The politics behind scientific knowledge: Sustainable forest management in Latin America
سیاست پشت دانش علمی: مدیریت جنگل پایدار در آمریکای لاتین-2021
Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) seeks to achieve an equilibrium in the economic, social and environ- mental value of all types of forests. This practice contrasts with the conventional view of managing forests, in which the focus is productivity. Thus, discussions about conventional forest management versus sustainable forest management play a central role in the political and scientific agendas. However, knowledge production and its direction can be biased by different contextual factors such as the way funding is assigned by each country, institutional priorities, and constraints on international cooperation. With this paper, we aim to analyze the contribution of scientific knowledge produced in Latin America within the sustainable forest management research landscape by applying a literature review method (Scopus database for 2015–2018 period). Our results show a similar contribution of national and foreign funds and institutions supporting scientific knowledge about SFM in Latin America. Foreign funding comes mainly from United States of America, and Europe. Latin American authors lead high proportion of scientific articles, and authorship gender was more equitable between male and female researchers. The studies were mostly focused on conservation combined with productivity goals, as well as pure conservation goals, although social studies and restoration goals were also present. Our findings highlight a significant contribution to the paradigm shift in half of the scientific articles. Some studies provided recom- mendations (specific or general) derived from their results, but we did not detected a clear relationship with funding origin. Moreover, we found that the high contribution to the paradigm shift (studies supporting SFM instead of traditional management) came from institutions based in Latin America. This article aims to contribute to discussions related to scientific funding in Latin America, the North-South scientific relations, and the future of forest in times of climate change.
keywords: سیاست های جنگلداری | همکاری بین المللی | بررسی ادبیات | منابع طبیعی | تحقیق و توسعه | بودجه پژوهشی | Forestry policies | International cooperation | Literature review | Natural resources | Research and development | Research funding
Prediction of forest parameters and carbon accounting under different fire regimes in Miombo woodlands, Niassa Special Reserve, Northern Mozambique
پیش بینی پارامترهای جنگلی و حسابداری کربن تحت رژیم های مختلف آتش سوزی در جنگل های میومبو، رزرو ویژه NIASSA، شمال موزامبیک-2021
Miombo woodlands are the most extensive dry forest type in southern Africa, covering ca. 1.9 million km2 across seven countries. Fire is a key ecosystem process that has structured miombo for the last 200,000 years. However, how fires affect the ecosystems functioning is not well understood. In this study, we used the individual-based forest model called FORMIND to analyze the carbon balance in the miombo woodlands of Niassa Special Reserve (NSR), northern Mozambique. The 42.000 km2 NSR represents the most important conservation area in Mozambique (~31% of the total conservation area in the country) and of miombo woodlands worldwide. Longterm inventory data from 2004 to 2019 for NSR were used to calibrate FORMIND. The primary ecosystem processes of this model are tree growth, mortality, regeneration, and competition. Fire is set as one of the main factors that affect these processes, after the woodland reaches an equilibrium at 200 years of age. We also calculated the Net Present Value (NPV) of carbon credits resulting from altering the fire regime (e.g., reducing or eliminating fires). The FORMIND model successfully reproduced important characteristics of the woodlands (aboveground biomass, stem size distribution and basal area). NPV estimates of above-ground woody biomass carbon stocks were highly dependent on the woodland age. The maximum NPV estimates were generated for a 30-year project starting with 200 year old woodlands (the current forest age) at 192–1339 USD based on a realistic range of carbon values (i.e., 3–20 USD MgCO2e− 1). While fire plays an important role in miombo woodlands by reducing stock and changing species composition, its effects on the capacity of the woodland to mitigate the effects of climate change varies depending on the age of stands. Our results show that FORMIND model reliably reproduce the field inventory data, thus can be used to improve carbon accounting standards. We recommend the development of a fire management system to sustain the miombo woodlands of NSR for multiple reasons. NSR is a globally significant protected area, but perhaps more importantly it could become a regional example for how to improve miombo woodland management. Given that miombo woodlands provide a myriad of ecosystem services to rural Africans, investing in improving fire management could increase the benefits to local communities. Altering fire regimes could improve habitat quality and promote greater resilience to climate change while sequestering carbon. In addition, local employment opportunities in fire management could be created via carbon financing from a carbon project. However, much more outreach and education will be needed to local and national stakeholders for fire management to be perceived more positively and realize the potential to generate multiple benefits for nature and people.
keywords: مدل GAP Formind | دینامیک اکوسیستم | حسابداری کربن | مدیریت آتش نشانی | خط مشی آتش | FORMIND gap model | Ecosystem dynamics | Carbon accounting | Fire management | Fire policy
Not just an engineering problem: The role of knowledge and understanding of ecosystem services for adaptive management of coastal erosion
فقط یک مشکل مهندسی نیست: نقش دانش و درک خدمات اکوسیستم برای مدیریت انطباق فرسایش ساحلی-2021
Coastal ecosystems are recognized as important providers of ecosystem services such as carbon storage, increased fish productivity, and wave energy reduction. In a context of climate change, coastal ecosystems are exposed to erosion and subject to coastal squeeze, even as they provide natural coastal protection against extreme weather. While civil engineering solutions often take centre stage in mitigating coastal erosion and protecting infra- structure from storms and sea level rise, we seek to explore the social dimension of adaptive management of socio-ecological systems and more specifically the role of knowledge and learning. Using an ecosystem services (ES) framework, we provide a first evaluation of local stakeholders’ perceptions of coastal habitats in maritime Quebec. The findings demonstrate the importance of a social approach for coastal ES valuation, in particular in addressing the complex question of cultural ES. A better understanding of the links between coastal stakeholders and their natural environment can help decision-makers and practitioners design conservation management and coastal adaptation measures mainstreaming the role of coastal habitats. Nevertheless, a change towards a socio- ecological perspective will require long-lasting processes that build on social capacities, such as flexible in- stitutions and multilevel governance systems.
keywords: حکومت انطباقی | ابعاد اجتماعی | فرسایش ساحلی | خدمات محیط زیستی | زیستگاه های ساحلی | ادراک ذینفعان | Adaptive governance | Social dimension | Coastal erosion | Ecosystem services | Coastal habitats | Stakeholders’ perception
Local knowledge of emerging hazards: Instability above an Icelandic glacier
دانش محلی از خطرات در حال ظهور: بی ثباتی بالاتر از یخچال های ایسلندی-2021
Climate change is contributing to shifts in the magnitude and scale of hazards, and the emergence of risks in areas where they were previously unknown. In south-east Iceland, a fracture in the mountainside of Svínafellsheiði threatens to cause between 60 and 100 million cubic metres of rock to fall onto the glacier below. A large landslide could break up the surface of the glacier, crash into the proglacial lake, and affect people and infrastructure downhill. In addition to the unprecedented scale, the Svínafellsheiði fracture represents the first time people and infrastructure have been exposed to this type of hazard in Iceland. In this article we examine the role of local knowledge in disaster risk reduction and management for communities that are facing a particular type of hazard for the first time. We argue that even when a community lacks experience with a specific type of hazard, local knowledge can still play a valuable role in hazard identification and risk management.
keywords: کاهش خطر و مدیریت خطر فاجعه | دانش محلی | رانش زمین | ایسلند | خطر ظهور | Svínafellsheiði | Disaster risk reduction and management | Local knowledge | Landslide | Iceland | Emerging hazard
Purchasings contribution to supply chain emission reduction
سهم خرید در کاهش انتشار زنجیره تامین-2021
Does environmental purchasing and supplier management (EPSM) help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the supply chain and, thereby, mitigate climate change? And, if so, under which conditions? Taking these two questions as a starting point, we hypothesize that heightened environmental protection efforts targeting the upstream value chain should lead to a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the buying companies’ supply chain. We continue to delineate three contingency factors that might affect the relationship between EPSM and supply chain GHG emissions: The power of the buying firm over supply chain partners, prior experience in EPSM, and materiality of environmental supply chain management in a certain industry. We collect longitudinal data from 260 companies and analyze them using hybrid panel data analysis. We find that the increase of EPSM leads to a significant reduction of the GHG emission intensity of buying firms’ supply chains and that this reduction is stronger for companies operating in industries where emission management is more material.
Keywords: Sustainable supply chain management | Environmental purchasing | Environmental performance | Emission reduction | Climate change mitigation | Hybrid modelling
Dynamic resilience for biological wastewater treatment processes: Interpreting data for process management and the potential for knowledge discovery
انعطاف پذیری پویا برای فرآیندهای تصفیه بیولوژیکی فاضلاب: تفسیر داده ها برای مدیریت فرآیند و پتانسیل برای کشف دانش-2021
Climate change, population growth and increasing regulation are causing wastewater treatment plants to become increasingly stressed, especially in countries like the UK, where many of these systems date back to the early part of the 20th century. Understanding resilience dynamics for these ageing wastewater assets represents a funda- mental step in classifying multi-dimensional water stressors toward preventing severe pollution incidents. This paper explores the potential of a novel dynamic resilience approach to assess and predict the dynamic resilience of biological wastewater treatment based on the separation of stressor events (cause) and process stress (effect) to consider the deviation from reference conditions. The approach presented provides a fundamental link between (1) conventional activated sludge modelling methodologies, (2) actual biological wastewater process instrument data (potential for knowledge discovery) and (3) the characterisation of dynamic resilience in wastewater treatment processes. Results first present the dynamic resilience approach by modelling simulated shock flow conditions on an activated sludge plant, then incorporates ten years of wastewater process instrument data to demonstrate the actual dynamic resilience. The aim is to represent the “dynamic resilience” as self-ordering windows, a visual knowledge base (three dimensional, heat map), which operational staff can easily interpret. The outcomes presented suggest that such an approach is feasible and has the potential for real-time identifi- cation of conditions that result in pollution incidents based on actual historical process instrument data (knowledge discovery). Also, the methods presented could be extended to develop an improved understanding of wastewater system resilience under a range of future stressor scenarios.
keywords: انعطاف پذیری پویا | مدل سازی تاثیر فرآیند | استرس فرایند | مدل سازی پویا | مدل سازی فاضلاب | Dynamic resilience | Process impact modelling | Process stress | Dynamic modelling | Wastewater modelling
Greenhouse gas emissions in British Columbia: Production versus consumption accounting from 2010 to 2015
انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای در بریتیش کلمبیا: تولید در مقایسه با مصرف حسابداری از سال 2010 تا 2015-2021
As a result of carbon-pricing policies, a number of jurisdictions across the world claim to be decoupling their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their gross domestic product (GDP). In British Columbia (BC), Canada, in what appears to be decoupling from 2007 to 2018, GHGs with respect to GDP declined by 16% ( BC Government 2020 ). This ﬁnding, however, is the result of a production-based method of accounting— the predominant global approach for allocating emissions—and not a consumption-based method. In this study, we compare these two accounting methods with respect to British Columbian decoupling. We cal- culate consumption-based emissions through a multi-regional input-output analysis from 2010 to 2015. In our results for 2015, we ﬁnd total consumption emissions of 82.5Mt of CO 2 e; when compared to the total production emissions of 73.7Mt of CO 2 e, we ﬁnd BC to be a net consumer of emissions by 8.8Mt of CO 2 e for 2015. Although BC has had this net consumer status since at least 2004 ( Dobson and Fellows, 2017 ), this orientation is in decline primarily due to the decarbonizing trends of China and the USA. In short, for BC from 2010–2015, on a per capita basis, both production and consumption accounts of emissions de- clined (even as GDP rose), but per capita consumption accounts declined more than production accounts and mostly due to emissions reductions from trade partners. Finally, this study may be of interest to policymakers and scientists, and like other scholars, we recommend that consumption-based inventories accompany production-based accounts when designing and assessing global GHG mitigation policy. © 2021 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
keywords: انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای | تجزیه و تحلیل خروجی چند منطقه ای | معامله بین المللی | گازهای گلخانه ای | تغییرات اقلیمی | Embodied emissions | Multi-regional input-output analysis | International trade | Greenhouse gasses | Climate change
Environmental impacts of animal-based food supply chains with market characteristics
تأثیرات زیست محیطی زنجیره های تأمین مواد غذایی حیوانی با ویژگی های بازار-2021
Animal-based food supply chains lead to significant environmental impacts, which can be influenced by production systems, distribution networks and consumption patterns. To develop strategy aimed at reducing the environmental impact of animal-based food supply chains, the common environmental hotspots among different types of food, the role of transport logistics and the consequence of end market need to be better understood. Life cycle assessment was adopted to model three types of animal-based food chains (beef, butter and salmon), with specific technologies, high spatial-resolution logistics and typical consumption patterns for three markets: local, regional (intra-European) and international. The results confirmed that the farm production stage usually had the greatest environmental impact, except when air transport was used for distribution. Potentially, the role of end market also can significantly influence the environmental impacts. To understand more, three improvement options were examined in detail with regard to hotspots for climate change: novel feed ingredients (farm production stage), sustainable aviation fuel (transport and logistics stage) and reduction of wasted food (consumption and end of life stage). Significant reduction was achieved in the salmon system by sustainable aviation fuel (64%) and novel feed (15%). Minimizing food waste drove the greatest reduction in the beef supply chain (23%) and the international butter supply chain can reduce 50% of GHG mission by adopting sustainable aviation fuel. Combined interventions could reduce GHG emission of animal-based food supply chains by 15% to 82%, depending on market, transport and food waste behaviour. The results show that ecoefficiency information of animal-based foods should include the full supply chain. The effective mitigation strategy to achieve the greatest reduction should not only consider the impacts on-farm, but also detail of the downstream impacts, such as food distribution network and consumption patterns.
Keywords: Sustainability | Life cycle analysis | Animal-based food supply chain | Spatial-resolution
Evaluating nature-based solutions for climate mitigation and conservation requires comprehensive carbon accounting
ارزیابی راه حل های مبتنی بر طبیعت برای کاهش و حفاظت از آب و هوا نیاز به حسابداری کربن جامع دارد-2021
Nature-based solutions (NbS) can address climate change, biodiversity loss, human well-being and their interactions in an integrated way. A major barrier to achieving this is the lack of comprehensiveness in current carbon accounting which has focused on flows rather than stocks of carbon and led to perverse outcomes. We propose a new comprehensive approach to carbon accounting based on the whole carbon cycle, covering both stocks and flows, and linking changes due to human activities with responses in the biosphere and atmosphere. We identify enhancements to accounting, namely; inclusion of all carbon reservoirs, changes in their condition and stability, disaggregated flows, and coverage of all land areas. This comprehensive approach recognises that both carbon stocks (as storage) and carbon flows (as sequestration) contribute to the ecosystem service of global climate regulation. In contrast, current ecosystem services measurement and accounting commonly use only carbon sequestration measured as net flows, while greenhouse gas inventories use flows from sources to sinks. This flow-based accounting has incentivised planting and maintaining young forests with high carbon uptake rates, resulting, perversely, in failing to reveal the greater mitigation benefit from protecting larger, more stable and resilient carbon stocks in natural forests. We demonstrate the benefits of carbon storage and sequestration for climate mitigation, in theory as ecosystem services within an ecosystem accounting framework, and in practice using field data that reveals differences in results between accounting for stocks or flows. Our proposed holistic and comprehensive carbon accounting makes transparent the benefits, trade-offs and shortcomings of NbS actions for climate mitigation and sustainability outcomes. Adopting this approach is imperative for revision of ecosystem accounting systems under the System of EnvironmentalEconomic Accounting and contributing to evidence-based decision-making for international conventions on climate (UNFCCC), biodiversity (CBD) and sustainability (SDGs).
keywords: راه حل های مبتنی بر طبیعت | حسابداری کربن | خدمات آب و هوا | ذخیره سازی کربن و جداسازی | یکپارچگی اکوسیستم | سیستم حسابداری محیط زیست اقتصادی | Nature-based solutions | Carbon accounting | Climate regulation service | Carbon storage and sequestration | Ecosystem integrity | System of Environmental-Economic Accounting
Green and low carbon matters: A systematic review of the past, today, and future on sustainability supply chain management practices among manufacturing industry
موارد سبز و کم کربن: مروری سیستماتیک از گذشته ، امروز و آینده در مورد شیوه های مدیریت پایداری زنجیره تامین در صنعت تولید-2021
Journal Pre-proof Climate change has arisen as one of human beings most significant threats. A higher proportion of carbon dioxide emissions are produced from developing countries as manufacturing globalization requires more and more emerging nations. The predicament between carbon reduction and fast industrial development makes firms in developing countries reluctant to take thoughtful commitment and actions in carbon dioxide emission reduction in their global manufacturing practices. Sustainability, green, and low-carbon supply chain networks research is still also in its infant stage from a theoretical perspective and requires further research and development. Therefore this research aims to address the research question: “Why and how organizations are adopting sustainable strategies in developing countries to increase sustainable supply chain management practices in the manufacturing?”. In order to thoroughly analyse the literature, this paper used ATLAS. ti 9 software tools to save, identify, and assess the data for this study. We reviewed, compiled, and sorted papers from 326 publications for this article and then recognized 160 as critical to the work scope. The results reveal that the organizations current concentration is on improving internal environmental efficiency related to its mid-stream SCM activities. The introduction of environmental practices at the external level (downstream and upstream) is relatively limited, and few organizations are collaborating effectively with supply chain partners to improve their SSCM performance. The results also show that organizational performance, reputation/risk management, customer pressure, and top management support are primary motivators for organizations to embrace SSCM practices. The typology suggests that companies need to consider and recognize their key sustainability risk in the past, current, and future to have a simple organizational design to innovative management methods to handle their sustainable supply chain practices.
Keywords: Sustainability practices | Low carbon emissions | Green supply chain management | Green manufacturing