با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
Sustainable groundwater management in arid regions considering climate change impacts in Moghra region, Egypt
مدیریت پایدار آبهای زیرزمینی در مناطق خشک با توجه به تأثیر تغییرات آب و هوایی در منطقه مقرا ، مصر-2020
Egypt is one of the most water-scarce countries of the Middle East and North Africa region and is highly vulnerable to climatic changes. In the Egyptian deserts, new land reclamation projects depend mainly on groundwater as the main source of water. Also, solar energy is the most promising renewable source of energy for pumping and transport of water. Moghra region is one of the well-known “1.5 Million Acres Reclamation Projects” areas in the Western Desert. In this paper, a groundwater model was constructed and used to investigate the sustainable groundwater management scenarios in Moghra region taking into consideration impacts of the expected climate changes. Using MODFLOW/GMS software, Moghra model was prepared and calibrated based on the region’s topographic, climatic, geologic and hydrologeolgic conditions. The model was used to explore the impacts of climate changes; Sea Level Rise (SLR) by 1.0 m and temperature increase by 2�0C and 40�C on the management scenarios. In addition, the required power for water management after 5, 10, 50 and 100 years were determined. It was concluded that the best management scenario is to use 1000 wells to extract 1.2 Mm3/d of water for serving a total area of 85,714 acres (360 km2). This scenario satisfies the project criteria that permits a maximum drawdown less than 1 m/year. It was also concluded that SLR has mild effects on groundwater levels due to the vast aquifer dimensions. Additionally, the increase in evapotranspiration due to temperature increase will lead to a significant increase in the consumptive use. The power needed to extract water will continuously increase due to the expected increase in drawdown. The required area for Photovoltaic (PV) solar plant was determined and its value increased by 6% and 12% due to temperature increase of 2�C and 4�C, respectively.
Keywords: ArcGIS | Climate change | Groundwater management | MODFLOW/GMS | Moghra aquifer | Solar energy
Projection of spatiotemporal variability of wave power in the Persian Gulf by the end of 21st century: GCM and CORDEX ensemble
پیش بینی تغییر پذیری مکانی و قدرت موج در خلیج فارس تا پایان قرن بیست و یکم: GCM و CORDEX-2020
This study investigates future variability of wave power in the Persian Gulf. The contribution of this paper is twofold: (a) to evaluate spatiotemporal resolutions, downscaling techniques and global circulation model (GCM) selection impacts running multi-climate models, and (b) to project wave energy resources and its variability by the end of 21st century using RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 as two different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) model forcing with near surface wind components was employed for wave simulation. The numerical wave model was calibrated and validated using wave measurements by two buoys prior to wave energy computations. The results of wave models obtained from different climate models showed a wide range of variety for different climatic resources associated with GCM selection, temporal and spatial resolutions and downscaling approach. Outputs of the wave model forcing with 3 hourly wind data of CMCC-CM and CORDEX-MPI (Max Plank Institute) with daily temporal resolution were recognized as the models with the best performance. Using a weighted average of these two models, the wave characteristics were obtained and wave energy were computed for the historical and future periods. Temporal distribution of energy shows highly intra-annual and seasonal variability when the mean wave power for the strongest month exceeds 1000Watt per meter that is 10 times higher than the mean wave power in the weakest month. Similarly, a strong spatial variability in wave power distributionwas revealed where the middle part of the Gulf has found to have the highest energy and the eastern and northwestern regions have the lowest energy. The projections illustrated a decreasing trend on future wave energy up to 40% in the Iranian coastlines and lower rate of changes in the southern stripe of the study area.
Keywords: Renewable energy | Climate change | CORDEX | Representative concentration pathways | Energy management
Mobile phone network data reveal nationwide economic value of coastal tourism under climate change
ارزش اقتصادی داده های شبکه تلفن همراه در سراسر جهان از گردشگری ساحلی در اثر تغییر آب و هوا-2020
The technology-driven application of big data is expected to assist policymaking towards sustainable development; however, the relevant literature has not addressed human welfare under climate change, which limits the understanding of climate change impacts on human societies. We present the first application of unique mobile phone network data to evaluate the current nation-wide human welfare of coastal tourism at Japanese beaches and project the value change using the four climate change scenarios. The results show that the projected national economic value loss rates are more significant than the projected national physical beach loss rates. Our findings demonstrate regional differences in recreational values: most southern beaches with larger current values would disappear, while the current small values of the northern beaches would remain. These changes imply that the ranks of the beaches, based on economic values, would enable policymakers to discuss management priorities under climate change.
Keywords: Adaptation | Beach recreation | Big data | Climate change | Coastal tourism | Ecosystem services | Travel cost method | Sea level rise
Identifying the terrestrial carbon benefits from ecosystem restoration in ecologically fragile regions
شناسایی فواید کربن زمینی از ترمیم اکوسیستم در مناطق شکننده محیط زیست-2020
Ecosystem restoration is an urgent and vital measure to restore degraded land in ecologically fragile regions. The terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity is important to indicate the effectiveness of ecosystem restoration, which has attracted the interest of many researchers. Ecologically fragile regions cover a large area in China, but few studies have focused on the carbon benefit of ecological restoration in these regions. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal changes in the carbon benefit, indicated by net primary productivity (NPP), in ecologically fragile regions in China. We evaluated the contributions of ecological restoration and climate change to terrestrial ecosystem carbon sink changes. The results showed that the ecological restoration projects significantly improved the carbon sequestration capacity in most of the ecologically fragile regions. From 2001–2017, the annual NPP of the entire study region was 460.1±5.4 Tg C yr−1, and more than 70 % of the ecologically fragile region experiencing a significant (p<0.05) increase. The effect of ecological restoration projects significantly intensified and was the main driver of the NPP growth in 87 % of the study region. The land use and land cover (LULC) change pattern indicates that the restoration project-induced conversion of agricultural land contributed to nearly 10 % of the total carbon sequestration after 2010. However, some extreme climatic conditions weakened the effectiveness of ecological restoration projects, highlighting the need for stricter management. Finally, this study identified the key area for effective ecological restoration in ecologically fragile regions in China.
Keywords: Carbon sequestration | Ecological restoration project | Ecologically fragile region
Circular economy practices within energy and waste management sectors of India: A meta-analysis
شیوه های اقتصاد مدور در بخش های انرژی و مدیریت پسماند هند: فراتحلیل-2020
Adoption of circular practices within environmental management is gaining worldwide recognition owing to rapid resource depletion and detrimental effects of climate change. The present study therefore attempted to ascertain the linkages between circular economy (CE) and sustainable development (SD) by examining the role of renewable energy (RE) and waste management (WM) sectors in CE combined with policy setup and enabling frameworks boosting the influx of circularity principles in the Indian context. Results revealed that research dedicated towards energy recovery from waste in India lacks integration with SD. Findings also revealed that although India is extremely dedicated towards attainment of the SDGs, penetration of CE principles within administration requires considerable efforts especially since WM regulations for municipal, plastic and e-waste lack alignment with CE principles. Integration of WM and RE policies under an umbrella CE policy would provide further impetus to the attainment of circularity and SD within the Indian economy.
Keywords: Circular economy | India | Policy frameworks | Renewable energy | Sustainable development goals | Waste management
Life in riverine islands in Bangladesh: Local adaptation strategies of climate vulnerable riverine island dwellers for livelihood resilience
زندگی در جزایر رودخانه ای در بنگلادش: استراتژی های سازگاری محلی ساکنان جزیره رودخانه ای آسیب پذیر در برابر آب و هوا برای تاب آوری معیشت-2020
Adaptation is a key tool to reduce the climate change vulnerability of rural people whose livelihood is dependent on agriculture. An appropriate policy and strategy cannot be effective without a proper understanding of peoples’ climate change perception. This study intends to explore the local adaptation strategies of the riverine island (char) dwellers in the face of climate change hazards through a survey of 374 char dwellers living in the flood and riverbank erosion prone geographically isolated areas in Bangladesh. The study reveals almost no difference between the perception of char dwellers and the observed data on climate change. It further reports that the climate impacts make the char households a vulnerable community and minimize their livelihood resilience. A number of local adaptation strategies are adapted by char dwellers in the face of climate change effects which enhance their livelihood resilience. The study further reveals that homestead gardening, changing cropping pattern, tree plantation and migration are the most common strategies adapted by char dwellers. The study suggests that continuous development program and riverine island-based disaster management projects should be executed through an effective monitoring for enhancing char dweller’s livelihood resilience.
Keywords: Climate change | Vulnerability | Disaster management | Resilience | Sandbar
Evaluating an adaptive management strategy for organizational energy use under climate uncertainty
ارزیابی یک استراتژی مدیریتی تطبیقی برای استفاده از انرژی سازمانی در عدم قطعیت اقلیم-2020
Changing climate creates energy demand uncertainty that is essential for facility and organizational management. Energy conservation can be achieved through combinations of capital improvements and/or management strategies. One such management strategy is implementation of non-conditioning zones to reduce temperate season energy demand. In this study, we evaluate a temporally-based, non-conditioning zone policy originally developed for Kunsan Air Force Base, Korea and apply it to six locations across the contiguous United States, which coincide with major U.S. Air Force bases in various climate zones. Using projected temperature portfolios, we determine that the performance of the implemented policy is likely to change over the remainder of the century. In temperate climate zones, there is an increase in the potential non-conditioning zone by about a month. However, in a tropical climate, the potential duration for a non-conditioned zone reduces by over half by the end of the century. In addition to non-conditioning zone duration change, temporal shifts in the spring and fall seasons affect non-conditioning zone onset. The cumulative changes suggest the need for climate forecast-informed adaptive management policies to mitigate energy demand. The results of this study inform organization and facility-level energy management, suggesting adaptive management policies to address energy budget uncertainty.
Keywords: Adaptive management | Climate change | Energy conservation | Organizational energy use
Co-production of knowledge and adaptation to water scarcity in developing countries
تولید دانش و سازگاری با کمبود آب در کشورهای در حال توسعه-2020
Dwindling of freshwater resources is a harsh reality of the arid and semi-arid regions of the world and climate change is expected to deteriorate their situation through major reduction of freshwater supplies. Co-production of knowledge, through active negotiation of experts, government and local stakeholders has been used as a strategy to adapt to water scarcity. However, in many developing countries, co-production of knowledge is not common and adaptation efforts rarely reflects the plurality of involved knowledge sources and actors. Given the urgent need of transition towards water-efficient agricultural practices, the Iran’s government applied the knowledge co-production approach and implemented an integrated participatory crop management (IPCM) project in the Bakian village, Fars province. The objectives of this study were to analyze the knowledge coproduction process, identify the factors contributing to adoption of the co-produced knowledge and investigate the corresponding social, economic and environmental impacts. A mixed-method research was conducted comprising a case study on 19 informants selected using purposive sampling and a survey of 150 rice producers selected through systematic random sampling. The results indicated the relevance and pertinence of knowledge co-production in recognizing the real problems of the rice producers and suggesting some potential adaptive strategies. Though a wide range of natural, financial, technical, institutional and structural constraints restricted adoption of the proposed adaptive strategies, application of the co-produced knowledge significantly increased water productivity, ensured higher yields and farm-based sustainable livelihoods, and enhanced resilience of the farm households under water scarcity. Some recommendations and implications are offered to increase adaptation of farm families to water scarcity.
Keywords: Co-production of knowledge | Adaptation | Water scarcity | Climate change | Integrated participatory crop management | Impact assessment
Nudging and citizen science: The effectiveness of feedback in energy-demand management
برهنگی و علم شهروندی: اثربخشی بازخورد در مدیریت تقاضای انرژی-2020
Nudging is a framework for directing individuals toward better behavior, both for personal and societal benefits, through heuristics that drive the decision-making process but without preventing any available choice. Considering the Grand Challenges that our society faces today, nudging represents an effective framework to tackle some of these pressing issues. In this work, we assessed the effectiveness of informational nudges in the form of detailed, customized feedback, within an energy-demand-management project. The project aligns energy production and demand, thereby reducing greenhouse gases and pollutant emissions to mitigate climate change. We also offered evidence that this kind of feedback is efficacious in involving individuals as citizen scientists, who volunteer their efforts toward the success of the environmentally-related aim of the project. The results of this research – based on surveys, electroencephalography measurements and online participation measures – indicate that feedback can be an effective tool to steer participants’ behavior under the libertarian paternalistic view of nudging, increase their motivation to contribute to citizen science, and improve their awareness about environmentally-related issues. In so doing, we provide evidence that nudging and citizen science can be jointly adopted toward the mitigation of pressing environmental issues.
Keywords: Nudging | Citizen science | Crowd | Energy-demand management | Grand challenges | Electroencephalography
Non-market valuation of beach quality: Using spatial hedonic price modeling in Hilton Head Island, SC
ارزیابی غیر بازاری از کیفیت ساحل: استفاده از مدل سازی قیمت هیدونیک فضایی در جزیره هیلتون SC-2020
Climate change has been impacting beach quality negatively for years. The gradual increase in sea level has been slowly diminishing the Atlantic coastline by eroding beaches and worsening coastal flooding. Narrowing beach width, one of the most important attributes of beach quality, has been a major concern for policy makers, local residents and visitors as lower beach quality has environmental and economic consequences. Filling the beaches with sand under beach replenishment projects has been widely used to treat this problem. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the economic value of beach width using the past residential property prices in Hilton Head Island, SC. Spatial error hedonic price method was adopted to account for spatial dependency among error terms. The results of this study show that beach width has significant influence on the values of neighboring properties that are located within 633 feet of the shoreline. An additional foot of beach width would add as much as $3,012 to the value of an oceanfront residential property. Without an accurate estimation of the economic value of beach width, cost-benefit analyses of beach nourishment and other shoreline management projects would be incomplete.
Keywords: Hedonic price method | Beach width | Beach replenishment | Beach nourishment | Spatial error model