با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
Review of banana green life throughout the food chain: From auto-catalytic induction to the optimisation of shipping and storage conditions
مروری بر عمر سبز موز در سراسر زنجیره غذایی: از القای خودکار کاتالیزوری گرفته تا بهینه سازی شرایط حمل و نقل و ذخیره سازی-2020
Banana green life (GL) is the time between harvesting and the start of natural ripening. GL could be considered as a major quality criterion, as it defines whether or not a fruit is suitable for export and marketing. The ending of GL, when climacteric crisis occurs, is characterized by autocatalytic ethylene production. Ethylene synthesis and regulation are described. The main methods for determining Gl are based on detecting the CO2 peak or a decrease in green pigments, using a spectrometer (NDVI) for the latter. Temperatures during fruit growth and Black Sigatoka disease are the main pre-harvest factors affecting GL. The former can be managed by applying the thermal sums concept and the latter by adequate field practices. The effects of the main exogenous storage parameters (storage temperature, relative humidity, concentration of ethylene and O2/CO2 ratio in the atmosphere) could be modelled in some cases. The most effective solutions for extending GL rely on either developing coatings using new preservative compounds, or designing packaging capable of controlling the temperature, CO2/O2 ratio and ethylene concentrations in the environment close to the fruits. It was demonstrated that 1-MCP is not relevant for increasing GL. A global and integrated approach involving the overall optimization of pre- and post-harvest factors needs to be applied to maintain green fruit until voluntary/artificial ripening is induced.
Keywords: Banana | Green life | Ethylene | Shipping | Storage
Purchasing and supply managements identity: Crisis? What crisis?
هویت مدیریت خرید و عرضه: بحران؟ چه بحرانی؟-2020
Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) has been subjected to a number of examinations, all concluding that PSM is not an academic discipline as it lacks its own theories and common themes of research. It is perceived by many as an applied social science and field of research applying theories from other disciplines. But, to date, these examinations have not revealed more definitively what PSM is, i.e., its identity. This Notes and Debates paper was stimulated by two focused meetings, a question panel at IPSERA 2019 and solicited views from IPSERA participants. These were synthesized and developed through grounding them in identity and social identity theories. They are provided to stimulate the debate on PSMs internal and external identity coherence and legitimacy.
Why tourists engage in online collective actions in times of crisis: Exploring the role of group relative deprivation
چرا گردشگران در مواقع بحرانی به اقدامات جمعی آنلاین می پردازند: بررسی نقش محرومیت نسبی گروه-2020
Social media platforms empower tourists to engage in secondary crisis communication and even take collective action against destinations. Such online actions result in challenges for tourism destinations related to crisis management and image restoration, especially for human-induced tourism crises caused internally by managerial or institutional faults. Based on the theory of relative deprivation and examining the reputation crisis of Snow Town as a case, this study aims to understand the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral mechanisms of tourists’ secondary crisis communications. The results show that group relative deprivation perceived by tourists can elicit their group-based anger and distrust toward the destination and can also lead to online collective action and offline behavioral intentions (here, negative travel intention). Additionally, the results show a reverse influence of aim-oriented and behavior-oriented online collective actions on travel intentions and that aimoriented actions positively mediate anger and travel intentions. This study provides new insights into how a personal incident evolves to become a tourism crisis during social-media communications and discusses managerial implications for crisis management and post-crisis marketing.
Keywords: Group relative deprivation | Group-based anger | Destination trust | Collective online actions | Secondary crisis communication | Crisis management
Optimal household energy management based on smart residential energy hub considering uncertain behaviors
مدیریت بهینه انرژی خانگی مبتنی بر مرکز انرژی مسکونی هوشمند با توجه به رفتارهای نامشخص-2020
Nowadays, confronting with the emerging energy crisis and environmental pressure, multi energy integrating technologies are considered as effective patterns to augment the renewable energy consumption and improve energy efficiency in the context of energy transformation and reform. In this paper, household energy management based on smart residential energy hub (SREH) whose inputs include electricity and natural gas is designed for modern households. Relevant energy-using equipment models as well as control strategies are proposed through the physical characteristics and household users’ preferences, respectively. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated to allocate energy supply in the SREH, and provide scheduling schemes for energy-using equipment beside the classified ordinary appliances. Six kinds of uncertain behaviors are modelled in comfort deviation as sub-objective. The overall objective of the problem is to minimize both the energy consumption expense and comfort deviation. Then, four cases studies are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model, where both of the sub-objective value improves as a result. Finally, the robustness of the model are illustrated with actual behaviors of household users. The sensibility analysis of departure time distribution, weighing factors and number of uncertain scenarios are carried out to optimize the decision configuration.
Keywords: Home energy management system (HEMS) | Smart residential energy hub (SREH) | Optimal scheduling | Uncertain behaviors | Comfort deviation
The ESPREssO Action Database: Collecting and assessing measures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation
پایگاه داده عملیاتی ESPREssO: جمع آوری و ارزیابی اقدامات برای کاهش خطر در برابر بلایای طبیعی و سازگاری با تغییرات آب و هوا-2020
The Action Database (ADB) was developed during the ESPREssO project (Enhancing Synergies for Disaster Prevention in the European Union) in order to store and analyze relevant ideas emerging during the project to deal with the challenges. It provides the opportunity to formalize discussions and to store their content in a synthetic format, as well as to collect experiences and evaluate the impacts they had at their respective scales of implementation and on different parameters. The major aim of the ESPREssO-ADB tool, and its main innovation, is to deal with multi-hazard and multi-challenge actions, in an international context and notably in a cross-border initiative. The ESPREssO project aimed at contributing to a new strategic vision on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) in Europe. To do so, stakeholders working with CCA and/or DRR in Europe were consulted to identify measures boosting adaptation or societies’ resilience. Each idea, measure or comment was stored and ranked in the ADB using qualitative criteria based on the Sendai Priorities and the SHIELD model proposed by the ESPREssO Team. Each action was assessed through multi-criteria analysis and effectiveness was approached under two different angles. The first one in line with the priorities of the Sendai Framework; and the second one with the SHIELD model. This model incorporate recommendations on how to optimize risk management capabilities through DRR. Positive actions had fed the Vision Paper and Guidelines produced by the project. This paper describes in details the ADB structure and the multi-criteria analysis performed.
Keywords: Action database | Europe | Disaster prevention | Disaster risk reduction (DRR) | Climate change adaptation (CCA) | Cross border crisis management | Stakeholders
The experiences of health-care providers during the COVID-19 crisis in China: a qualitative study
تجارب ارائه دهندگان مراقبت های بهداشتی در طول بحران COVID-19 در چین: یک مطالعه کیفی-2020
Background In the early stages of the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei, China, the local healthcare system was overwhelmed. Physicians and nurses who had no infectious disease expertise were recruited to provide care to patients with COVID-19. To our knowledge, no studies on their experiences of combating COVID-19 have been published. We aimed to describe the experiences of these health-care providers in the early stages of the outbreak. Methods We did a qualitative study using an empirical phenomenological approach. Nurses and physicians were recruited from five COVID-19-designated hospitals in Hubei province using purposive and snowball sampling. They participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews by telephone from Feb 10 to Feb 15, 2020. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Haase’s adaptation of Colaizzi’s phenomenological method. Findings We recruited nine nurses and four physicians. Three theme categories emerged from data analysis. The first was “being fully responsible for patients’ wellbeing—‘this is my duty’”. Health-care providers volunteered and tried their best to provide care for patients. Nurses had a crucial role in providing intensive care and assisting with activities of daily living. The second category was “challenges of working on COVID-19 wards”. Health-care providers were challenged by working in a totally new context, exhaustion due to heavy workloads and protective gear, the fear of becoming infected and infecting others, feeling powerless to handle patients’ conditions, and managing relationships in this stressful situation. The third category was “resilience amid challenges”. Health-care providers identified many sources of social support and used self-management strategies to cope with the situation. They also achieved transcendence from this unique experience. Interpretation The intensive work drained health-care providers physically and emotionally. Health-care providers showed their resilience and the spirit of professional dedication to overcome difficulties. Comprehensive support should be provided to safeguard the wellbeing of health-care providers. Regular and intensive training for all healthcare providers is necessary to promote preparedness and efficacy in crisis management. Funding National Key R&D Program of China, Project of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education in China.
Sovereigns going bust: Estimating the cost of default
فرمانروایان ورشکستگی: برآورد هزینه های پیش فرض-2019
Article history:Received 6 December 2017Accepted 4 April 2019Available online 15 May 2019JEL classiﬁcation:H63 F34 F41 G01Keywords: Sovereign default Sovereign debt Banking crises Local projectionsInverse propensity score weightingWhat is the cost of sovereign default, and what makes default costly? This paper uses a novel econometric method – combining local projections and propensity score weighting as in Jordà and Taylor (2016) – to study these questions. We ﬁnd that default generates a long-lasting output cost – 2.7% of GDP on impact and 3.7% at peak after ﬁve years – but in the longer term, economic activity recovers. The downturn is characterised by a collapse in investment and gross trade. The cost rises dramatically if the default is followed by a systemic banking crisis – peaking at some 9.5% of GDP – but is attenuated for economies with ﬂoating exchange rates. Our ﬁndings suggest that ﬁnancial autarky, trade frictions and sovereign-banking spillovers play a key role in generating the cost of default.© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Sovereign default | Sovereign debt | Banking crises | Local projections | Inverse propensity score weighting
Anticipating bank distress in the Eurozone: An Extreme Gradient Boosting approach
پیش بینی بحران مالی بانک ها در منطقه یورو: یک رویکرد تقویت گرادیان شدید-2019
The banking sector plays a special role in the economy and has critical functions which are essential for economic stability. Hence, systemic banking crises disrupt financial markets and hinder global economic growth. In this study, Extreme Gradient Boosting, a state of the art machine learning method, is applied to identify a set of key leading indicators that may help predict and prevent bank failure in the Eurozone banking sector. The crosssectional data used in this study consists of 25 annual financial ratio series for commercial banks in the Eurozone. The sample includes Eurozone listed failed and non-failed banks for the period 2006–2016. A number of early warning systems and leading indicator models have been developed to prevent bank failure. Yet the breadth and depth of the recent financial crisis indicates that these methods must improve if they are to serve as a useful tool for regulators and managers of financial institutions. Our goal is to build a classification model to determine which variables should be monitored to anticipate bank financial distress. A set of key variables are identified to anticipate bank defaults. Identifying leading indicators of bank failure is necessary so that regulators and financial institutions management can take preventive and corrective measures before it is too late.
Keywords: Bank failure prediction | Bank failure prevention | Bank financial distress | Machine learning | Extreme Gradient Boosting |XGBoost
Regulation & oligopoly in banking: The role of banking cost structure
مقررات و الیگپولی در بانکداری: نقش ساختار هزینه بانکی-2019
The post-2008 financial crisis EU banking sector is characterized by recapitalization, a reduction in the number of credit institutions, and cost efficiencies due to the presence of economies of scope. This paper investigates the role of the banking cost structure as a factor influencing the regulatory impact on banking conduct under oligopolistic conditions. Applying the industrial organization approach to banking, commercial banks operate in the context of a two-stage Cournot game with economies of scope and public intervention. This intervention takes the form of minimum solvency requirements imposed by banking authorities. Higher capital provides a buffer against losses on banks’ assets and enhances financial stability. The findings show that stricter prudential regulation reduces loan rates and the interest rate spread. Also, the analysis suggests that banking regulation weakens the effectiveness of monetary policy. Thus, in terms of practical implication, banking supervision strategy should take into consideration the banking cost structure.
Keywords: Capital requirements | Regulation | Monetary policy | Economies of scope
Shadow banking and financial regulation: A small-scale DSGE perspective
بانکداری سایه و مقررات مالی: چشم انداز DSGE در مقیاس کوچک-2019
This paper estimates a small-scale DSGE model of the US economy with interacting tradi- tional and shadow banks. We find that shadow banks amplify the transmission of struc- tural shocks by helping escape constraints from traditional intermediaries. We show how this leakage toward shadow entities reduces the ability of macro-prudential policies target- ing traditional credit to reduce economic volatility. A counterfactual experiment suggests that a countercyclical capital buffer, if applied only to traditional banks, would have in fact amplified the boom-bust cycle associated with the financial crisis of 20 07–20 08. On the other hand, a broader regulation scheme targeting both traditional and shadow credit would have helped stabilize the economy
Keywords: Shadow banking | DSGE models | macro-prudential policy