Conservation of data deficient species under multiple threats: Lessons from an iconic tropical butterfly (Teinopalpus aureus)
حفاظت از گونه های کمبود داده در معرض تهدیدات متعدد: درسهایی از یک پروانه گرمسیری نمادین (Teinopalpus aureus)-2019
With increasing pressure from wildlife trade, conservation eﬀorts must balance deﬁciencies in distribution data for species (the Wallacean shortfall) with the risk of increasing accessibility of locality for collectors. The Golden Kaiser-I-Hind (Teinopalpus aureus Mell) is an iconic butterﬂy restricted to Southeast Asia, popular in trade markets but lacking in ecological and conservation information. We compiled occurrence records and used them to assess multiple threats of T. aureus distribution-wide and at the national level. Results of species distribution models suggest that suitable habitats of T. aureus are montane forests in mid to high elevations in Southern China, Laos and Vietnam. However, habitat networks for the species are poorly connected, with some portions of its distribution experiencing intensive deforestation and threatened by climate change. The trade assessment results showed specimens of T. aureus were available for sale with high prices, indicating potential pressure from trade markets. We also found diﬀerent conservation statuses and eﬀorts to protect T. aureus across countries; the species is under strict protection in China, moderate protection in Vietnam and has no protection in Laos. Both recorded locations and projected distribution in the three countries were poorly covered by protected areas. These results together demonstrate the importance of distribution data in conservation management of threa- tened species while highlighting trade-oﬀs inherent in not making location information widely available when trade pressure is present. Finally, we strongly encourage cross-border cooperation in sharing ecological in- formation for consistent conservation management of species under multiple threats from habitat loss, climate change and illegal wildlife trade.
Keywords: Climate change | Cross-border conservation | Habitat loss | Insect conservation | Southeast Asia | Wildlife trade
The legal determinants of health: harnessing the power of law for global health and sustainable development
عوامل قانونی سلامت: بهره گیری از قدرت قانون برای سلامت جهانی و توسعه پایدار-2019
Health risks in the 21st century are beyond the control of any government in any country. In an era of globalisation, promoting public health and equity requires cooperation and coordination both within and among states. Law can be a powerful tool for advancing global health, yet it remains substantially underutilised and poorly understood. Working in partnership, public health lawyers and health professionals can become champions for evidence-based laws to ensure the public’s health and safety. This Lancet Commission articulates the crucial role of law in achieving global health with justice, through legal instruments, legal capacities, and institutional reforms, as well as a firm commitment to the rule of law. The Commission’s aim is to enhance the global health community’s understanding of law, regulation, and the rule of law as effective tools to advance population health and equity.
آیا سرمایه گذاری در بازاریابی رابطه ای برای تجارت بندری واقعاً ارزشمند است؟
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 9 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 35
پایانه های کانتینری به خاطر نیروهایی نظیر اتحادهای استراتژیک، خصوصی سازی، مناطق همپوشان و اپراتورهای پایانه جهانی، با رقابت شدید و محیطی دائماً در حال تغییر مواجه شده اند. برای توجیه هزینه های بالای سرمایه گذاری و بهره برداری و رسیدن به سودآوری، پایانه های کانتینری بایستی به حجم بار رضایت بخشی برسند. عملاً، سرمایه گذاریهای فیزیکی و همکاری میان بنادر راههای فعلی مبارزه بنادر به نیروهای جدید در بازار حمل و نقل کانتینری به حساب می آیند. به علاوه، یکی از عوامل مهم برای بندر جهت تضمین جریانات کافی، وفاداری مشتری می باشد. این مطالعه، تاثیرات تاکتیک های بازاریابی رابطه ای بر شاخص های عملکرد مالی و غیر مالی پایانه های کانتینری را بررسی می کند. داده های مورد نظر از 24 پایانه کانتینری واقع در ترکیه (134 پاسخ) جمع آوری و از طریق مدلسازی معادله ساختاری چند سطحی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. براساس یافته های بدست آمده، نتیجه اصلی ما آن است که هرچه بندر تاکتیک های بازاریابی رابطه ای را بیشتر پیاده کند، به همان نسبت کیفیت ارتباط با مشتری بالاتر است، که در ادامه ازآن به عنوان عملکرد ارتباط با مشتری، و متعاقباً عملکرد مالی نام برده می شود.
کلمات کلیدی: بازاریابی رابطه ای | بازاریابی خدمات بندر | ارتباط با مشتری بندر | عملکرد مالی بندر | عملکرد بندر
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
EU GDPR or APEC CBPR? A comparative analysis of the approach of the EU and APEC to cross border data transfers and protection of personal data in the IoT era
GDPR EU یا APEC CBPR؟ تجزیه و تحلیل مقایسه ای از رویکرد اتحادیه اروپا و APEC برای انتقال اطلاعات مرزی و محافظت از داده های شخصی در دوره IoT-2019
This article examines the two major international data transfer schemes in existence today – the European Union (EU) model which at present is effectively the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Cross Border Privacy Rules system (CBPR), in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT). While IoT data ostensibly relates to things i.e. products and services, it impacts individ- uals and their data protection and privacy rights, and raises compliance issues for corpora- tions especially in relation to international data flows. The GDPR regulates the processing of personal data of individuals who are EU data subjects including cross border data trans- fers. As an EU Regulation, the GDPR applies directly as law to EU member nations. The GDPR also has extensive extraterritorial provisions that apply to processing of personal data outside the EU regardless of place of incorporation and geographical area of operation of the data controller/ processor. There are a number of ways that the GDPR enables lawful international transfer of personal data including schemes that are broadly similar to APEC CBPR. APEC CBPR is the other major regional framework regulating transfer of personal data between APEC member nations. It is essentially a voluntary accountability scheme that initially requires acceptance at country level, followed by independent certification by an accountability agent of the organization wishing to join the scheme. APEC CBPR is viewed by many in the United States of America (US) as preferable to the EU approach because CBPR is considered more conducive to business than its counterpart schemes under the GDPR, and therefore is regarded as the scheme most likely to prevail. While there are broad areas of similarity between the EU and APEC approaches to data protection in the context of cross border data transfer, there are also substantial differences. This paper considers the similarities and major differences, and the overall suitability of the two models for the era of the Internet of Things (IoT) in which large amounts of personal data are processed on an on-going basis from connected devices around the world. This is the first time the APEC and GDPR cross-border data schemes have been compared in this way. The paper concludes with the author expressing a view as to which scheme is likely to set the global standard
Keywords: IoT data | GDPR | CBPR | transborder data flows | data protection | privacy | global standard
The development of the fisheries crime concept and processes to address it in the international arena
توسعه مفهوم جرم و جنایت ماهیگیری و فرآیندهای رسیدگی به آن در عرصه بین المللی-2019
This article traces the emergence of the ‘fisheries crime’ concept from its national Nordic roots through its introduction to, and subsequent acceptance within, the international political arena. The centrality of the associated law enforcement approach is underscored and key international processes aimed at addressing transnational organised crime in the international fishing sector are discussed. The importance of cooperation both domestically, amongst relevant government agencies, and across borders, at a region and global level, in this regard is highlighted.
Keywords: Fisheries crime | Norway | Law enforcement
The impact of Brexit on the future of UK forensic science and technology
تأثیر Brexit در آینده علم و فناوری پزشکی قانونی انگلیس-2019
This article seeks to assess the prospects of UK forensic science and technology in a post-Brexit world by analysing four interlocking issues: Brexit itself, the evolution of national criminal justice organisational and funding priorities, the increasing interrelationship of science and technology in the forensic domain and the relatively disadvantaged place of forensic science and technology within the contemporary ‘scientific state’ paradigm. The results are generally pessimistic for the likely future of forensic science. This conclusion is reinforced by scepticism about the wisdom of proceeding with Brexit. The article is structured to identify the potential implications of British political decisions on its national forensic science capabilities and capacity. Some aspects of the analysis are likely to have a wider resonance for international discourse about the future sustainability of forensic science and technology, however, particularly the interface between the globalisation of science and technology with justice.
Keywords: Brexit | Forensic science and technology | International criminal justice cooperation | Fiscal austerity | National science policy
Medical research, Big Data and the need for privacy by design
تحقیقات پزشکی، داده های بزرگ و نیاز به حریم خصوصی توسط طراحی-2019
Medical research data is sensitive personal data that needs to be protected from unauthorized access and unintentional disclosure. In a research setting, sharing of (big) data within the scientific community is necessary in order to make progress and maximize scientific benefits derived from valuable and costly data. At the same time, convincingly protecting the privacy of people (patients) participating in medical research is a prerequisite for maintaining trust and willingness to share. In this commentary, we will address this issue and the pitfalls involved in the context of the PEP project1 that provides the infrastructure for the Personalized Parkinson’s Project,2 a large cohort study on Parkinson’s disease from Radboud University Medical Center (Radboudumc), in cooperation with Verily life Sciences, an Alphabet subsidiary.
Keywords:Big Data | GDPR compliance | informed consent | medical cohort study | polymorphic encryption | privacy by design
Performance and productivity in Islamic and conventional banks: Evidence from the global financial crisis
عملکرد و بهره وری در بانک های اسلامی و متعارف: شواهدی از بحران مالی جهانی-2019
We assess the performance and productivity of Islamic and conventional banks using financial ratios, a two- and a four-component meta-frontier Malmquist productivity index (MPI). We focus on the relatively homogenous GCC region over the 2006–2012 period that covers the global financial crisis. We find that Islamic banks exhibit worse cost and profit performance but are on a par with regards to revenue performance compared to the conventional ones. The components of the meta-frontier MPI suggest that the technology of conventional banks improves markedly in years leading to the financial crisis and declines thereafter. Islamic banks show a similar but more muted pattern. By contrast, the pronounced within-Islamic bank group variation in technical efficiency and technology suggests that Islamic banks are quite heterogeneous as a group. Overall, the MPI analysis suggests that the two bank types are more aligned following the global financial crisis. Policy makers should be wary of the important variations within the Islamic banking industry when implementing bank regulations.
Keywords: Performance | Banking sector | Meta-frontier Malmquist productivity analysis | Gulf Cooperation Counci
Certified Safety Engineer (CSE) as a new official profession in China: A brief review
مهندس ایمنی معتبر (CSE) به عنوان حرفه رسمی جدید در چین: مروری کوتاه-2019
Developing a group of good safety professionals is a key foundation for improving a country’s work safety and health. In China, the widespread concern and discussion on the development of safety professionals, or more specifically Certified Safety Engineers (CSEs) started in the early 1990s. In recent years, especially after 2002, China’s CSEs entered into a holistic, systematic and rapid development period because of the formal establishment and implementation of the professional qualification system for CSEs in 2002. Moreover, CSE is now becoming the most important profession in the field of work health and safety in China, and it has been officially approved by the central government. China has rich experiences on the development and cultivation of CSEs. However, these experiences were little known to the outside world due to the lack of efficient communication. Firstly, this paper briefly reviews the history and development of CSEs in China. Then, the administrative regulation and important requirements (such as capacity requirements and the knowledge framework) regarding CSEs in China are briefly introduced. This research aims at promoting the cooperation and exchange of information on the development and cultivation of safety professionals between China and other countries, to offer useful evidence and suggestions for the development of safety professionals.
Keywords: Work safety and health | Safety professionals | China | Certified Safety Engineer (CSE)
Ramifications of varying banking regulations on performance of Islamic Banks
مصوبات مختلف مقررات بانکی در مورد عملکرد بانکهای اسلامی-2019
Recent financial crises have highlighted the importance of banking regulations to hedge against the high risk accredited to imbalances in banks balance sheets. Nonetheless, banking regulations may have adverse effects. On the one hand, they serve as prudential measures that alleviate the effects of crises on the stability of the banking system while on the other hand; they may increase the cost of intermediation and reduce banks profitability. Implementation of non-suitable regulations such as Islamic banks adopting conventional banks regulations could also impair banks performance. This paper analyses the linkages between bank regulatory and supervisory structures associated with Basel IIIs pillars has any significant impact on Islamic banks performance in Asia and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) using two-step Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) technique. Findings suggest that regulatory variables are positively significant with Islamic banks performance in Asian region but not in the GCC.