Introducing an application of an industry 4:0 solution for circular supply chain management
معرفی کاربرد راه حل صنعت 4:0 برای مدیریت حلقه تأمین دایره ای-2021
In recent years, sustainable supply chain management practices have been adopted by companies that desire to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts within their supply chains. Within this perspective, a circular approach has been developed in the supply chain literature. Circular economy models and solutions assisted by industry 4.0 technologies have been developed to transform products in the end of their life cycle into new products with different use. In this paper an industry 4.0 waste-to- energy solution is developed and applied in a pilot case study comprised by a real-world supply chain to evaluate the sustainability performance of circular supply chain management (CSCM). The ﬁndings show that redesigning supply chains for circular economy with the use of Industry 4.0 technologies, can enable circular supply chain management. Clear beneﬁts are provided linking the proposed solution to the six circular economy dimensions of the ReSOLVE model i.e. regenerate, share, optimize, loop, virtualise, and exchange. Improved availability of personnel (5% and 15%) and ﬂeet resources (15%) are identiﬁed as some of the key quantitative beneﬁts, while supply chain traceability through the full visibility and automation offered by the proposed solution, are some of the key non-quantiﬁable out- comes. The present work seeks to contribute to the existing literature by providing empirical evidence of how industry 4.0 and circular economy are applied in practice. Implications for managers and policy makers, along with the study limitations and further research paths are also presented.© 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-NDlicense (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: Circular economy | Circular supply chain management (CSCM) | Industry 4.0 | Waste-to-energy | ReSOLVE model
The adoption of circular economy practices in supply chains – An assessment of European Multi-National Enterprises
The adoption of circular economy practices in supply chains – An assessment of European Multi-National Enterprises-2021
The European Commission Circular Economy Action Plan aims at fostering a society based on sustainable pro- duction and consumption. Within this context, industrial organisations are called to implement a wide set of practices to drive this transition: manufacturing easy-to-repair and sustainable products, adopting solutions aimed at extending product lifetime, and promoting remanufacturing and materials’ recycling. A major contribution is expected from Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs), as these organizations dominate the European economy and coordinate resource-intensive global supply networks. As such, this study assesses the Circular Economy-inspired initiatives promoted by the largest European MNEs. The content of sustainability reports is scrutinised, through a template analysis technique, in order to create a database of Circular Economy practices. Key findings include the degree of implementation, the level of involvement of supply chain partners, and the drivers behind the implementation of such practices. Furthermore, a conceptual framework is proposed, in order to describe the adoption of Circular Economy practices as a supply chain process. A theoretical discussion explores the role of institutional pressures and supply chain integration to shape the transition towards the adoption of Circular Economy practices in global supply chains.
Keywords: Circular economy | Fortune 500 | Sustainability | MNEs | Supply chain integration | Institutional theory
Malaysia scenario of biomass supply chain-cogeneration system and optimization modeling development: A review
سناریوی مالزی سیستم تولید همزمان زنجیره تأمین زیست توده و توسعه مدل سازی بهینه سازی: یک مرور-2021
The development of biomass-based cogeneration energy systems in Malaysia is progressing to meet the circular economy concept and sustainability goal. This comprehensive review aims to report recent advancements in biomass-based cogeneration/biomass co-firing technology in Malaysia correlated with the optimization modeling role. First, this work presents the outlook and current scenario of cogeneration systems in Malaysia by observing performance and the challenges confronted by the technologies. Next, investigation of technical issues concerning the key players of the technologies and the biomass supply chain. This work had prepared using quantitative content-based analysis-meta-analysis. The practical implication of this review enables a complex optimization model that integrates biomass-based cogeneration and biomass supply chain considering economic and environmental viability. It will further enhance progress toward the Malaysian “Industry 4.0-driven” energy initiative. A novel optimization model grounded on Industry 4.0 parameters will foster new opportunities for researchers.
Keywords: Biomass-based cogeneration system | Biomass co-firing | Optimization modeling | Renewable energy | Economic and operational viability
Circular supply chain management with large scale group decision making in the big data era: The macro-micro model
مدیریت زنجیره تأمین دایره ای با تصمیم گیری گروهی در مقیاس بزرگ در عصر داده های بزرگ: مدل خرد خرد-2021
Today, achieving the circular economy is a common goal for many enterprises and governments all around the world. In the big data era, decision making is well-supported and enhanced by a massive amount of data. In particular, large scale group decision making (LSGDM), which refers to the case in which a lot of decision makers join the decision making process, has emerged. Social network analyses are known to be relevant to LSGDM. In this paper, we examine the literature on LSGDM and highlight the current methodological advances in the area. We review the works focusing on applications of LSGDM. We study how big data can be used in circular supply chains. Based on the reviewed studies, we further construct the three-stage LSGDM CSCM micro framework as well as the five-step LSGDM CSCM macro framework (with a feedback loop) and form the Macro-Micro Model. We discuss how the Macro-Micro Model can help to support circular supply chain management (CSCM). We propose future research directions and areas. This paper contributes by being the first study uncovering systematically how LSGDM can be applied to support CSCM in the big data era using the Macro-Micro Model.
Keywords: Large scale group decision making (LSGDM) | Circular supply chains | Research agenda | Literature review | Frameworks | Macro-micro model
A fuzzy based hybrid decision framework to circularity in dairy supply chains through big data solutions
چارچوب تصمیم ترکیبی مبتنی بر فازی برای مدور بودن در زنجیره های تامین لبنیات از طریق راه حل های داده های بزرگ-2021
This study determines the potential barriers to achieving circularity in dairy supply chains; it proposes a framework which covers big data driven solutions to deal with the suggested barriers. The main contribution of the study is to propose a framework by making ideal matching and ranking of big data solutions to barriers to circularity in dairy supply chains. This framework further offers a specific roadmap as a practical contribution while investigating companies with restricted resources. In this study the main barriers are classified as ‘eco- nomic’, ‘environmental’, ‘social and legal’, ‘technological’, ‘supply chain management’ and ‘strategic’ with twenty-seven sub-barriers. Various big data solutions such as machine learning, optimization, data mining, cloud computing, artificial neural network, statistical techniques and social network analysis have been suggested. Big data solutions are matched with circularity focused barriers to show which solutions succeed in overcoming barriers. A hybrid decision framework based on the fuzzy ANP and the fuzzy VIKOR is developed to find the weights of the barriers and to rank the big data driven solutions. The results indicate that among the main barriers, ‘economic’ was of the highest importance, followed by ‘technological’, ‘environmental’, ‘strategic’, ‘supply chain management’ then ‘social and legal barrier’ in dairy supply chains. In order to overcome circularity focused barriers, ‘optimization’ is determined to be the most important big data solution. The other solutions to overcoming proposed challenges are ‘data mining’, ‘machine learning’, ‘statistical techniques’ and ‘artificial neural network’ respectively. The suggested big data solutions will be useful for policy makers and managers to deal with potential barriers in implementing circularity in the context of dairy supply chains.
Keywords: Dairy supply chain | Barriers | Circular economy | Big data solution | Fuzzy ANP - VIKOR | Group decision making system
Circular economy for phosphorus supply chain and its impact on social sustainable development goals
اقتصاد مدور برای زنجیره تأمین فسفر و تأثیر آن بر اهداف توسعه پایدار اجتماعی-2021
To be able to grow crops, we have interfered with Earths reserves of one of top three essential elements, phosphorus (P), as to which we face a problem related to its high consumption compared to available resources. This forces us to follow the alternative of closing the phosphorus loop from a circular economy perspective. However, there is a lack of research on regional and global social sustainability in this area, as emphasized in the United Nations Agenda 2030 goals for sustainable development. In this paper, we address social challenges involved in global phosphorus supply chain, such as eradicating poverty, child labor and malnutrition; promoting gender equality; providing decent work and economic growth; maintaining sustainable water use; and achieving food security. Our research is driven by the question of whether the circular economy aims to direct phosphorus management towards tackling social issues associated with its supply chain. We use system dynamics modelling by combining the concept of material flow analysis and social life cycle assessment. Detailed analysis at regional and global levels indicates a paradoxical social impact of phosphorus circular model. This reflects the multiple stakeholders involved, and the regional interactions with phosphorus circular economy transitions. Improvements can be demonstrated in reducing poverty and providing safer work environment in many regions, e.g., Western Asia (93%), New Zealand, Central Asia, and Europe (44–61%), while achieving employment targets is limited in Northern and Eastern Europe. Circular model fails to promote gender equality, it also exacerbates exploitative child work problem for the Caribbean and most Africa. It provides sufficient nutrition to North America, Australia/New Zealand, and Northern Europe. It achieves water use targets in several regions with 53% savings worldwide. Finally, circular model contributes to P efficiency (average balance of 1.21 kgP/ha) and strengthens P security within most regions with an average of 64%.
Keywords: Critical materials | Phosphorus | Social sustainability | Circular economy | Dynamic modelling
Biomass waste-to-energy supply chain optimization with mobile production modules
بهینه سازی زنجیره تامین زباله به انرژی زیست توده با ماژول های تولید تلفن همراه-2021
Biomass waste is a naturally occurring agricultural byproduct. It is estimated that about 60 million tons per year can be extracted sustainably without altering land use patterns or competing with existing demands. Utilizing this waste is logistically challenging due to the inherent low density and distributed availability of biomass. This work proposes a supply chain optimization problem which decides where to locate and relocate mobile and modular production units to convert biomass waste to energy. Both deterministic and two-stage stochastic formulations are presented, accounting for the inherent uncertainty of where and how much biomass is produced. The framework is applied to case studies analyzing the states of Minnesota and North Carolina. Results from both states show that mobile production modules lead to supply chain cost savings of 1–4%, or millions of dollars per year. Additionally, this work demonstrates the benefit of mobile modules as a means of protecting against uncertainty.
Keywords: Modular manufacturing | Distributed supply chain | Biomass waste-to-energy | Circular economy | Stochastic programming
A methodological design framework for hydrogen and methane supply chain with special focus on Power-to-Gas systems: application to Occitania region, France
یک چارچوب طراحی روش برای زنجیره تأمین هیدروژن و متان با تمرکز ویژه بر روی سیستم های نیرو به گاز: کاربرد در منطقه اوکسیتانیا ، فرانسه-2021
This work presents a methodological design framework for Hydrogen and Methane Supply Chains (HMSC). An innovative approach is to focus on Power-to-Hydrogen (PtH) and Power-to-Methane (PtM) concepts, and their interactions with other technologies, and energy carriers (i.e., Steam Methane Reforming – SMR, and natural gas). The overall objective of this work is to perform single objective and multi-objective optimizations for HMSC design to provide effective support for deployment scenarios. The methodological framework developed is based on a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) approach with augmented ε-constraint implemented in the GAMS environment according to a multi-period approach (2035-2050). Several available energy sources (wind, PV, hydro, national power grid, and natural gas) for hydrogen production through electrolysis and SMR are included. Carbon dioxide sources stem mainly from methanization and gasification processes, which are used to produce methane through methanation. The objective to be minimised in the single optimization approach is the total annual cost considering the externality of greenhouse gas emissions through the carbon price for the whole HMSC over the entire period studied. The multi-objective optimization includes as objectives the total annual cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and the total methane production from methanation. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE), and the greenhouse gas emissions for each energy carrier are also computed. The results show that renewable hydrogen from PtG can be competitive with SMR through the implementation of carbon prices below 0.27 €/kgCO2. In the case of synthetic methane, the available resources can meet the demand through PtG, and even if synthetic methane for natural gas network injection is thus far from competitive with natural gas, power-to-gas technologies have the potential to decarbonize the fossil economy and achieve a circular economy through CO2 recovery.
KEYWORDS: Power-to-Gas | Methanation | Hydrogen | MILP | supply chain | optimization
Impact of information hiding on circular food supply chains in business-to-business context
تأثیر مخفی کردن اطلاعات بر روی زنجیره های تأمین مواد غذایی دایره ای در زمینه کسب و کار به تجارت-2021
This study has analyzed food supply chains from the circular economy viewpoint with a focus on knowledge hiding. In this paper, we examine the practice of hiding knowledge among stakeholders, in which dimension, what this knowledge is and whether there are differences among specific groups of stakeholders. This is applied to distributors, producers, consumers, retailers, suppliers and farmers working within the meat industry in Turkey. It shows how information hiding affects the traceability of food supply chains and circularity in the meat industry. Three different theories have been examined in this paper. Stakeholder theory helps to analyze traceability of food supply chains among stakeholders; the theory of industrial symbiosis aims to achieve an efficient circular food supply chain through 9R (refuse, rethink, reduce, reuse, repair, refurbish, remanufacture, repurpose, recycle, recover) strategies by adopting traceability; the information theory is a key enabler to co- ordinate traceability from farm to fork to support a circular food supply chain. By using the theoretical lens, this paper sets out proposals for policymakers and managers in food supply chains to ensure traceability and transparency to achieve circular economy. Although some prior studies address knowledge hiding, information hiding hasn’t been examined with traceability and transparency dimensions in Circular Food Supply Chain(CFSC) in B2B business. This study attempts to fill this gap in the literature, improve theoretical understanding with our proposed framework and validating the impact of information hiding and reveal where knowledge is mostly hidden in terms of circular economy, stakeholders and 9Rs in the meat industry. A proposed framework for managers and policymakers based on a circular economy can bring social, economic and environmental benefits for the red meat industry in Turkey. Additionally, it offers a framework and recommendations for other countries and industries for possible adoption.
Keywords: Circular food supply chain | Meat industry | Knowledge hiding | Traceability | Transparency
Modeling and identification of suitable motivational mechanism in the collection system of municipal solid waste supply chain
مدل سازی و شناسایی سازوکار انگیزشی مناسب در سیستم جمع آوری زنجیره تأمین پسماند جامد شهری-2021
Many studies have identified that incentive, subsidy, and reward-penalty mechanisms improve the col- lection rate of recyclables and end of life products. But there is a lack of studies mathematical models and analysis of these mechanisms in the context of municipal solid waste supply chain. Therefore, in this study, models have been formulated for municipal solid waste supply chain (profit) considering government and collectors’ profit under incentive, subsidy, and reward-penalty mechanisms. The study has analysed the models against the non-separation and separation scenario of waste. A numerical analysis is performed and observed that: (i) separation of waste at source along with incentive, subsidy, and reward-penalty mechanisms scenario improve the collection rate by 17%, 23%, 30%, and 45% compared to non-separated MSW. (ii) Incentive, subsidy, and reward-penalty mechanisms increases the total sup- ply chain profit by around 9%, —36% and 18%. (iii) reward-penalty mechanism performs better than incentive and subsidy mechanism by providing the high supply chain profit (18% and 85%) and collection rate (22% and 15%) comparatively. Further, sensitivity analysis carried out to understand the behaviour of the models against the key parameters. The study also develops interesting propositions and proved for a better understanding of the models. From results, some key managerial insights have been drawn and a few future scopes of the study are presented.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Solid waste supply chain | Circular economy | Incentive | Subsidy | Reward-penalty