A specialty court for U.S. youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation
یک دادگاه ویژه برای جوانان آمریکایی که تحت تأثیر سوء استفاده جنسی تجاری قرار دارند-2020
Background: Specialty courts have emerged as a model of care for U.S. youth impacted by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) to ensure comprehensive service provision. However, there is a lack of published research that documents the extent to which these programs achieve this goal. Objective: We sought to understand a specialty juvenile justice courts role in identifying mental health and substance use treatment needs, providing linkages to services, and facilitating stability for youth with histories of CSE. Participants and Setting: We conducted an exhaustive court file review of the 364 participants in a U.S. based juvenile delinquency specialty court for youth affected by CSE. The observation period spanned 2012–2017. Methods: The research team systematically transferred data from court files into a secure, electronic database. Descriptive statistics and Chisquared tests were calculated to explore potential associations. Results: Participation in the specialty court for youth impacted by CSE suggests an increase in identification of mental health and substance use needs and linkages and referrals to mental health and substance use treatment services. In addition, there was increased stabilization as indicated by decreased substantiated child welfare allegations, fewer running away episodes, and placements and criminal involvement. Conclusions: Specialty courts that incorporate a multidisciplinary, trauma-informed approach offer a promising intervention model for meeting the high treatment needs of youth impacted by CSE
Keywords: Specialty Court | Trafficking Court | Juvenile justice | Commercial sexual
A longitudinal evaluation of a survivor-mentor program for child survivors of sex trafficking in the United States
ارزیابی طولی از یک برنامه مربی بازمانده برای کودکان بازمانده از قاچاق جنسی در ایالات متحده-2020
Background: Commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of children is a significant public health and criminal justice problem, but there are few evaluated models of CSE mentorship service. Objectives: To assess whether youth who participated in a CSE survivor-mentor program evidenced changes in CSE victimization, dating abuse victimization, health, delinquency, social support, and coping during the year following their enrollment in the program. Participants: 41 youth who were CSE-experienced at baseline (72%) or determined very high risk, 11–18 years old, 95% female, 58% heterosexual, 29% White, 29% Hispanic, and 42% other races/ethnicities. Setting: An urban city in the Northeast United States. Methods: We used a one-group repeated measures design and a GEE analysis. Data were collected at baseline, six months after baseline (71% follow-up) and 12 months after baseline (68% followup). Results: At baseline 72% could be characterized as CSE-experienced, while at 6 months the percentage decreased to 24% (p < 0.001) and at 12 months to 14% (p < 0.001). After 6 months of receiving survivor-mentor services, youth were less likely to have experienced CSE, engaged in sexually explicit behavior (SEB), used illicit drugs, engaged in delinquent behavior, been arrested or detained by police, and they had better social support and coping skills. After 12 months, youth were less likely to have experienced CSE, to have engaged in delinquent behavior, be arrested or detained by police, and had improved coping skills. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate that youth who received survivor-mentor services from MLMC experienced improved well-being and less drug use, delinquent behavior, and exploitation.
Keywords: Commercial sexual exploitation | Human trafficking | CSEC | Domestic minor sex trafficking | Secondary prevention | Adolescent health
Separate routes, similar crimes? Conceptualising differences between domestic and international sex traffickers in the United States
مسیرهای جداگانه ، جرایم مشابه؟ تصور تفاوت بین قاچاقچیان جنسی داخلی و بین المللی در ایالات متحده-2020
Sex trafficking constitutes a severe international issue, affecting 4.8 million victims worldwide, with those affected in the United States numbering in the thousands (Global Slavery Index, 2016; International Labour Office, 2017) This paper aimed to increase the current literature available on sex traffickers in the United States. It examined a sample of 114 criminally prosecuted cases of sex trafficking obtained through the Case Law Database within the Human Trafficking Knowledge Portal provided by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. The study sought specifically to explore differences between domestic and international sex traffickers in the United States with regards to a) the type of victim selected, b) the makeup of their operation, c) their methods of victim recruitment and d) the tools of control they employ. Overall, findings demonstrated that domestic and international sex traffickers did differ significantly from one another with respect to all four of these parameters.
Keywords: Sex trafficking | Commercial sexual exploitation | Prostitution | Domestic sex trafficking | International sex trafficking
Of madams, mentors and mistresses: Conceptualising the female sex trafficker in the United States
درباره خانم ها، مربیان و معشوقه ها: مفهوم سازی قاچاقچی زن در ایالات متحده-2020
Sex trafficking constitutes a severe international issue, affecting 4.8 million victims worldwide, with those affected in the United States numbering in the thousands (Global Slavery Index, 2016). Despite this, little is known about the characteristics of sex traffickers, especially female sex traffickers. This paper aimed to increase our knowledge of female sex traffickers in the United States. 44 criminally prosecuted cases of sex trafficking involving female sex traffickers were examined, obtained through the Case Law Database within the Human Trafficking Knowledge Portal provided by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. The study sought to explore characteristics of female sex traffickers in the United States with regards to the roles they hold, duties they perform and the makeup of their operations. Overall, findings demonstrated that women permeate the entire spectrum of sex trafficking crimes, from aiding and abetting to being ringleaders of sex trafficking rings.
Keywords: Sex trafficking | Commercial sexual exploitation | Female sex traffickers | Female-perpetrated crime
Identifying best practices for “Safe Harbor” legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient
شناسایی بهترین شیوه برای قانون "پناهگاه امن" برای حمایت از قربانیان قاچاق جنسی کودک: جرم زدایی به تنهایی کافی نیست-2016
Several states have recently enacted “Safe Harbor” laws to redirect child victims of com- mercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafﬁcking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implemen- tation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide state legislators, health professionals, law enforcement agents, child welfare providers, and other responders to the commercial sexual exploitation of children on the development and implementation of state Safe Harbor laws. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with Safe Harbor experts in these states. Participants conveyed that Safe Har- bor legislation signiﬁed a critical paradigm shift, treating commercially sexually exploited youth not as criminals but as vulnerable children in need of services. However, Safe Harbor legislation varied widely and signiﬁcant gaps in laws exist. Such laws alone were con- sidered insufﬁcient without adequate funding for necessary services. As a result, many well-meaning providers were going around the Safe Harbor laws by continuing to incar- cerate commercially sexually exploited youth in the juvenile justice system regardless of Safe Harbor laws in place. This was done, to act, in their view, in what was the best interest of the victimized children. With imperfect laws and implementation, these ﬁndings sug- gest an important role for local and state responders to act together to protect victims from unnecessary criminalization and potential further traumatization.Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Commercial sexual exploitation of children | Child sex trafficking | Human trafficking | Sexual abuse | Safe Harbor laws