با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
Applying emergy and decoupling analysis to assess the sustainability of China’s coal mining area
استفاده از تحلیل اضطراری و جداسازی برای ارزیابی پایداری منطقه استخراج زغال سنگ چین-2020
The sustainable development of coal mining area continues to be one of the most topical issues in the world. Taking Shainxi Province as a case, this study applies emergy and decoupling analysis to build a multi-index sustainability evaluation system and constructs an emergy decoupling index to investigate the sustainability of a coal mining area in China during 2006e2015. It overcomes the problem of the unification of the traditional evaluation index system and integrates the influence of economic development, resources, the environment, and energy. The study finds that the coal mining area still depends on its coal resources. The sustainability of the coal mining area is still at a low level, and it is not sustainable in the long term. The economic growth still has a strong negative decoupling from the environmental loss. Energy management system and circular economic system should be built to improve the coal mining area’s sustainability. In the long run, the coal mining industry should gradually be abandoned. Based on China’s growing energy consumption, the findings of this study may not only serve as a reference for management to improve the sustainability of the coal mining areas but also to address China’s energy shortage problem.
Keywords: Sustainability | Emergy analysis | Decoupling | Coal mining area
Performance assessment of coupled green-grey-blue systems for Sponge City construction
ارزیابی عملکرد سیستم های سبز و خاکستری-آبی همراه برای ساخت و ساز شهر اسفنجی-2020
In recent years, Sponge City has gained significant interests as a way of urban water management. The kernel of Sponge City is to develop a coupled green-grey-blue system which consists of green infrastructure at the source, grey infrastructure (i.e. drainage system) at the midway and receiving water bodies as the blue part at the terminal. However, the current approaches for assessing the performance of Sponge City construction are confined to green-grey systems and do not adequately reflect the effectiveness in runoff reduction and the impacts on receiving water bodies. This paper proposes an integrated assessment framework of coupled green-grey-blue systems on compliance of water quantity and quality control targets in Sponge City construction. Rainfall runoff and river system models are coupled to provide quantitative simulation evaluations of a number of indicators of landbased and river quality. A multi-criteria decision-making method, i.e., Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is adopted to rank design alternatives and identify the optimal alternative for Sponge City construction. The effectiveness of this framework is demonstrated in a typical plain river network area of Suzhou, China. The results demonstrate that the performance of Sponge City strategies increases with large scale deployment under smaller rainfall events. In addition, though surface runoff has a dilution effect on the river water quality, the control of surface pollutants can play a significant role in the river water quality improvement. This framework can be applied to Sponge City projects to achieve the enhancement of urban water management.
Keywords: Low impact development | Sponge City | Green-grey-blue system | Performance assessment | TOPSIS
Research on the policy route of China’s distributed photovoltaic power generation
تحقیق در مورد مسیر سیاست تولید انرژی فتوولتائیک و توزیع شده در چین-2020
The distributed photovoltaic power generation is an important way to make use of solar energy in cities. China issues a series of policies to support the development of distributed photovoltaics in law, electricity price, grid connection standard, project management, financial support and so on. However, there are still some defects in policies and market mechanism. China creates a competitive market with a significant number of projects of distributed photovoltaic power through the reform of the electricity market, yet substantial drawbacks of the corresponding investment subsidies prevent distributed photovoltaic power from rapidly developing. This paper summarizes the status quo of China’s distributed photovoltaic power development, given its long-term plan, presents excellences and shortcomings of the existing policy system, and looks into the supporting policies and implementation paths for China’s distributed photovoltaic power in different stages. Innovative business models and financial support models are conducive to the development of distributed photovoltaic power. Financial innovation methods such as crowd funding and asset securitization should be encouraged to develop a sound risk assessment mechanism for projects, involve insurance institutions, and establish a risk sharing mechanism. In the context of a series of supporting policies, the distributed photovoltaic power in China will move towards market-oriented standardization for a healthier and more stable development.
Keywords: Distributed photovoltaic power | Electricity price | Policy route | Development strategy
Effectiveness of implementing the criminal administrative punishment law of drunk driving in China: An interrupted time series analysis, 2004-2017
اثربخشی اجرای قانون مجازات اداری کیفری رانندگی مست در چین: تجزیه و تحلیل سری های زمانی قطع شده ، 2004-2017-2020
In 2011, a more severe drunk driving law was implemented in China, which criminalized driving under the influence of alcohol for the first time and increased penalties for drunk driving. The present study aimed to assess effectiveness of the drunk driving law in China in reducing traffic crashes, injuries, and mortality. Data used in this study was obtained from the Traffic Management Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security of the People’s Republic of China. An interrupted time series analysis was conducted to analyze annual data from 2004 to 2017, including the number of road traffic crashes, deaths, and injuries caused by drunk driving in China. The average annual incidences of crashes, mortality, and injuries have decreased after the promulgation of drunk driving law in 2011. In the post-intervention period, the increased slope for crashes, mortality and injury rates were, respectively, -0.140 to -0.006, -0.052 to -0.005 and -0.150 to -0.008, indicating a weaker downward trend of dependent variables. The more stringent drunk driving law is not as effective as expected. Drunk driving is still a severe traffic safety problem to be addressed in China. Both legislation and other prevention programs should be adopted to reduce road traffic injuries caused by drunk driving in China.
Keywords: Drunk driving | Interrupted time series analysis | Road traffic law | Injury | Evaluation | China
Planning water-energy-food nexus system management under multilevel and uncertainty
برنامه ریزی مدیریت سیستم Nexus آب-انرژی-مواد غذایی تحت چند سطح و عدم اطمینان-2020
In this study, a multi-level interval fuzzy credibility-constrained programming (MIFCP) method is developed for planning the regional-scale water-energy-food nexus (WEFN) system. MIFCP can not only deal with uncertainties expressed as interval parameters and fuzzy sets, but also handle conflicts and hierarchical relationships among multiple decision departments. The MIFCP approach is then applied to planning the WEFN system of Henan Province, China. Solutions of three different decision targets in various hierarchy levels, five scenarios with different decision makers’ objectives and five credibility levels toward different necessity degrees are examined. Several findings in association with various planting structures, water resources demand, energy consumption, fertilizer and pesticide utilizations and system benefits are achieved. Results reveal that the future total irrigation water can decrease by 1.49% from years 2020e2025. Results also disclose that the total cultivated area can change by 1.91% owing to the variation of fertilizer and pesticide change. Compared to single level programming (SLP) and bi-level programming (BP) approaches, the MIFCP-WEFN model can help decision-makers identify the optimal agricultural water resources management schemes by means of the leadership of water resources managers as well as the feedback of two diverse followers (i.e. energy managers and agricultural managers).
Keywords: Multi-level programming | Planning | Scenario analysis | Uncertainty | Water-energy-food nexus system
Optimal planning of distributed photovoltaic generation for the traction power supply system of high-speed railway
برنامه ریزی بهینه از تولید فتوولتائیک توزیع شده برای سیستم منبع تغذیه کششی راه آهن با سرعت بالا-2020
The ever-increasing electricity price and energy consumption in high-speed railway industry push railway companies to seek a promising way to realize their sustainable developments. Making full use of the solar resource along with high-speed railways can be a potential solution to cut the electricity bill, bring more profit to railway companies and realize the decarbonization of high-speed railway industry. This paper studies the optimal planning of distributed photovoltaic generation (DPVG) and energy storage system (ESS) for the traction power supply system (TPSS) of high-speed railway. A quantitative method is proposed to study the time and space characteristics of photovoltaic generation and electricity demand of high-speed trains. An integrated cost-benefit analysis framework is developed to evaluate the effect of DPVG and ESS on the economy of TPSS. To derive the optimal planning scheme and energy management strategy of DPVG and ESS, a mathematical programming model with the objective of minimizing the total cost is proposed to seek the most economical solution. A hybrid global optimal solution approach is developed to solve the model. A real-world case of Beijing-Baoding high-speed railway in China is used to illustrate the capability and characteristics of the proposed model. The computational results show that DPVG is able to supply 32:5% electricity demand of high-speed trains. The integration of DPVG and ESS can help railway company save 4.2 million CNY each year in Beijing- Baoding high-speed railway. This paper demonstrates the potential and applicability of DPVG and ESS in high-speed railway industry.
Keywords: High-speed railway | Photovoltaic generation | Energy storage system | Traction power supply system
Identifying the terrestrial carbon benefits from ecosystem restoration in ecologically fragile regions
شناسایی فواید کربن زمینی از ترمیم اکوسیستم در مناطق شکننده محیط زیست-2020
Ecosystem restoration is an urgent and vital measure to restore degraded land in ecologically fragile regions. The terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity is important to indicate the effectiveness of ecosystem restoration, which has attracted the interest of many researchers. Ecologically fragile regions cover a large area in China, but few studies have focused on the carbon benefit of ecological restoration in these regions. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal changes in the carbon benefit, indicated by net primary productivity (NPP), in ecologically fragile regions in China. We evaluated the contributions of ecological restoration and climate change to terrestrial ecosystem carbon sink changes. The results showed that the ecological restoration projects significantly improved the carbon sequestration capacity in most of the ecologically fragile regions. From 2001–2017, the annual NPP of the entire study region was 460.1±5.4 Tg C yr−1, and more than 70 % of the ecologically fragile region experiencing a significant (p<0.05) increase. The effect of ecological restoration projects significantly intensified and was the main driver of the NPP growth in 87 % of the study region. The land use and land cover (LULC) change pattern indicates that the restoration project-induced conversion of agricultural land contributed to nearly 10 % of the total carbon sequestration after 2010. However, some extreme climatic conditions weakened the effectiveness of ecological restoration projects, highlighting the need for stricter management. Finally, this study identified the key area for effective ecological restoration in ecologically fragile regions in China.
Keywords: Carbon sequestration | Ecological restoration project | Ecologically fragile region
Functional urban area delineations of cities on the Chinese mainland using massive Didi ride-hailing records
توصیف های کاربردی منطقه شهری از شهرها در سرزمین اصلی چین با استفاده از سوابق گسترده تگرگ سوار بر دیدنی Didi-2020
The problem associated with a citys administrative boundary being “under-” or “over-bounded” has become a global phenomenon. A citys administrative boundary city does not effectively represent the actual size and impact of its labor force and economic activity. While many existing case studies have investigated the functional urban areas of single cities, the problem of how to delineate urban areas in geographic space relating to large bodies of cities or at the scale of an entire country has not been investigated. This study proposed a method for FUA identification that relies on ride-hailing big data. In this study, over 43 million anonymized 2016 car-hailing records were collected from Didi Chuxing, the largest car-hailing online platform in the world (to the best of our knowledge). A core-periphery approach is then proposed that uses nationwide and fine-grained trips to understand functional urban areas in Mainland China. This study examined 4456 out of all 39,007 townships in an attempt to provide a new method for the definition of urban functional areas in Chinese Mainland. In addition, four types of cities are identified using a comparison of functional urban areas with their administrative limits, and a further evaluation is conducted using 23 Chinese urban agglomerations. With the rapidly increasing use of internet-based ride-hailing services, such as Didi, Grab, Lyft, and Uber, globally, this study provides a practical benchmark for the delineation of functional urban areas at larger scales..
Keywords: Functional urban area | Car-hailing records | |National level | Delineating standards | City system
China’s poverty alleviation resettlement: Progress, problems and solutions
اسکان مجدد فقرزدایی در چین: پیشرفت ، مشکلات و راه حلها-2020
Poverty alleviation resettlement (PAR) is a national rural development policy which uses resettlement as a tool for addressing environmental and poverty-related concerns in a rapidly changing world in China. It is regarded as one of the effective ways for the poor shaking off poverty in the implementation process of targeted poverty alleviation (TPA) strategy. Notable progress has been made in poverty alleviation for poverty-stricken people living in regions deemed unable to support sustainable livelihoods while problems have arisen during the process of its implementation. Based on literature review and a field survey, this paper attempts to conclude the beneficial policy as well as typical modes, problems and suggestions which might provide successful experience for regions to effectively implement the PAR projects and promote the management of rural resettlement. This article will offer a holistic and systematic research about China’s PAR policy, which will make up for the lack of PAR researches in the context of targeted poverty alleviation. It will offer international experience for ending poverty by 2030 to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Keywords: Poverty alleviation resettlement | Targeted poverty alleviation strategy | Poverty reduction | Rural development | Well-off society | China
Administrative decentralization and credit resource reallocation: Evidence from Chinas “Enlarging Authority and Strengthening Counties” reform
عدم تمرکز اداری و تخصیص مجدد منابع اعتبار: شواهدی اصلاحات "بزرگ سازمان و تقویت شهرستان" چین-2020
With the rapid development of county-level economy promoted by continuous administrative decentralization reform in China, the shortage of county-level credit resources has become an increasingly serious problem. Based on the quasi-experiment of Chinas “Enlarging Authority and Strengthening Counties” (EASC) reform, this paper investigates the reallocation effect of administrative decentralization on county-level credit resources for the first time. We take a big panel data set of Chinas 1981 counties (county-level cities) during the period of 1997–2012 as research sample. Combining the difference-in-differences (DID) model with the propensity score matching (PSM) method to correct the sample self-selection bias, we estimate the effect of the EASC reform on the financial agglomeration of both deposits and loans. The results show that the administrative decentralization represented by the EASC reform exerts different reallocation effects on county-level deposits and loans. The EASC reform enhances loan agglomeration but restrains deposit agglomeration, intensifying the contradiction between the supply and demand of credit resources. The reallocation effect of the EASC reform on loans shows an inverted Ushaped trend over time, indicating that the reform effect gradually weakens. The significantly positive effect of the EASC reform on deposit financial agglomeration lasts only two years, followed by a continuous negative effect.
Keywords: Administrative decentralization | Credit resource reallocation | “Enlarging Authority and Strengthening | Counties” reform | Financial agglomeration | Quasi-experiment | China