تأثیر آموزش شناختی مبتنی بر واقعیت مجازی بر کودکان مبتلا به اختلال طیف اوتیسم
سال انتشار: 2021 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 5 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 17
واقعیت مجازی (VR) یک محیط مصنوعی است که از طریق محرک های حسی که یک رایانه ایجاد میکند، تجربه می شود. قابلیت VR برای شبیه سازی واقعیت دسترسی به درمان های روانی را تا حد زیادی افزایش میدهد. برای تحلیل تأثیر آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA روی کودکان مبتلا به اختلال طیف اوتیسم (ASD) مدل آموزش مداخله زود هنگام و بازخورد هوشمند جزئی ایجاد شد. برای کمک به شدت علائم و اثربخشی درمان آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA در کودکان مبتلا به ASD ، از لیست بررسی رفتار اوتیسم (ABC) ، مقیاس درجهبندی اوتیسم دوران کودکی (CARS) و مقیاس رفتار اوتیسم Clancy (کابین) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA برای کودکان مبتلا به ASD بسیار جذاب بود؛ آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA علائم معمول (اختلال ارتباط اجتماعی ، تاخیر گفتاری، کم توجهی و رفتار جدی) کودکان مبتلا به ASD را به طور چشمگیری بهبود بخشید و طی 4 هفته پس از درمان لیست بررسی رفتار اوتیسم (ABC)، مقیاس درجهبندی اوتیسم دوران کودکی (CARS) و مقیاس رفتار اوتیسم را بهبود بخشید (کابین ها). داده ها حاکی از آن است که آموزش ذهنی مبتنی بر VA ممکن است روش خوبی برای درمان کودکان مبتلا به ASD باشد.
کلمات کلیدی : اختلال طیف اوتیسم | آموزش روانی کودکان | واقعیت مجازی | مداخله
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
The effects of Chile’s 2005 traffic law reform and in-country socioeconomic differences on road traffic deaths among children aged 0-14 years: A 12-year interrupted time series analysis
اثرات اصلاح قانون راهنمایی و رانندگی در سال 2005 شیلی و اختلافات اقتصادی و اجتماعی درون کشور در مورد مرگ و میر در جاده های کودکان در سن 0-14 سال: تجزیه و تحلیل قطع 12 ساله سری های زمانی -2020
Objectives: This study assessed the effect of Chile’s 2005 traffic law reform (TLR) on the rates of road traffic deaths (RTD) in children aged 0–14 years, adjusting for socioeconomic differences among the regions of the country. Methods: Free-access sources of official and national information provided the data for every year of the study period (2002–2013) and for each of the country’s 13 upper administrative divisions with respect to RTD in child pedestrians and RTD in child passengers (dependent variables), and the following control variables: the number of road traffic tickets processed, investment in road infrastructure, poverty, income inequality, insufficient education, unemployment, population aged 0–14 years, and prevalence of alcohol consumption in the general population. Interrupted time series analyses (level and slope change impact model), using generalized estimating equation methods, were conducted to assess the impact of the TLR (independent variable) on the dependents variables. Results: There was a significant interaction between time and Chile’s 2005 TLR for a reduction in child pedestrians (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.96) and passengers RTD (IRR for interaction 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.96) trends. In addition, in child pedestrians, RTD rates were affected by poverty (IRR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02–1.05), income inequality (IRR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.04), and unemployment (IRR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98), whereas in the case of child passengers, poverty (IRR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.08) and income inequality (IRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95) were significant. Conclusions: Large-scale legislative actions can be effective road safety measures if they are aimed at promoting behavioral change in developing countries, improving the safety of children on the road. Additionally, regional socioeconomic differences are associated with higher RTD rates in this population, making this an argument in favor of road safety policies that consider these inequalities. The number of road traffic tickets processed and the investment in road infrastructure were not significant.
Keywords: Safety management | Child | Traffic accidents | Mortality | Socioeconomic factors
Paying the price: consequences for children’s education in prison in a market society
پرداخت قیمت: عواقب آموزش کودکان در زندان در جامعه بازار-2020
This article explores consequences for children’s education in custodial institutions in a contemporary market society, England and Wales. It finds that policy decision-making designed to ‘transform’ prison education for children is primarily influenced by a desire to limit the cost to the public purse of custodial placements. This paper argues that market values influence decision-making in the youth custody sector and shape the nature and quality of provision that children are permitted to access. The consequences associated with this include further fragmentation of prison provision for children, an imbalance in the types of custodial place made available, (with children disproportionately contained in the cheapest type of provision), geographical discrepancies and persistent high re-offending rates. The concern with the costs of custody is particularly prominent in a society subject to ‘austerity’ measures across a wide range of public services, particularly in the criminal justice sector (Ismail, 2020). However, it is inconsistent with contemporary knowledge and understanding of children in custody, their needs and their vulnerabilities. The transformation supposedly sought is unlikely to materialize while annual cost-per-child place is a dominant driving force. Instead, we need to start with an understanding of what individual support children in prison need in order to be ‘education ready’.
Keywords: education | learning | market society | prison | children
Women with a substance use disorder: Treatment completion, pregnancy, and compulsory treatment
زنان مبتلا به اختلال مصرف مواد: پایان درمان ، بارداری و درمان اجباری-2020
Over the last several decades, research regarding substance use treatment programs has focused on the unique and differential outcomes of male and female illicit substance users. Research less frequently examines the unique individual and contextual factors that may influence treatment outcomes. One such population that merits special consideration is pregnant women, as substance use within this population has deleterious effects for both the women and their unborn children. The current study employs propensity score matching to determine if pregnancy and referral source to treatment affect treatment program outcomes. Findings suggest that pregnant women, compared to similarly situated nonpregnant women, are significantly less likely to complete substance use treatment; however, pregnant women who were referred to treatment by the criminal justice system were significantly more likely to complete treatment than those who entered treatment by other referral sources.
Keywords: Substance abuse treatment | Illicit drug use | Pregnant | Treatment episode data
The narrative coherence of witness transcripts in children on the autism spectrum
انسجام روایی متن شاهد در کودکان در طیف اوتیسم-2020
Background and Aims: Autistic children often recall fewer details about witnessed events than typically developing children (of comparable age and ability), although the information they recall is generally no less accurate. Previous research has not examined the narrative coherence of such accounts, despite higher quality narratives potentially being perceived more favourably by criminal justice professionals and juries. This study compared the narrative coherence of witness transcripts produced by autistic and typically developing (TD) children (ages 6–11 years, IQs 70+). Methods and Procedures: Secondary analysis was carried out on interview transcripts from a subset of 104 participants (autism=52, TD=52) who had taken part in a larger study of eyewitness skills in autistic and TD children. Groups were matched on chronological age, IQ and receptive language ability. Coding frameworks were adopted from existing narrative research, featuring elements of ‘story grammar’. Outcomes and Results: Whilst fewer event details were reported by autistic children, there were no group differences in narrative coherence (number and diversity of ‘story grammar’ elements used), narrative length or semantic diversity. Conclusions and Implications: These findings suggest that the narrative coherence of autistic children’s witness accounts is equivalent to TD peers of comparable age and ability.
Keywords: Children | Autism | Eyewitness testimony | Narrative coherence | Story grammar
Message framing to reduce stigma and increase support for policies to improve the wellbeing of people with prior drug convictions
قالب بندی پیام برای کاهش بیماری روانی و افزایش حمایت از سیاست های بهبود رفاه افراد با محکومیت قبلی دارویی-2020
Background: Individuals with drug convictions are at heightened risk of poor health, due in part to punitive public policies. This study tests the effects of message frames on: (1) public stigma towards individuals with felony drug convictions and (2) support for four policies in the United States (U.S.) affecting social determinants of health: mandatory minimum sentencing laws, ‘ban-the-box’ employment laws, and restrictions to supplemental nutrition and public housing programs. Methods: A randomized experiment (n = 3,758) was conducted in April 2018 using a nationally representative online survey panel in the U.S. Participants were randomized to a no-exposure arm or one of nine exposure arms combining: (1) a description of the consequences of incarceration and community reentry framed in one of three ways: a public safety issue, a social justice issue or having an impact on the children of incarcerated individuals, (2) a narrative description of an individual released from prison, and (3) a picture depicting the race of the narrative subject. Logistic regression was used to assess effects of the frames. Results: Social justice and the impact on children framing lowered social distance measures and increased support for ban-the-box laws. Conclusion: These findings can inform the development of communication strategies to reduce stigma and advocacy efforts to support the elimination of punitive polices towards individuals with drug convictions.
Keywords: Stigma | Messaging | Policy | Criminal justice
Effects of age and rate of twist on torsional fracture patterns in infant porcine femora
اثرات سن و میزان پیچش بر روی الگوهای شکست پیچشی در استخوان ران خوک نوزاد-2020
Objective: Long bone fractures are a common injury in the pediatric population. Differentiation between abusive, or non-accidental trauma, and accidental trauma in children remains challenging for forensic practitioners. A recent clinical-based study was able to separate pediatric abusive from accidental trauma based on femoral fracture pattern using the ratio of fracture length over bone diameter (fracture ratio), as determined from radiographic analysis of this fractured bone. The forensic literature indicates more cases of abuse in younger pediatric victims than accidental cases. While this was the case in the clinical study, the effect was not shown to be statistically significant. Furthermore, while speed of trauma was not considered in the clinical study, a laboratory study with an immature bovine model indicates rotational speed influences fracture pattern, but specimen age was not varied in that study. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to use immature porcine femora to investigate the effects of age and rate of twist on a modified version of this fracture ratio parameter. Methods: Fifteen pairs of porcine femora with various ages were twisted until observable failure using a custom-built torsional fixture. The left femur of each pair was twisted to failure at a rate of 3 deg/s, while the right femur was twisted at a rate of 90 deg/s. The torque and angle of rotation were recorded at a sampling rate of 10,000 Hz. Fracture ratio was defined as total fracture length divided by bone diameter. Results: Fracture ratio increased with specimen age, with specimens under the low rate of twist yielding a consistently lower fracture ratio than those from specimens under the high rate of twist. The results showed that both specimen age and rate of twist were significant factors influencing fracture ratio. Conclusion: The determination of abusive from accidental trauma in criminal cases, based on the pattern of long bone fracture alone, may need to include additional data on the specific age of the pediatric victim and the potential speed of the traumatic event.
Keywords: Forensic biomechanics | Spiral fracture | Long bone | Animal model | Fracture ratio | Pediatric abuse
Legal Remedies For a Forgiving Society: Children’s rights, data protection rights and the value of forgiveness in AI-mediated risk profiling of children by Dutch authorities
راه حل های قانونی برای یک جامعه بخشنده: حقوق کودکان ، حقوق محافظت از داده ها و ارزش بخشش در مشخصات ریسک کودکان با استفاده از هوش مصنوعی توسط مقامات هلندی-2020
30 years after the United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) and two years after the new EU data protection regime, the social value of forgiveness is not part of these legal instruments. The lack of this value within these legal instruments and the lack of re- search on the subject of forgiveness in relation to improving the legal position of children require urgent addressing especially when children are exposed to artificial intelligence (AI)- mediated risk profiling practices by Dutch government authorities. Developmental psychol- ogists underline that the erosion of this value could hamper children’s ability to develop flourishing human relationships. This article contributes to fill this niche. It investigates how this value can be enforced in order to benefit children below the age of 12 years that are exposed to risk profiling by Dutch law enforcement and youth care authorities. Children who are victims, witnesses, or falsely accused provide a particular narrowing of focus in this article as these groups cannot be held responsible for their correlations to crime. Strengthening children’s legal position is crucial because their position is much weaker compared to adults when it comes to question a risk correlation about themselves. These children correlated to crime, as this paper argues, not only can feel unjustifiably punished, ‘unforgiven’, and hampered in their choices, but can also develop low self-worth and (negative) judgmental attitudes towards others. Based on input from developmental psychology, empirical material, and legal desk research, this article seeks to answer: What remedies can the Law Enforcement Directive (LED) 2016/680, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) offer against the detrimental implications of risk profiling children by the ProKid 12- SI system and the Crime Anticipation System (CAS) in The Netherlands? How can the social value of forgiveness strengthen these instruments and the legal position of children in light of security interests and the best interests of the child? The analysis concludes that the CRC offers the broadest room for incorporating the principle of forgiveness into balancing tests, but certain LED and GDPR prescriptions could also support the value of forgiveness for children, such as the right to erasure. The analysis concludes that incorporating forgiveness into the mentioned legal instruments would not only benefit individual children but would also foster public safety as a result.
Keywords: Forgiveness | Risk profiles | Children rights | Data protection | AI | Correlations
Family formation patterns of children who experienced parental imprisonment
الگوهای تشکیل خانواده کودکانی که زندانی شدن والدین را تجربه کرده اند-2020
While it is widely recognized that imprisonment affects the lives of prisoners, there is increasing evidence that the consequences also extend to prisoners’ children. Recently, several studies showed that the experience of parental imprisonment could also have an impact on family formation processes when children grow older. These previous studies, however, used relatively short follow-up periods, up to adolescence or early adulthood. The current study uses a Dutch multigenerational dataset with follow-ups at, on average, age 28 (N=1147) and 47 (N=1241), which makes it possible to also examine life events that usually occur later in life. Official registration data were used to examine the relationship of parental offending and parental incarceration with offspring’s family formation patterns. Results show that children who experienced parental imprisonment were less likely to marry than those with parents who were never convicted. However, when they did marry, it was at a younger age and more often while being pregnant. Children of prisoners were also younger when they had their first child. Most of these differences were also found while comparing children of prisoners with children of convicted but not imprisoned parents. This suggests that these different family formation patterns are specifically related to the imprisonment of the parent rather than to the parent’s criminal behavior. Keywords: Parental imprisonment | Parental incarceration | Family formation | Marriage | Divorce | Parenthood
Autistic traits, personality, and evaluations of humanoid robots by young and older adults
ویژگی های اوتیستیک ، شخصیت و ارزیابی ربات های انسان دوستانه توسط افراد جوان و بزرگتر-2020
While research with individuals on the autistic spectrum has increased strongly, there is still a lack of research on autism/autistic traits in older adults. Children with autism have been proposed to benefit from interactions with social robots; for older adults, the potential role of robotics is currently being discussed. We combined these topics by assessing both young and older (Mean age ¼ 22 vs. 69 years) neurotypical adults’ evaluations of various humanoid robots presented in video clips, on multiple dimensions (likeability, companionship, dominance, threat, human-likeness). We additionally assessed autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Questionnaire – AQ) and Big- Five personality traits. Remarkably, older adults evaluated robots as more likeable. Compared to young adults, older adults also showed significantly higher levels of autistic traits (particularly in the AQ social interaction subscale), higher levels of conscientiousness, and lower levels of openness. We found strong positive correlations between ratings of likeability and human-likeness of robots across groups, and particularly in participants with high levels of autistic trait. Across robots, data also provided evidence for the uncanny valley phenomenon. Favourable evaluations of robots by older adults suggest potential for older adults on the autistic spectrum to benefit from social robots.
Keywords: Humanoid robots | Old adults | Autistic traits | Personality | Visual appearance