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Antecedents and consequences of host-country nationals attitudes and behaviors toward expatriates: What we do and do not know
سوابق و پیامدهای برخوردها و رفتار کشور میزبان با تبعیدی ها: چیزی که ما می دانیم و نمی دانیم-2018
Host-country nationals (HCNs) attitudes and behaviors toward expatriates are critical for expatriate success. Thus, this study systematically reviews the existing literature on the antecedents and consequences of HCNs attitudes and behaviors toward expatriates. It is revealed that HCN personality, the perceived compensation gap between expatriates and HCNs, social categorization, HCNs previous contact with expatriates, expatriate justice, task cohesiveness, interpersonal affect, and interpersonal relationships (guanxi) directly or indirectly predict HCNs attitudes and behaviors toward expatriates. The attitudes and behaviors of HCNs toward expatriates are significantly related to expatriate adjustment and performance. This review indicates that the extant research on HCNs attitudes and behaviors toward expatriates is limited, and the findings of past studies are often contradictory. Theoretical and practical implications as well as future research directions are discussed.
keywords: Adjustment |Attitudes and behavior toward expatriates |Expatriate |Expatriate success |Host-country national
The optimal timing of CEO compensation
زمان بندی بهینه غرامت CEO-2018
We extend a standard principal-agent model of CEO compensation by modeling the progressive attenuation of information asymmetries about firm value by shareholders in continuous time. The dynamics of the stock price process are affected by the continuous accumulation of exogenous shocks, and by the progressive resolution of information asymmetries. The optimal timing of compensation is the point in time at which the stock price is most informative about the manager’s action. When exogenous shocks accumulate at a constant rate over time and information asymmetries are resolved at a decreasing rate, the optimal timing of compensation is the point in time at which these two rates coincide.
keywords: Deferred compensation| Executive compensation| Principal-agent model
تحلیل دینامیک قابلیت پشتیبانی فرکانسی توربین های بادی کوچک در ریزشبکه های بادی-دیزلی ولتاژ ضعیف
سال انتشار: 2018 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 10 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 34
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Corporate social responsibility and CEO compensation structure
مسئولیت پذیری اجتماعی شرکتی و ساختار پرداخت غرامت CEO-2018
We examine how firms corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance affects CEO compensation structure. Traditional agency theory suggests that CEOs engage in CSR for their own interests at the expense of shareholders. A competing argument is that CEOs consider firms social performance as a business strategy to increase firm value and align their interests with those of shareholders. Our results support the latter prediction. We find that a firms social performance is negatively associated with the proportion of cash-based compensation, while it is positively associated with the proportion of equity-based compensation. These results are robust to the degree of corporate governance, and they are more pronounced for firms with high levels of inside director ownership and long director tenure. Overall, our findings highlight the positive impact of CSR performance on CEO compensation packages, implying that CEOs fiduciary behavior of engaging in CSR leads to mitigating agency problems and maximizing firm value.
keywords: Corporate social responsibility (CSR)| CEO compensation| CEO compensation structure| Equity-based compensation| Cash-based compensation| Corporate governance
Quality management standards, institutionalization and organizational implications: A longitudinal analysis
استانداردهای مدیریت کیفیت، سازمانی سازی و دلالت های سازمانی: یک تحلیل طولی-2018
We explore longitudinally how the institutionalization of quality management standards would lead to paradoxical performance implications. Specifically, we examine the organizational consequences of ISO 9000 adoption when the standard was increasingly institutionalized in the manufacturing industry in the early years. Based on hierarchical linear modeling of panel data of manufacturing firms, we find that the sales revenues of ISO 9000 certified firms increased steadily when the standard is increasingly institutionalized. However, operational efficiency significantly deteriorates at the same time, so as the shareholder value (measured by Tobins q). We further reveal that the institutionalization of ISO 9000 leads to higher CEO compensation, despite deteriorating operational efficiency. We argue that when process systems like ISO 9000 are institutionalized, they lead to certain negative consequences. To make management standards less susceptible to institutional forces, we believe that a fact-based, result-oriented approach in the implementation should be stressed.
keywords: Institutional theory |Quality management |Sales revenue |Operational efficiency |Compensation
The effectiveness of clawback adoptions in mitigating over-investments – Does board governance play a role?
مفید بودن بازپرداخت هزینه دادرسی در کاهش سرمایه گذاری های بیش از حد - آیا نظارت بر هیئت ایفای نقش می کند؟-2018
The adoption of clawbacks purports to mitigate harmful behavior to firms operation induced by incentive-based executive compensation contracts. While strong corporate governance is necessary to maximize the utility of clawback provisions, the current clawback literature does not sufficiently consider the impact of board governance on the effectiveness of clawback adoptions in improving corporate conduct (Addy, Chu, & Yoder, 2014). In this study, we examine the effect of board governance on the relation between firm-initiated clawback adoptions and firms propensity to over-invest. We first show that the presence of clawback provisions is significantly associated with a decreased level of corporate over-investments. More importantly, we find that the decrease in over-investments for clawback adopters is materially diluted in the presence of a weak board governance structure. Overall, our findings suggest that strong board governance is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of clawback provisions in mitigating over-investments.
keywords: Clawback| Over-investment(s)| Investment efficiency| Compensation| Board governance
The role of motivation, ability, and opportunity in university teachers’ continuance use intention for flipped teaching
نقش انگیزه، توانایی و فرصت در استمرار استفاده مدرسان دانشگاهی از تدریس جهشی-2018
On-site teaching practice is changing due to the development of digital technology. Traditional lecturing has long focused on instructor-based teaching but now has transitioned to a flipped classroom that emphasizes student learning. In the past, quasi-experimental methods or qualitative interviews were primarily used to explore learners learning performance, learning satisfaction, and the interaction between teachers and students. Studies on teachers points of view are rare, as are studies on factors that influence teachers to continue flipped teaching. Thus, the empirical results of this innovative teaching strategy must be assessed to confirm the expectations of practice and theory. Drawing on theories of self-determination and motivation-opportunity-ability, this paper proposes and empirically supports the notion that teachers motivational factors, perceived self-efficacy, and supportive flipped teaching resources interact to perpetuate flipped teaching in the higher education context. To test the proposed research model, a survey was conducted among 169 university teachers. The results indicate that intrinsic challenge motivation and extrinsic compensation motivation are critical predictors of teachers continuance use intention for flipped teaching. Perceived self-efficacy was also shown to critically moderate teachers continuance use intention for flipped teaching. Specifically, when teachers have high perceived self-efficacy, challenge motivation leads to continuance use intention. Conversely, when teachers have low perceived self-efficacy, compensation motivation leads to continuance intention. Further, the results also suggest that teachers’ continuance use intention for flipped teaching is highest when challenge motivation, perceived self-efficacy, and supportive flipped teaching resources are all sufficient and mutually reinforcing.
keywords: Computer-mediated communication |Improving classroom teaching |Teaching/learning strategies |Pedagogical issues |Interactive learning environments
Societal trust and the economic behavior of nonprofit organizations
اعتماد اجتماعی و رفتار اقتصادی سازمان های غیر انتفاعی-2018
This study explores the impact of societal trust on the economic behavior of nonprofit organizations. Although prior studies reveal that trust has a positive impact on the economic behavior of for-profit firms, the institutional differences between the two organization types make it unclear whether trust plays a similar role in nonprofits. Our results show that nonprofits operating in higher trust areas are more likely to overspend on administrative expenses. This positive relationship between trust and overspending is primarily driven by service organizations, as opposed to public charities. Moreover, within service organizations, we find that the positive trust-administrative overspending association is most prevalent in situations of weaker monitoring or governance. Additional tests show trust has a similar impact on excess compensation and abnormal accruals in service organizations. Overall, our findings suggest that trust may provide opportunities for nonprofit managers, particularly in service-oriented organizations, to engage in opportunistic behavior that may be exacerbated by weaker forms of oversight.
keywords: Trust |Nonprofit organizations |Opportunistic spending |Administrative expenses
Unanticipated effects of restricted stock on managers risky investment decisions
تاثیرات غیرقابل انتظار سهام محدود شده روی تصمیمات سرمایه گذاری مخاطره آمیز مدیران-2018
We conduct a laboratory experiment to examine whether holding periods for stock compensation affect managers willingness to take large risks for their firms in order to pursue personal gains. The theoretical lens through which we examine these issues involves the concepts of current-self (the person you are now) and future-self (the person you will be in the future). Results indicate that long holding requirements can decrease managers feelings of connectedness to their future selves. This change in decision perspective increases managers willingness to accept risks for their firms when the potential personal rewards of risk taking are high. The findings call into question the current view held by regulators and academics that long holding requirements will consistently reduce adverse consequences of performance-based executive compensation. We find that long holding requirements can actually increase managers willingness to pursue investments with very low chances of success when large performance incentives are available.
keywords: Compensation |Current-self |Future-self |Holding requirement |Incentives |Restricted stock
Stock options and credit default swaps in risk management
گزینه های سهام و مبادلات اعتباری پیش فرض در مدیریت ریسک-2018
The use of stock options and credit default swaps (CDS) in banks is not uncommon. Stoc options can induce risk-taking incentives, while CDS can be used to hedge against cred risk. Building on the existing literature on executive compensation and risk managemen our study contributes novel empirical support for the role of stock options in restrainin the use of CDS for hedging purposes. Based on data of CEO stock options and CDS hel by 60 European banks during the period 2006–2011, we find a negative relationshi between option-induced risk-taking incentives (vega) and the proportion of CDS held fo hedging. However, the extent of CDS held for hedging is found to be positively related t default risk in the period leading to the financial crisis that erupted in 2007. The finding imply that restraining the use of stock options can incentivize hedging with CDS, but th risk management strategy will not necessarily produce lower default risk in times of sys temic credit crisis.
Keywords: Stock options ، Credit default swaps ، Risk management ، Vega ، Bank risk-taking ، Credit crisis