Coopetition and COVID-19: Collaborative business-to-business marketing strategies in a pandemic crisis
Coopetition و COVID-19: استراتژی های مشارکتی بازاریابی از کسب و کار در یک بحران همه گیر-2020
Although coopetition (simultaneous cooperation and competition) should positively affect company perfor- mance, it is unclear how implementation of these business-to-business marketing strategies can take place during large-scale emergencies. Therefore, guided by resource-based theory and the relational view, this investigation examines how organisations have used coopetition to cope with the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Key examples include retailers sharing information about stock levels, pharmaceutical organisations working together to develop a vaccine, technological giants collaborating for the greater good, and charities forming alliances for a joint cause. This paper strengthens the extant literature by highlighting the heterogeneity of coopetition strategies that firms can use within a global crisis. Practitioners must balance the risks and rewards of coopetition activities. In turn, they should decide whether to continue to cooperate with their competitors once the pandemic has ended, or resume operating under individualistic business models. This article ends with some future research directions.
Keywords: Coopetition | Coronavirus | COVID-19 | Business-to-business marketing
The prospects of waste management in the hospitality sector post COVID-19
چشم انداز مدیریت پسماند در بخش مهمان نوازی پس از COVID-19-2020
COVID-19 has imposed significant detrimental effects on the global hospitality sector. These effects have pri- marily been considered from the socio-economic perspective, ignoring the implications of the pandemic for the environmental performance of hospitality services. By drawing upon emerging evidence from various academicand non-academic sources, this conceptual paper critically evaluates the implications of the preventative and protective measures adopted against COVID-19 for the generation of the hospitality sector’s food and plastic waste. The implications are divided into direct and indirect and considered through the prism of temporality oftheir anticipated occurrence (immediate, short-term and medium-term perspective). The paper proposes po- tential strategies to aid in the management of these wastes in the hospitality sector in a post-pandemic world. To address the issue of food waste, the hospitality sector should be integrated into alternative food networks (AFNs) and short food supply chains (SFSCs). Business coopetition between hospitality enterprises and other actors of the food supply chain is necessary for the success of such integration. To address the issue of plastic waste, thehospitality sector should invest in ‘green’ innovation. This investment needs to be encouraged and supported bytargeted policy interventions. The paper argues that these strategies are critical not only in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, but will also remain valid for the sustained development of the hospitality sector in light of future disastrous events, especially climate change. The paper discusses the institutional and organisational prerequisites for the effective implementation of these strategies and highlights the related research opportunities.
Keywords: Solid waste | Food waste | Plastic waste | Business coopetition | ‘Green’ innovation | COVID-19 pandemic
A novel optimal bipartite consensus control scheme for unknown multi-agent systems via model-free reinforcement learning
یک طرح کنترل اجماع دو طرفه بهینه جدید برای سیستم های چند عامل ناشناخته از طریق یادگیری تقویتی بدون مدل-2020
In this paper, the optimal bipartite consensus control (OBCC) problem is investigated for unknown multi-agent systems (MASs) with coopetition networks. A novel distributed OBCC scheme is proposed based on model-free reinforcement learning method to achieve OBCC, where the agent’s dynamics are no longer required. First, The coopetition networks are applied to establish the cooperative and competitive interactions among agents, and then the OBCC problem is formulated by introducing local neighbor bipartite consensus errors and performance index functions (PIFs) for each agent. Second, in order to obtain the OBCC laws, a policy iteration algorithm (PIA) is employed to learn the solutions to discrete-time (DT) Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations. Third, to implement the pro- posed methods, we adopt a data-driven actor-critic-based neural networks (NNs) frame- work to approximate the control laws and the PIFs, respectively, in an online learning manner. Finally, some simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approaches.
Keywords: Optimal bipartite consensus control | Multi-agent systems | Coopetition network | Model-free | Reinforcement learning
Tokenizing coopetition in a blockchain for a transition to circular economy
ایجاد رقابت در یک بلاکچین برای انتقال به اقتصاد مدور-2019
The circular economy offers a way for businesses to conceptualize sustainable economic activity with a concern for environmental and societal well-being. Putting this concept into practice is a complex undertaking, given the current production and consumption systems, and necessitates strategies that enable competition and cooperation between various actors to generate and scale up the best ideas. Simultaneous competition and cooperation, or coopetition, is studied in strategy literature within the context of managing the complexity of business networks. Coopetition could offer valuable perspectives for firms transitioning to circular models. The purpose of this paper is to show how coopetition could be operationalized and optimized using tokens in a blockchain to support a transition to circular models of value creation and appropriation. The findings of our study indicate that tokens could enable previously disconnected product ecosystems to converge and unleash the waves of creativity and innovation required for circular business models. However, facilitating such convergence would require the coopetition models to transition from comprising the current stages of value creation and appropriation to being based on value creation and circulation.
Keywords: Sustainable | Circular economy | Coopetition | Blockchain | Token | Economy
Cross-functional knowledge sharing, coordination and firm performance: The role of cross-functional competition
به اشتراک گذاری دانش متقابل کاربردی،، هماهنگی و عملکرد شرکت:نقش رقابت متقابل عملکردی-2018
This study advances extant literature in cross-functional knowledge sharing by developing and testing a model of coopetition that examines (1) the relationships of various coordination mechanisms (formalization, lateral re lations, informal networking, and shared vision) with knowledge sharing, (2) the moderating effect of cross functional competition on these relationships, (3) and the mediating effect of organizational innovativeness on the relationship between cross-functional knowledge sharing and firm performance. Results from a sample of 224 large firms in a transition economy show that lateral relations, informal networking, and shared vision as coordination mechanisms relate significantly to cross-functional knowledge sharing, whereas formalization does not. The findings also indicate a moderating effect of cross-functional competition for lateral relations and informal networking but not for formalization or shared vision. Finally, organizational innovativeness partially mediates the relationship between cross-functional knowledge sharing and firm performance. These findings lead to several theoretical and managerial implications.
Keywords: Cross-functional coopetition ، Coordination ، Competition ، Cross-functional knowledge sharing ، Transition economy
Developing institutional logics in the tourism industry through coopetition
توسعه منطق های نهادی در صنعت گردشگری ازطریق هم رقابتی-2018
Drawing on the concept of institutional logics, this study advances the coopetition research on tourism destinations. An inductive multi-case study approach is adopted to explore the evolution of coopetitive practices of four tour operators in Macau over the last decade. The findings indicate that actors in a tourism destination respond to the changes of institutional factors by adopting an institutional logic of coopetition, which include five key processes: exploiting, exploring, bridging, sharing and boundary spanning. This paper contributes to the nascent literature on coopetition in tourism destination studies by analyzing the dynamics of co-evolution between the multi-stakeholders’ changing logics of practice and the surrounding institutional environment. The implications of institutional logics and coopetition from a managerial perspective are also discussed.
keywords: Institutional logics |Coopetition |Institutional transition |Co-evolution |Multi-stakeholders
Understanding tourism loyalty: Horizontal vs: destination loyalty
درک وفاداری گردشگری: وفاداری افقی دربرابر وفاداری به مقصد-2018
Tourism loyalty is a key topic that has been covered in literature mainly from a very homogenous perspective. This study analyses horizontal loyalty (consumers loyalty divided among several destinations), and explains the background factors that affect this behaviour (cognitive, affective and overall destination image; information sources; motivations; socio-demographic characteristics; previous behaviour; conative loyalty). The paper also identifies the differences between the explanatory factors of horizontal loyalty and one-single-destination loyalty. Applying a comprehensive analysis with 6964 tourists from 17 European countries in the context of Canary Islands (Spain), the study provides interesting recommendations for destinations with a view to better designing marketing activities and improving their coopetition strategies and competitiveness.
keywords: Horizontal loyalty |Coopetition |Competitiveness |Segmenting |Image |Motivations
Cross-functional knowledge sharing, coordination and firm performance: The role of cross-functional competition
به اشتراک گذاری بین - کارکردی دانش، هماهنگی و عملکرد شرکت: نقش رقابت بین - کارکردی-2018
This study advances extant literature in cross-functional knowledge sharing by developing and testing a model of coopetition that examines (1) the relationships of various coordination mechanisms (formalization, lateral relations, informal networking, and shared vision) with knowledge sharing, (2) the moderating effect of cross-functional competition on these relationships, (3) and the mediating effect of organizational innovativeness on the relationship between cross-functional knowledge sharing and firm performance. Results from a sample of 224 large firms in a transition economy show that lateral relations, informal networking, and shared vision as coordination mechanisms relate significantly to cross-functional knowledge sharing, whereas formalization does not. The findings also indicate a moderating effect of cross-functional competition for lateral relations and informal networking but not for formalization or shared vision. Finally, organizational innovativeness partially mediates the relationship between cross-functional knowledge sharing and firm performance. These findings lead to several theoretical and managerial implications.
keywords: Cross-functional coopetition |Coordination |Competition |Cross-functional knowledge sharing |Transition economy
Competition, cooperation, and coopetition of green supply chains under regulations on energy saving levels
رقابت، همکاری و همکاری زنجیره تامین سبز تحت مقررات مربوط به میزان صرفه جویی در انرژی-2017
We develop price-energy-saving competition and cooperation models for two green supply chains (GSCs) under government financial intervention. First, we study the best response strategies of the chains for the given tariffs of a government. Second, we formulate 16 mathematical programming models regarding governments’ energy-saving, social welfare, and revenue-seeking policies. We find that the government can orchestrate GSCs to fulfil the financial, social, and environmental objectives by an appropriate tariff mechanism. Moreover, cooperation in a GSC and between GSCs may facilitate the government’s sustain able development policies. A comprehensive analysis on case study of brick production GSCs reveals some important managerial insights.
Keywords:Energy saving efforts|Governmental regulation|Game theory|Green supply chain|Sustainable development policy
Tourism coopetition: An introduction to the subject and a research agenda
گردشگری گردشگری: مقدمه ای بر موضوع و برنامه تحقیقاتی-2017
This paper aims to verify the current status of the research on coopetition applied to Tourism. In order to overcome the lack of tools for analyzing competitive advantage generated by relational components, this paper suggests the use of the coopetition construct as a methodological tool for analyzing the cooperation in networks for the management of tourism destinations. To that end, we performed a bibliometric analysis on ‘tourism coopetition in scientific research papers published from 1995 to 2015 and indexed in the Web of Science and SciVerse Scopus databases. This helped us to conclude that coopetition is a behavior representing the key organizational methods of tourism destinations, especially when considering the interdependence and complementarity of this sector; thus, it should be a fundamental topic of tourism research. In this sense, the paper presents a research agenda in order to establish coopetition as key to understanding the behavior of all those involved in tourism at a particular destination.
Keywords: Tourism coopetition | Collaborative network organizations | Bibliometric analysis | Research agenda