comprehensive cost-benefits analysis and a greater understanding for the relationship between embodies carbon and energy efficiency. To this end, carbon accounting and energy efficiency rating systems are both vital tools that cannot be missed. Keywords: Energy efficiency Carbon accounting Building design decision Construction cost estimate