دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Confinement::صفحه 1
دانلود بهترین مقالات isi همراه با ترجمه فارسی 2
نتیجه جستجو - Confinement

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 15
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 Prediction of perforation into concrete accounting for saturation ratio influence at high confinement
پیش بینی سوراخ شدن در بتن برای تأثیر نسبت اشباع در محصور شدن بالا-2021
This paper provides both an analytical and a finite element models aiming at better predicting possible perfo- ration of reinforced concrete slabs submitted to impacts. Both models account for free water saturation ratio and high triaxial stress induced into concrete by the impact. Finite element simulations are performed with Abaqus explicit code using a revised constitutive model for concrete; this coupled damage plasticity model (PRM) ac- counts for strain rate effects and the influence of saturation ratio on the triaxial behavior. Complementary original analytical predictions of ballistic limit and residual velocities are provided for both hard and soft im- pacts. These predictions depend on a recent deviatoric stress-based formulation of compressive strength of concrete. Numerical and analytical results are consistent with bending and punching experimental tests.
keywords: اثرات نرم و سخت | سرعت باقی مانده | بتن آرمه | ظرفیت سوراخ کردن | نسبت اشباع | Soft and hard impacts | Residual velocity | Reinforced concrete | Perforation capacity | Saturation ratio
مقاله انگلیسی
2 A causation mechanism for coal bursts during roadway development based on the major horizontal stress in coal: Very specific structural geology causing a localised loss of effective coal confinement and Newton’s second law
مکانیسم سببی برای انفجار زغال سنگ در حین توسعه جاده بر اساس فشار عمده افقی در زغال سنگ: زمین شناسی ساختاری بسیار خاص باعث از بین رفتن موضعی سلول زغال سنگ موثر و قانون دوم نیوتن-2020
In 2017, one of the international authorities on coal bursts, Mark Christopher, published a paper entitled ‘‘Coal bursts that occur during development: A rock mechanics enigma”, in which several relevant technical issues were identified. This paper outlines what is considered to be a credible, first-principles, mechanistic explanation for these three current development coal burst conundrums by reference to early published coal testing work examining the significance of a lack of ‘‘constraint” to coal stability and an understanding of how very specific structural geology and other geological features can logically cause this to occur in situ, albeit on a statistically very rare basis. This basic model is examined by reference to published information pertaining to the development coal-burst that occurred at the Austar Coal Mine in New South Wales, Australia, in 2014 and from the Sunnyside District in Utah, the United States. The ‘‘cause and effect” model for development of coal bursts presented also offers a meaningful explanation for the statistical improbability for what are nonetheless potentially highly-destructive events, being able to explain the statistical rarity being just as important to the credibility of the model as explaining the local conditions associated with burst events. The model could also form the basis for a robust, riskbased approach utilising a ‘‘hierarchy of controls”, to the operational management of the development coal burst threat. Specifically, the use of pre-mining predictions for likely burst-prone and non-burstprone areas, the use of the mine layout to avoid or at least minimise mining within burst-prone areas if appropriate, and finally the development of an operational Trigger Action Response Plan (TARP) that reduces the likelihood of inadvertent roadway development into a burst-prone area without suitable safety controls already being in place.
Keywords: Development coal burst | Wing-cracks | Austar Mine | Sunnyside Mine | Major horizontal stress in coal
مقاله انگلیسی
3 Trans-incarceration: Reimagining confinement and the criminality of aging
حبس خارج از زندان: تجسم مجدد در زندان و جرم پیری-2020
As the U.S. population continues to age and will require increasing levels of care, scholars continue to question what conventional methods of “custodial care” and rehabilitation accomplish for the individuals receiving them, relative to those providing them. To this end, critical discourse surrounding the spatial institutionalization of older adults argues that formal institutions of care and rehabilitation are simply alternative and synonymous forms of incarceration and imprisonment. Using semi-structured interviews with ten male residents of a Rhode Island nursing home and ten incarcerated males at the Rhode Island state prisons medium security unit, this work explores the following questions within the existing scholarship of the medical sociology of confinement and incarceration: In what ways are experiences of confinement alike for older adults living in prisons and for those living in nursing homes, and what do these similarities/differences imply about aging, disabled, and economically unproductive bodies as “deviant” and subsequently “criminal” as the traditional definition of the carceral space expands? Participant responses across the nursing home and prison settings fit into three categories, including “home as historical/home as negation,” “institution as escape,” and “self as non-human/self as non-agent.” As a result, there exist thematic consistencies amidst the subjective experiences of older adults across settings of confinement that argue for a shared “criminality” socially assigned to an aging body.
Keywords: Incarceration | Criminality | Nursing homes | Identity loss | Home
مقاله انگلیسی
4 The rise of psychological physicians: The certification of insanity and the teaching of medical psychology
ظهور پزشکان روانشناس: گواهی جنون و آموزش روانشناسی پزشکی-2020
This paper investigates the nexus between the legal provisions for the certification of insanity and the intro- duction of psychological medicine into British medical education. Considering legal and published sources, it shows that the 1853 Lunatic Asylums Act proved fundamental for the promotion of medical psychology as part of medical training. By giving doctors the authority to report “facts of insanity”, this law created the need for “psychological physicians” capable of certifying lunacy. I explore this connection in three sections. First, I introduce the emergence of medical certificates in the context of asylum committal. Second, I focus on the certification procedure introduced in 1853 which required “facts of insanity personally observed”. Third, I consider how British asylum doctors advocated for the diffusion of psychological medicine as an essential university subject for certifying practitioners. This paper emphasizes the relevance of confinement legislation in the development of psychiatry as a medical specialty.
Keywords: Certification | Asylum | Confinement | Education | Expertise | Law
مقاله انگلیسی
5 Comparing prison and documentary contexts on the treatment of incest offenders. An interview with Guillaume Massart
مقایسه زندان و زمینه های مستند در مورد درمان مجرمان محارم : مصاحبه ای با Guillaume Massart-2020
To study the effects of penal and cinematographic contexts at Casabianda, a prison without bars located in Corsica, in which 80% of inmates have committed acts of sexual violence upon family members younger than fifteen years old. Method We interviewed Guillaume Massart, director of the film La Liberté, who followed the trajectory of men convicted of incestuous acts for one year. Results The film leads to an exploration of the environment and how it impacts speech. Here, a certain freedom of expression becomes possible for the prisoners through the disruption of the relative muteness brought on by the devastating effect of prison life. Discussion Once the typical prison experiences of confinement and brutal violence are removed, it becomes possible to better understand the weight of individual factors on the possibility, or the impossibility, for the inmates to subjectivize their trajectories. The manner of investigation carried out by this documentary approach allows some prisoners to seize this unexpected opportunity for expression, using language that reveals internal conflicts, taking advantage of the free association allowed by the intimate relationship that develops with the filmmaker. Conclusion The cinematographic and penal contexts seem to enact a reconciliation between geographic space that surrounds the prisoners and their psychic space, so that even the unthinkable of incest does not foreclose the possibility of transformation, with potential outcomes for the psychic treatment of the violence of these criminals.
Keywords : Prison, Documentary film | Sex offenders | Incest | Violence | Therapeutic mediation
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Risk factors for self-harm in prison: a systematic review and meta-analysis
عوامل خطر برای صدمه به خود در زندان: یک بررسی سیستماتیک و فراتحلیل-2020
Background Self-harm is a leading cause of morbidity in prisoners. Although a wide range of risk factors for self-harm in prisoners has been identified, the strength and consistency of effect sizes is uncertain. We aimed to synthesise evidence and assess the risk factors associated with self-harm inside prison. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) for observational studies on risk factors for self-harm in prisoners published from database inception to Oct 31, 2019, supplemented through correspondence with authors of studies. We included primary studies involving adults sampled from general prison populations who self-harmed in prison and a comparison group without self-harm in prison. We excluded studies with qualitative or ecological designs, those that reported on lifetime measures of self-harm or on selected samples of prisoners, and those with a comparison group that was not appropriate or not based on general prison populations. Data were extracted from the articles and requested from study authors. Our primary outcome was the risk of self-harm for risk factors in prisoners. We pooled effect sizes as odds ratios (OR) using random effects models for each risk factor examined in at least three distinct samples. We assessed study quality on the basis of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and examined between-study heterogeneity. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018087915. Findings We identified 35 independent studies from 20 countries comprising a total of 663 735 prisoners, of whom 24 978 (3·8%) had self-harmed in prison. Across the 40 risk factors examined, the strongest associations with self-harm in prison were found for suicide-related antecedents, including current or recent suicidal ideation (OR 13·8, 95% CI 8·6–22·1; I²=49%), lifetime history of suicidal ideation (8·9, 6·1–13·0; I²=56%), and previous self-harm (6·6, 5·3–8·3; I²=55%). Any current psychiatric diagnosis was also strongly associated with self-harm (8·1, 7·0–9·4; I²=0%), particularly major depression (9·3, 2·9–29·5; I²=91%) and borderline personality disorder (9·2, 3·7–22·5; I²=81%). Prison-specific environmental risk factors for self-harm included solitary confinement (5·6, 2·7–11·6; I²=98%), disciplinary infractions (3·5, 1·2–9·7; I²=99%), and experiencing sexual or physical victimisation while in prison (3·2, 2·1–4·8; I²=44%). Sociodemographic (OR range 1·5–2·5) and criminological (1·8–2·3) factors were only modestly associated with selfharm in prison. We did not find clear evidence of publication bias. Interpretation The wide range of risk factors across clinical and custody-related domains underscores the need for a comprehensive, prison-wide approach towards preventing self-harm in prison. This approach should incorporate both population and targeted strategies, with multiagency collaboration between the services for mental health, social care, and criminal justice having a key role.
مقاله انگلیسی
7 An intelligent identification method of the edge coherent mode in EAST
یک روش شناسایی هوشمند حالت منسجم لبه در EAST-2019
Edge Coherent Mode (ECM), a newly observed edge plasma behaviour in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), exhibits the potential for a new plasma-confinement regime for long-pulse discharge in future fusion devices. However, due to its intrinsically complex properties, e.g., inconstant shape, appearing area and occasionally overlapping with the broad spectrum turbulence, the intelligent identification of ECM turns out to be very challenging. In the present work, we propose an efficient and intelligent method to identify ECM in EAST by analyzing the row information points of the spectrogram, which is based on a two-step analysis: firstly, we estimate the difference of information points between adjacent rows as the horizontal feature of the analyzed spectrogram with ECM appearing. Secondly, the time interval of ECM is estimated as the vertical feature of the spectrogram. Such a method has been tested for 2000 different spectrograms and the correct rate of identification is 93.49%. The present work is expected to enhance the efficiency of data analysis in EAST with huge data base acquired from each discharge.
Keywords: Nuclear fusion | Image processing | Pattern recognition | Data retrieval | Edge Coherent Mode
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Identification of ballast condition using SmartRock and pattern recognition
شناسایی وضعیت ballast با استفاده از SmartRock و تشخیص الگو-2019
In railroad, unfavorable ballast performances (e.g., ballast fouling, loss of lateral confinement) can lead to deterioration of upper structures such as the rail and tie. Therefore, accurate and timely monitoring of ballast condition is critical for rail safety operation and effective maintenance. In this paper, a series of ballast box tests were conducted to investigate the ballast particle movement pattern inside railway ballast under different ballast, loading, moisture, and shoulder confinement conditions. Eight wireless embedded devices – ‘‘SmartRocks” – were used in the laboratory tests in three different locations to study different ballast movement patterns under different conditions. A statistical Autoregressive (AR) model with X-bar control chart method was used to identify changes in particle movement patterns under different conditions. The results show that 1) the ballast particle movements are much more sensitive to moisture content for the fouled ballast than for the clean ballast; and 2) the AR model is capable of identifying ballast fouling and shoulder instability. In addition, a threshold value of 20% for the percentage of outliers of ballast particle movement patterns is suggested for the test conditions considered in this study. This study represents a preliminary step towards developing a reliable ballast condition identification index and further field studies are needed
Keywords: Ballast box test | Ballast fouling | SmartRock | Pattern recognition | Autoregressive (AR) model | X-bar control chart
مقاله انگلیسی
9 Cooperatives and alternative food networks in Italy: The long road towards a social economy in agriculture
تعاونی ها و شبکه های غذای جایگزین در ایتالیا: راه طولانی به سوی یک اقتصاد اجتماعی در کشاورزی-2017
In the context of a special issue of the Journal of Rural Studies on more-than-economic motivations for farmers’ cooperation, this article aims to analyse the tensions and contending views of the cooperative movement in Italy with special attention to the agricultural sector and to the emergence of the new model of social cooperatives in the last decades of the 20th century. We interpret this emergence and its codification in law as the decoupling of more-than-economic motivations of cooperation from the mainstream Italian cooperative sector and their reinstatement in a new, but separate model of social cooperation more closely linked to community- and solidarity-oriented initiatives. The presence of institutional tensions and frictions hints at the fact that cooperatives have a multi faced nature expressed in the not always easy co-existence of a cooperative economy and a coopera tive movement. After the II World War, as Italian cooperatives in general and particularly agricultural cooperatives moved towards a productivist model and a ‘competitive market’ paradigm, the more-than economic aspects have continued to inspire movements for social and community economies. In the 1990s the social economy project was appropriated but somehow ‘sanitized’ by the cooperative move ment through the legally sanctioned establishment of social cooperatives and their confinement to specific sections within national cooperative federations. Later on, while the emergence of social co operatives has had little influence on the functioning and orientation of traditional agricultural co operatives and federations, the reinstatement of a social function for agriculture has taken place at the much more fluid interface between social cooperation, on the one hand, and civic agriculture movements rooted in alternative food networks and community-oriented initiatives, on the other. It is only recently that the cooperative movement has tried catch up with the new paradigms of alternative agriculture and rural development through the experimentation at regional level of the cooperative di comunit a (community cooperatives), that operate to re-affirm the role of multifunctional and multi-stakeholder cooperatives in rural/territorial development.
Keywords: Agricultural cooperatives | Social cooperatives | Community cooperatives | Alternative food networks | Social economy | Italy
مقاله انگلیسی
10 Commitment without confinement: Outpatient compulsory care for substance abuse, and severe mental disorder in Sweden
تعهد بدون حبس: مراقبت اجباری سرپائی برای سوء مصرف مواد و اختلال روانی شدید در سوئد-2016
In Sweden, a person with severe substance abuse or a severe mental disorder may be committed to compulsory care according to two different legislations. Both acts include an option of providing involuntary care outside the premises of an institution — care in other forms (COF) and compulsory community care (CCC), respectively. As co-occurring disorders are commonplace many individuals will be subject to both types of compulsory care. The structures of both legislations and their provisions for compulsory care in the community are therefore scrutinized and compared. Based on a distinction between “least restrictive” or “preventative” schemes the article compares COF and CCC in order to determine whether they serve different purposes. The analysis shows that COF and CCC both share the same avowed aims of reducing time spent in confinement and facilitating transition to voluntary care and the community. But they also serve different purposes, something which is reflected in disparate scopes, eligibility criteria, rules, and practices. Overall, COF was found to be a more “least restrictive” and CCC a more “preventative” scheme. The distinction is associated with COF being an established part of legislation on compulsory care for substance abuse with a universal scope and CCC being a recent addition to compulsory psychiatric care legislation with a selective character.
Keywords: Mental health law | Substance abuse law | Involuntary treatment | Sweden Compulsory treatment orders | Comparative legislative analysis
مقاله انگلیسی
rss مقالات ترجمه شده rss مقالات انگلیسی rss کتاب های انگلیسی rss مقالات آموزشی
logo-samandehi