شدت و پتانسیل انتقال کرونا در کره جنوبی
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 6 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 14
اهداف: ازآنجایی که اولین مورد کروناویروس جدید 2019(کوید-19) در 20 ژانویۀ 2020 در کرۀ شمالی شناسایی شد، تعداد موارد به سرعت افزایش یافت به طوری که تا 6 مارس 2020، منجربه ابتلای6284 مورد و فوت42 نفر شد. اولین تحقیق درمورد گزارش تعداد تکثیر کوید-19 در کرۀ جنوبی را برای بررسی سرعت شیوع بیماری، ارائه می دهیم.
روش کار: موارد روزانۀ تأیید شدۀ کوید-19 در کرۀ جنوبی از منابع عمومی موجود استخراج شد. با استفاده از توزیع تجربی گزارشات دارای تأخیر و شبیه سازی مدل رشد کلی، تعداد تکثیر مؤثر را برمبنای توزیع احتمال گسستۀ فاصلۀ زایشی ارزیابی کردیم.
نتایج: چهار گروه اصلی را شناسایی و تعداد تکثیر را 1.5(1.6-1.4 CI: 95%) برآورد کردیم. به علاوه، نرخ رشد طبیعی 0.6 (0.7، 0.6 CI: 95%) و مقیاس بندی پارامتر رشد 0.8 (0.8،0.7 CI: 95%) برآورد شدند، که نشان-دهندۀ پویایی رشد زیر نمایی کوید-19 می باشد. نرخ مرگ و میر موارد خام در بین مردان (1.1%) در مقایسه با زنان (0.4%) بیشتر است و با افزایش سن افزایش می یابد.
نتیجه گیری: نتایج ما انتقال پایدار اولیۀ کوید-19 در کرۀ جنوبی را نشان می دهد و از اجرای اقدامات فاصله گذاری اجتماعی برای کنترل سریع شیوع بیماری حمایت می کند.
کلمات کلیدی: کروناویروس | کوید-19 | کره | تعداد تکثیر
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Coopetition and COVID-19: Collaborative business-to-business marketing strategies in a pandemic crisis
Coopetition و COVID-19: استراتژی های مشارکتی بازاریابی از کسب و کار در یک بحران همه گیر-2020
Although coopetition (simultaneous cooperation and competition) should positively affect company perfor- mance, it is unclear how implementation of these business-to-business marketing strategies can take place during large-scale emergencies. Therefore, guided by resource-based theory and the relational view, this investigation examines how organisations have used coopetition to cope with the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Key examples include retailers sharing information about stock levels, pharmaceutical organisations working together to develop a vaccine, technological giants collaborating for the greater good, and charities forming alliances for a joint cause. This paper strengthens the extant literature by highlighting the heterogeneity of coopetition strategies that firms can use within a global crisis. Practitioners must balance the risks and rewards of coopetition activities. In turn, they should decide whether to continue to cooperate with their competitors once the pandemic has ended, or resume operating under individualistic business models. This article ends with some future research directions.
Keywords: Coopetition | Coronavirus | COVID-19 | Business-to-business marketing
Navigating disruptive crises through service-led growth: The impact of COVID-19 on Italian manufacturing firms
هدایت بحران های مخرب از طریق رشد خدمات محور: تأثیر COVID-19 بر بنگاه های تولیدی ایتالیا-2020
This study draws on an extensive survey and interview data collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The respondents were executives of industrials firms whose factories, warehouses, and headquarters are located in Northern Italy. This is undoubtedly the European region first and most extensively affected by the pandemic, and the government implemented radical lockdown measures, banning nonessential travel and mandating the shutdown of all nonessential businesses. Several major effects on both product and service businesses are highlighted, including the disruption of field-service operations and supply networks. This study also highlights the increased importance of servitization business models and the acceleration of digital transformation and advanced services. To help firms navigate through the crisis and be better positioned after the pandemic, the authors present a four-stage crisis management model (calamity, quick & dirty, restart, and adapt), which provides insights and critical actions that should be taken to cope with the expected short and long-term implications of the crisis. Finally, this study discusses how servitization can enhance resilience for future crises—providing a set of indicators on the presumed role of, and impact on, service operations in relation to what executives expect to be the “next normal.”
Keywords: COVID-19 | Coronavirus | Servitization | Digitalization | Service operations | Solutions | Resilience
Considerations for development and use of AI in response to COVID-19
ملاحظاتی برای توسعه و استفاده از هوش مصنوعی در پاسخ به COVID-19-2020
Artificial intelligence (AI) is playing a key supporting role in the fight against COVID-19 and perhaps will contribute to solutions quicker than we would otherwise achieve in many fields and applications. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, there has been an upsurge in the exploration and use of AI, and other data analytic tools, in a multitude of areas. This paper addresses some of the many considerations for managing the development and deployment of AI applications, including planning; unpredictable, unexpected, or biased results; repurposing; the importance of data; and diversity in AI team membership. We provide implications for research and for practice, according to each of the considerations. Finally we conclude that we need to plan and carefully consider the issues associated with the development and use of AI as we look for quick solutions.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence | AI | Machine learning | COVID-19 | Coronavirus | AI applications | Strategy | Bias | Repurposed AI | Data | Team diversity
Mental health and capacity laws in Northern Ireland and the COVID-19 pandemic: Examining powers, procedures and protections under emergency legislation
قوانین بهداشت و ظرفیت های روانی در ایرلند شمالی و بیماری همه گیر COVID-19: بررسی قدرت ، رویه ها و حمایت ها تحت قانون اضطراری-2020
This article examines the changes made to mental health and capacity laws in Northern Ireland through temporary emergency legislation, known as the Coronavirus Act 2020. The purpose of the legislation was to respond to the emergency situation created by the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular the increase pressure placed on health services in the United Kingdom. An overview is provided of the governments rationale for the changes to Northern Ireland mental health and capacity laws, as well as exploring how they are likely to be operationalised in practice. Consideration is also given as to how such changes may impact upon existing human rights protections for persons assessed as lacking mental capacity. It is argued that it is important that regular parliamentary oversight is maintained in relation to the potential impact and consequences of such changes during the period they are in force. This should be done in order to assess whether they remain a necessary, proportionate and least restrictive response to the challenges faced in managing mental health and capacity issues in Northern Ireland during this public health emergency.
Keywords: Mental capacity law | Mental health law | Human rights | Northern Ireland | COVID-19 | Coronavirus Act 2020 | Emergency legislation
COVID-19 and China’s Hotel Industry: Impacts, a Disaster Management Framework, and Post-Pandemic Agenda
COVID-19 و صنعت هتل چین: تأثیرات ، چارچوب مدیریت فاجعه و دستور کار پس از شیوع-2020
This exploratory study reviews the overall impacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on China’s hotel industry. A COVID-19 management framework is proposed to address the anti-pandemic phases, princi- ples, and strategies. This study also suggests that COVID-19 will signiﬁcantly and permanently aﬀect four major aspects of China’s hotel industry—multi-business and multi-channels, product design and investment preference, digital and intelligent transformation, and market reshuﬄe.
Keywords: COVID-19 | hotel industry | disaster management framework | disaster management strategy | crisis management | China
A Novel AI-enabled Framework to Diagnose Coronavirus COVID-19 using Smartphone Embedded Sensors: Design Study
یک چارچوب جدید مبتنی بر هوش مصنوعی برای تشخیص Coronavirus COVID-19 با استفاده از حسگرهای داخلی تلفن های هوشمند: مطالعه طراحی-2020
Coronaviruses are a famous family of viruses that cause illness in both humans and animals. The new type of coronavirus COVID-19 was firstly discovered in Wuhan, China. However, recently, the virus has widely spread in most of the world and causing a pandemic according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Further, nowadays, all the world countries are striving to control the COVID-19. There are many mechanisms to detect coronavirus including clinical analysis of chest CT scan images and blood test results. The confirmed COVID-19 patient manifests as fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Particularly, several techniques can be used to detect the initial results of the virus such as medical detection Kits. However, such devices are incurring huge cost, taking time to install them and use. Therefore, in this paper, a new framework is proposed to detect COVID-19 using built-in smartphone sensors. The proposal provides a low-cost solution, since most of radiologists have already held smartphones for different dailypurposes. Not only that but also ordinary people can use the framework on their smartphones for the virus detection purposes. Today’s smartphones are powerful with existing computationrich processors, memory space, and large number of sensors including cameras, microphone, temperature sensor, inertial sensors, proximity, colour-sensor, humidity-sensor, and wireless chipsets/sensors. The designed Artificial Intelligence (AI) enabled framework reads the smartphone sensors’ signal measurements to predict the grade of severity of the pneumonia as well as predicting the result of the disease.
Index Terms: COVID-19 | smartphone | coronavirus Detection | smartphone sensors
Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications for COVID-19 pandemic
برنامه های هوش مصنوعی برای بیماری همه گیر COVID-19-2020
Background and aims: Healthcare delivery requires the support of new technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data and Machine Learning to fight and look ahead against the new diseases. We aim to review the role of AI as a decisive technology to analyze, prepare us for prevention and fight with COVID-19 (Coronavirus) and other pandemics. Methods: The rapid review of the literature is done on the database of Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar using the keyword of COVID-19 or Coronavirus and Artificial Intelligence or AI. Collected the latest information regarding AI for COVID-19, then analyzed the same to identify its possible application for this disease. Results: We have identified seven significant applications of AI for COVID-19 pandemic. This technology plays an important role to detect the cluster of cases and to predict where this virus will affect in future by collecting and analyzing all previous data. Conclusions: Healthcare organizations are in an urgent need for decision-making technologies to handle this virus and help them in getting proper suggestions in real-time to avoid its spread. AI works in a proficient way to mimic like human intelligence. It may also play a vital role in understanding and suggesting the development of a vaccine for COVID-19. This result-driven technology is used for proper screening, analyzing, prediction and tracking of current patients and likely future patients. The significant applications are applied to tracks data of confirmed, recovered and death cases.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence (AI) | AI Applications | COVID-19 | Coronavirus | Pandemic
Startups in times of crisis - A rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic
شرکت های نوپا در مواقع بحرانی - پاسخی سریع به بیماری همه گیر COVID-19-2020
Research summary: The discovery of the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the spread of COVID-19 have led many governments to take drastic measures. The lockdown of large parts of society and economic life has come as an exogenous shock to many economic actors, not least innovative startups. This rapid response research combines a qualitative research design informed by entrepreneurial ecosystem actors with an analysis of policy measures called for, announced, and reportedly implemented in the international press. Interviews from an entrepreneurial ecosystem offer a ﬁrst-hand account of the adversity startups face during a crisis and how by utilizing bricolage responses they cope, and the analysis of policy measures can serve as an inspiration to design support initiatives to protect startups from the consequences of the current lockdown and to alleviate the effects of future crises.Managerial summary: The lockdown measures as a response to the spread of the new coronavirus threaten the existence of many innovative startups. Our rapid response research ﬁrst illustrates the challenges entrepreneurs face as a consequence of the crisis. Second, we illustrate how entre- preneurs are dealing with the effects of the crisis and what they are doing to protect their ventures. Finally, we present measures that could be utilized by policymakers to assist entrepreneurs facing challenges. The research conducted suggests that while startups are successfully leveraging their available resources as a ﬁrst response to the crisis, their growth and innovation potential are at risk. Therefore, policy measures should not only provide ﬁrst aid to startups by alleviating the pressure caused by constrained cashﬂow, but also involve long-term measures embedded in and supported by the wider entrepreneurial ecosystem to ensure rapid recovery and growth.
Keywords: Bricolage | Coronavirus | COVID-19 | Crisis | Entrepreneurship | Policy
The experiences of health-care providers during the COVID-19 crisis in China: a qualitative study
تجارب ارائه دهندگان مراقبت های بهداشتی در طول بحران COVID-19 در چین: یک مطالعه کیفی-2020
Background In the early stages of the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei, China, the local healthcare system was overwhelmed. Physicians and nurses who had no infectious disease expertise were recruited to provide care to patients with COVID-19. To our knowledge, no studies on their experiences of combating COVID-19 have been published. We aimed to describe the experiences of these health-care providers in the early stages of the outbreak. Methods We did a qualitative study using an empirical phenomenological approach. Nurses and physicians were recruited from five COVID-19-designated hospitals in Hubei province using purposive and snowball sampling. They participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews by telephone from Feb 10 to Feb 15, 2020. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Haase’s adaptation of Colaizzi’s phenomenological method. Findings We recruited nine nurses and four physicians. Three theme categories emerged from data analysis. The first was “being fully responsible for patients’ wellbeing—‘this is my duty’”. Health-care providers volunteered and tried their best to provide care for patients. Nurses had a crucial role in providing intensive care and assisting with activities of daily living. The second category was “challenges of working on COVID-19 wards”. Health-care providers were challenged by working in a totally new context, exhaustion due to heavy workloads and protective gear, the fear of becoming infected and infecting others, feeling powerless to handle patients’ conditions, and managing relationships in this stressful situation. The third category was “resilience amid challenges”. Health-care providers identified many sources of social support and used self-management strategies to cope with the situation. They also achieved transcendence from this unique experience. Interpretation The intensive work drained health-care providers physically and emotionally. Health-care providers showed their resilience and the spirit of professional dedication to overcome difficulties. Comprehensive support should be provided to safeguard the wellbeing of health-care providers. Regular and intensive training for all healthcare providers is necessary to promote preparedness and efficacy in crisis management. Funding National Key R&D Program of China, Project of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education in China.