با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
Co-production of knowledge and adaptation to water scarcity in developing countries
تولید دانش و سازگاری با کمبود آب در کشورهای در حال توسعه-2020
Dwindling of freshwater resources is a harsh reality of the arid and semi-arid regions of the world and climate change is expected to deteriorate their situation through major reduction of freshwater supplies. Co-production of knowledge, through active negotiation of experts, government and local stakeholders has been used as a strategy to adapt to water scarcity. However, in many developing countries, co-production of knowledge is not common and adaptation efforts rarely reflects the plurality of involved knowledge sources and actors. Given the urgent need of transition towards water-efficient agricultural practices, the Iran’s government applied the knowledge co-production approach and implemented an integrated participatory crop management (IPCM) project in the Bakian village, Fars province. The objectives of this study were to analyze the knowledge coproduction process, identify the factors contributing to adoption of the co-produced knowledge and investigate the corresponding social, economic and environmental impacts. A mixed-method research was conducted comprising a case study on 19 informants selected using purposive sampling and a survey of 150 rice producers selected through systematic random sampling. The results indicated the relevance and pertinence of knowledge co-production in recognizing the real problems of the rice producers and suggesting some potential adaptive strategies. Though a wide range of natural, financial, technical, institutional and structural constraints restricted adoption of the proposed adaptive strategies, application of the co-produced knowledge significantly increased water productivity, ensured higher yields and farm-based sustainable livelihoods, and enhanced resilience of the farm households under water scarcity. Some recommendations and implications are offered to increase adaptation of farm families to water scarcity.
Keywords: Co-production of knowledge | Adaptation | Water scarcity | Climate change | Integrated participatory crop management | Impact assessment
Relevance of local knowledge in decision-making and rural innovation: A methodological proposal for leveraging participation of Colombian cocoa producers
ارتباط دانش محلی در تصمیم گیری و نوآوری روستایی: یک پیشنهاد روش شناختی برای افزایش مشارکت تولیدکنندگان کاکائو کلمبیا-2020
The local knowledge is constituted in the basis for decision-making and is an important part of the livelihood of rural families. Knowledge of cocoa crop management practices takes an essential role in the producers’ resilience capacity to face and adapt to changing environments in the productive, social and environmental level. It was carried out a study in the Macarena-Guaviare region, Colombia to evaluate the level of knowledge of cocoa producers, to analyze how this knowledge is affected by familiar, organizational or productive variables, and to determine the formation needs. To determine the level of knowledge, it was proposed a methodology called “Cacota test” which was applied and validated by cocoa producers (n = 189). It was evaluated the knowledge about the links (a. Crop design, b. Clones, c. Soil fertility, d. Pruning, e. Pests and diseases management, f. Good agricultural practices, g. Harvest, h. Post-harvest, i. Transformation, j. Marketing, k. Associativity, l. Institutionality). By means of a cluster analysis, producers were typified according to their level of knowledge and it was made a principal component analysis (PCA) to visualize the relation between the links and types of producers. It was elaborated a Cocoa Knowledge Index (CKI) and the links with greater and lesser strength regarding management level were identified. Also, the variables which influence the CKI were identified using a linear regression model. Positive correlations were found between the links: a. Clones and Soil fertility, b. Pruning and good agricultural practices, c. Pruning and pests and diseases management. The typologies were affected by the level of education, level of associativity and cultivated area. The local knowledge was not significantly related to age and gender. The proposed methodology made possible to determine the level of local knowledge of cocoa crop management practices. The institutions or people responsible for the formation of cocoa producers in the Macarena-Guaviare region should focus on crop design, clones, soil fertility, harvest, post-harvest and transformation links.
Keywords: Theobroma cacao L | Cultural and crop management | Cacota test | Participatory action research | Local knowledge
Modelling fuzzy combination of remote sensing vegetation index for durum wheat crop analysis
مدل سازی ترکیب فازی از شاخص پوشش گیاهی سنجش از دور برای تجزیه و تحلیل محصول گندم دوروم-2019
The application of new technologies (e.g. Internet of Things, mechatronics, remote sensing) to the primary sector will reduce the production costs, limit the waste of primary materials, and reduce the release of polluting compounds into the environment. Precision agriculture (PA) has been growing in the last years thanks to industry efforts and development of applications for diagnostic purposes. Many applications in PA use vegetation indices to measure phenology parameters in terms of Leaf Area Index (LAI). In this context, the correlation of some vegetation indices were analyzed with respect to the durum wheat canopy, evaluating two different phenological stages (elongation and maturity). The results show that for the first stage of growth, the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was the best-correlated vegetation index with LAI, while the Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) was more reliable for the following stage of growth. Considering trials findings, a fuzzy expert system was developed to combine EVI and LSWI, obtaining a new combined index (Case-specific Fuzzy Vegetation Index) that better represents the LAI in comparison with the single indices. Thus, this approach could give place to a better representative vegetation index of a different biological condition of the plant. It may also serve as a reliable method for wheat yield forecasting and stress monitoring.
Keywords: Precision agriculture | LAI | Remote sensing | Crop management | Landsat images | Ecosystem services
Fuzzy control system for variable rate irrigation using remote sensing
سیستم کنترل فازی برای آبیاری با سرعت متغیر با استفاده از سنجش از دور-2019
Variable rate irrigation (VRI) is the capacity to spatially vary the depth of water application in a field to handle different types of soils, crops, and other conditions. Precise management zones must be devel- oped to efficiently apply variable rate technologies. However, there is no universal method to determine management zones. Using speed control maps for the central pivot is one option. Thus, this study aims to develop an intelligent fuzzy inference system based on precision irrigation knowledge, i.e., a system that can create prescriptive maps to control the rotation speed of the central pivot. Satellite images are used in this study because remote sensing offers quick measurements and easy access to information on crops for large irrigation areas. Based on the VRI-prescribed map created using the intelligent decision- making system, the pivot can increase or decrease its speed, reaching the desired depth of application in a certain irrigation zone. Therefore, considering the spatial variability in the crop has made the strategy of speed control more realistic than traditional methods for crop management. The intelligent irrigation system pointed out areas with lower leaf development, indicating that the pivot must reduce its speed, thus increasing the water layer applied to that area. The existence of well-divided zones could be ob- served; each zone provides a specific value for the speed that the pivot must develop for decreasing or increasing the application of the water layer to the crop area. Three quarters of the total crop area had spatial variations during water application. The set point built by the developed system pointed out zones with a decreased speed in the order of 50%. From the viewpoint of a traditional control, the relay from pivot percent timer should have been adjusted from 70% to 35% whenever the central pivot passed over that specific area. The proposed system obtained values of 37% and 47% to adjust the pivot percent timer. Therefore, it is possible to affirm that traditional control models used for central-pivot irrigators do not support the necessary precision to meet the demands of speed control determined by the developed VRI systems. Results indicate that data from the edaphoclimatic variables when well-fitted to the fuzzy logic can solve uncertainties and non-linearities of an irrigation system and establish a control model for high-precision irrigation.
Keywords: Fuzzy control | Variable rate irrigation | Speed control | Remote sensing | Decision support system
Evaluation of the energy budget and energy use efficiency in wheat production under various crop management practices in China
ارزیابی بودجه انرژی و کارایی مصرف انرژی در تولید گندم تحت شیوه های مختلف مدیریت محصول در چین-2018
Developing energy-saving and high-efficiency crop managements is required for food and energy se curity. Huang-Huai-Hai Plain produces more than 60% of the wheat in China. However, no published studies have investigated the energy budget of wheat production in this area. Using an input-output energy analysis from 2012 to 2014, we assessed energy flow of various managements. The average en ergy input and output ranged from 37.5 to 57.4 and 170.9e263.9 GJ ha1, respectively. Compared with rainfed wheat (W1), irrigated wheat presented significantly higher energy inputs and outputs. Compared with farmers practices (W2), optimized management based on soil water content (SWC) at depths of 0 e20 (W3) and 0e40 cm (W4) reduced energy use; however, this reduction did not occur at soil depths of 0e60 cm (W5). Among four irrigated managements, W4 produced the highest energy output with the lowest energy input. Moreover, W4 presented the highest net energy, energy use efficiency, and energy productivity, which were 8.2%, 15.6%, and 14.9% higher than those presented by W2, respectively. The lowest specific energy in W4 indicated that the energy consumed to produce 1 kg of wheat can be substantially reduced via efficient water management. SWC-based water management had a significant
Keywords: China ، Crop management ، Energy analysis ، Energy use efficiency ، Wheat
Identifying the factors that determine ecosystem services provision in Pampean agroecosystems (Argentina) using a data-mining approach
شناسایی عوامل موثر بر ارائه خدمات اکوسیستم در کشاورزی کشاورزی Pampean (آرژانتین) با استفاده از یک روش داده کاوی-2018
Ecosystem services (ES) have become a key concept in the assessment of natural resources, as a way to connect human well-being and ecosystems degradation. However, ES quantification is considered a basic problem because provision varies considerably as a result of land use change and site-specific characteristics (i.e. climate, soil, topography, and time). Thus, more detailed studies are needed to assess whether these changes affect ecological variables. We explored the use of environmental and crop management variables in predicting the provision of four ES (soil C balance, soil N balance, N2O emission control and groundwater contamination control) in three agroecosystems located in the Pampa region (Argentina). Data-mining, represented by k-means cluster and classification trees, was used to identify the dependence of ES provision on the variation of both environmental and crop management factors. We used plot level crop man agement and environmental field information stored in a large database during a 10-year period. The k-means method selected five different clusters. The final configuration showed two con trasting clusters: one with the lowest ES provision, and another one with the highest ES provision. The five clusters were represented in the terminal nodes of the final classification tree. Regarding the predictive power of the variables, crop and year were the most important predictors. Then, differences observed in ES provision resulted from changes in land use (variable “crop”) and crop season (variable “year”). These results are meant to enlighten stakeholders in terms of how to manage Pampean agroecosystems in order to positively influence ES provision.
Keywords: Ecosystem services ، Cluster ، Classification trees ،Land use ، Crop season ، Pampean agroecosystems