Information security and storage of Internet of Things based on block chains
امنیت اطلاعات و ذخیره اینترنت اشیاء بر اساس زنجیره های بلوک-2020
With progress in science and technology and the rapid development of the Internet of Things, we have entered the intelligent era of the Internet of Things. With many devices connected to the Internet, hackers have opportunities to attack; thus, the security of the Internet of Things has attracted increased attention. In the era of big data, the demand for information storage is increasing. This paper considers block chains and proposes an ECC (Ellipse Curve Cryptography) asymmetric algorithm to encrypt information. For storage, this paper proposes compressed sensing for data compression reconstruction to improve information storage speed in the Internet of Things. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to comparable algorithms in security and storage performance.
Keywords: Block chain | Internet of Things | Information security and storage
An efficient Lightweight integrated Blockchain (ELIB) model for IoT security and privacy
مدل کارآمد سبک یکپارچه بلاکچین (ELIB) برای امنیت اینترنت اشیا و حفظ حریم خصوصی-2019
Presently, BlockChain (BC) gained significant interest because of its undeniable nature and related advantages of security and privacy, BC has the power to resolve the limitations of Internet of Things (IoT) such as data protection and privacy. At the same time, BC has high computation complexity, restricted scalability, high bandwidth overhead and latency that is unsuitable to IoT. In this paper, efficient Lightweight integrated Blockchain (ELIB) model is developed to meet necessitates of IoT. The presented model is deployed in a smart home environment as an important illustration to verify its applicability in various IoT scenarios. The resource constrained resources in a smart home takes the advantages from a centralized manager which generates shared keys to transmit data, process every incoming and outgoing requests. The presented ELIB model generates an overlay network where highly equipped resources can merges to a public BC which verifies dedicated security and privacy. A set of three optimizations are carried out in the presented ELIB model include lightweight consensus algorithm, certificateless (CC) cryptography and Distributed Throughput Management (DTM) scheme. A detailed simulation takes place under different scenarios in terms of processing time, energy usage and overhead. The ELIB attains a total of 50% saving in processing time on comparing to baseline method with the minimum energy consumption of 0.07mJ. The obtained experimental outcome indicated that the ELIB shows maximum performance under several evaluation parameters.
Keywords: IoT | Blockchain | Security | Privacy | Certificateless cryptography
On addressing RFID/NFC-based relay attacks: An overview
در مورد آدرس دهی حملات رله مبتنی بر RFID / NFC: یک مرور کلی-2019
Relay attacks generally occur between two entities that communicate with each other through wireless means. When a relay attack between a honest prover and a honest verifier occurs, an adversary tricks the prover and verifier into believing that they are indeed communicating with each other. Such attacks are rather difficult to identify and prevent since a passive adversary does not modify any of the communicated messages between prover and verifier. RFID/NFC-based applications are particularly vulnerable to such attacks. We provide an overview of RFID-based relay attacks and evaluate various streams of research that have attempted to address these attacks. Specifically, we consider distance-bounding techniques and the use of artificial or natural ambient conditions, with specific emphasis on the latter.
Keywords: RFID | Relay attack | Cryptography | Ambient conditions
A balanced power analysis attack resilient adiabatic logic using single charge sharing transistor
تجزیه و تحلیل قدرت متعادل حمله منطق بی دررو انعطاف پذیر با استفاده از تک ترانزیستور به اشتراک گذاری شارژ-2019
The existing Power Analysis Attacks (PAA) resilient adiabatic logic designs exhibit variations in current peaks, have asymmetric structures and suffer from Non-Adiabatic Losses (NAL) during the evaluation phase of the power-clock. However, asymmetric structure and variations in current peaks make the circuit susceptible to PAA. In this paper, we present a novel PAA resilient adiabatic logic which has a symmetric structure, completely removes NAL from the evaluation phase of the power-clock and exhibits minimal variations in current peaks for gates as well as in an 8-bit Montgomery multiplier. The proposed logic has been compared with three existing secure adiabatic logic designs for operating frequencies ranging from 1 MHz to 100 MHz and power-clock scaling ranging from 1.8 V to 0.6 V. Simulation results of the gates show that our proposed logic exhibits the lowest Normalized Energy Deviation (NED) and Normalized Standard Deviation (NSD) at the frequencies mentioned above. In addition, all the 2-input gates using proposed logic dissipate average energy within 0.3% of each other and thus, lowest value of standard deviation at all the simulated frequencies. The simulation results for the 8-bit Montgomery multiplier show that proposed logic exhibits the least value of NED and NSD at all the simulated frequencies and under power-supply scaling.
Keywords: Cryptography | Charge-sharing | Current consumption | Quasi-adiabatic logic | Power analysis attack | Secure
A simulated approach to evaluate side-channel attack countermeasures for the Advanced Encryption Standard
یک روش شبیه سازی شده برای ارزیابی اقدامات متقابل حمله کانال جانبی برای استاندارد رمزگذاری پیشرفته-2019
Modern networks have critical security needs and a suitable level of protection and performance is usually achieved with the use of dedicated hardware cryptographic cores. Although the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is considered the best approach when symmetric cryptography is required, one of its main weaknesses lies in its measurable power consumption. Side-Channel Attacks (SCAs) use this emitted power to analyse and revert the mathematical steps and extract the encryption key. Nowadays they exist several dedicated equipment and workstations for SCA weaknesses analysis and the evaluation of the related countermeasures, but they can present significant drawbacks as a high cost for the instrumentation or, in case of cheaper instrumentation, the need to underclock the physical circuit implementing the AES cipher, in order to adapt the circuit clock frequency accordingly to the power sampling rate of ADCs or oscilloscopes bandwidth. In this work, we proposed a methodology for Correlation and Differential Power Analysis against hardware implementations of an AES core, relying only on a simulative approach. Our solution extracts simulated power traces from a gate-level netlist and then elaborates them using mathematical-statistical procedures. The main advantage of our solution is that it allows to emulate a real attack scenario based on emitted power analysis, without requiring any additional physical circuit or dedicated equipment for power samples acquisition, neither modifying the working conditions of the target application context (such as the circuit clock frequency). Thus, our approach can be used to validate and benchmark any SCA countermeasure during an early step of the design, thereby shortening and helping the designers to find the best solution during a preliminary phase and potentially without additional costs.
ردپای سخت افزاری S-box در رمزنگاری های بلوک متقارن سبک برای سیستم های امنیتی اطلاعات IoT و CPS
Hardware footprints of S-box in lightweight symmetric block ciphers for IoT and CPS information security systems-2019
The hardware footprint for S-box specification in lightweight block cipher as appropriate to IoT and CPS information security systems is presented in this paper. The S-box Boolean function in the lightweight block cipher is defined using the Reed-Muller structure. A Rule Based–Common Sub-structure Sharing Optimization (RB-CSSO) algorithm has been proposed towards improving the performance efficiency of Reed-Muller structure. This novel hybrid RB-CSSO optimization mechanism first transforms the direct Positive Polarity Reed Muller (PPRM) S-box representation into Mixed Polarity Reed-Muller (MPRM) S-box architecture using local rule based transformation. Secondly, the Common Sub Term (CST) and Common Sub-expression (CSE) merging/elimination are employed over the resulting MPRM structure. The combined rule-based transformation and the common sub-function sharing demonstrate an overall reduction in area, delay and power of the Reed-Muller S-box structure. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental verification demonstrate reduction in area and delay of S-box. Post synthesis results based on ASIC standard cell based implementations have been used to analyze area, delay and power values across Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) corners for a wide range of operating conditions. Extensive comparisons between direct PPRM and optimized MPRM implementations have been carried out. The post layout simulations of S-box structures realized show the advantages of lower area-delay product, power-area product and power-delay product. This work thus authenticates the application of proposed structure for lightweight, resource constrained security systems. Industry standard full suite of Cadence® tools have been employed in the simulations using 65 nm TCBN65GPLUS standard cells of TSMC technology library.
Keywords: Lightweight cryptography | Symmetric block ciphers | Substitution box | Reed-muller structure
FPGA implementation of dynamically reconfigurable IoT security module using algorithm hopping
پیاده سازی FPGA ماژول امنیتی IoT به صورت پویا قابل تنظیم با استفاده از الگوریتم جابجایی-2019
Internet of Things (IoT) is a promising technology that is continuously spreading around the world leading to many challenges facing cryptographic designers who are trying to fulfill the security standards of IoT constrained devices. In this work, a new design is proposed that adds a new dimension of security by using the concept of frequency hopping to generate a pseudo-random pattern for switching between 5 lightweight cryptographic ciphers: AEGIS, ASCON, COLM, Deoxys and OCB that are participating in the Competition for Authenticated Encryption, Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). The proposed design exploits the advantages of Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR) technology in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to switch between the 5 ciphers using Internal Configuration Access Port controller (AXI-HWICAP) providing a decrease of 58% and 80% in area utilization and power consumption respectively. The design is synthesized using Xilinx Vivado 2015.2 and mounted on Zynq evaluation board (XC7Z020LG484-1).
Keywords: CAESAR | FPGA | DPR | Cryptography | Hopping | AEAD | IoT
Protection of bio medical iris image using watermarking and cryptography with WPT
محافظت از تصویر عنبیه بیولوژیکی پزشکی با استفاده از علامت گذاری و رمزنگاری با WPT-2019
The emerging technologies in this present world is real time biometrics which recognized a specific person in a reliable manner through their distinct biological features. The most reliable biometric identification is an iris identification. The collection of iris images can be stored in the database which is hacked by the intruders. In order to prevent these databases with watermark text, a novel hybrid method is proposed which is a combination of Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) and cryptography. This paper presents WPT for segmenting the iris image and finding the minimum energy band where the watermark text is embedded. The watermark text is the personal information of the owner of iris. Once the watermarking is done, the cryptographic key is used to encrypt the watermarked image. This way, both the image and the watermark text are prevented in an efficient manner. The quality measures of watermarked image have been analyzed and compared with other existing techniques. The proposed technique has been analyzed with blurring, salt and pepper, JPEG, cropping, Gaussian noise, rotate, speckle noise, filter, gamma, intensity and histogram equalization noises having PSNR value increased by 3.3%, 3.6%, 4.1%, 5.3%, 7.7%, 6.1%, 11.9%, 7.7%, 14.4%, 10.7% and 10.2% respectively which effectively increased the quality of image.
Keywords: Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) | Watermarking | Cryptography | Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) | Mean Square Error (MSE) | Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC)
An enhancement of EAACK using P2P ACK and RSA public key cryptography
افزایش EAACK با استفاده از رمزنگاری کلید عمومی P2P ACK و RSA-2019
MANET – Mobile Adhoc Network is a self-configuring network that connected by the number of mobile nodes with wireless links and it has no fixed infrastructure. In this, each single node can operates as both a transmitter and receiver. It has been exploited in various applications such as disaster stuck areas, military, emergency revival etc. Nevertheless, the open intermediate and broad distribution of nodes in MANET can cause a vulnerable to different malicious attacks and MANET that can operate consistently even in the being there of inside packet drop attackers can be really challenging. Therefore, we need to develop Intrusion Detection System to detect the misbehavior nodes during the packet delivery with acknowledgement for the protection of MANET. In this paper, EAACK (Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgment) is developed with Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) hybrid protocol which consists of P2P ACK and RSA algorithm. At present, the network overhead is caused by the digital signature algorithm if more misbehavior nodes are presented on network. Hence, this proposed system is applied with EIGRP to reduce the network overhead caused by digital signatures in EAACK, and P2P (peer-peer) ACK and RSA (named after Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman) provides more security to the network. S-ACK (Selective Acknowledgements) cannot differentiate the particular node is malicious node. Therefore, this proposed system introduces the P2P ACK to detect the misbehavior node efficiently. Here, RSA can encrypt the session key that creates the key more secure to improve the security level and P2P ACK use this encrypted key for the acknowledgement. In the P2P ACK, keys are generated by the RSA and distributed for signing and verifying the acknowledgement packets in advance. This proposed P2P ACK is used to enhance the detection of misbehavior nodes. The performance of this proposed method can improve the security level and reduce the routing overhead through the secured acknowledgement.
Keywords: MANET | EAACK | Routing overhead | Security level | RSA | P2P ACK | Intrusion detection systems | Misbehaving nodes detec
A new two-level information protection scheme based on visual cryptography and QR code with multiple decryptions
یک برنامه محافظت از اطلاعات دو سطح جدید مبتنی بر رمزنگاری بصری و کد QR با رمزگشایی های متعدد-2019
Nowadays, Quick Response (QR) code has been used in many fields due to its advantages, such as reliability, high-speed scanning and large data capacity. However, embedding the privacy information into the QR code lacks adequate security protection. In this paper, a new two-level information protection scheme is designed based on visual cryptography and QR code. Using any standard QR reader device or software, the public-level information can be read out directly from the shares. Moreover, the privacy-level information can be decoded by three different decryptions, which are suitable to non-computation with relative difference 1/4, lightweight computation with relative difference 1/2 and common computation environments with relative difference 1, respectively. Since the proposed scheme keeps the advantages of visual cryptography and QR code, it differs from the related schemes with low computational complexity, robustness against deformations, and high payload. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has been proved theoretically. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that the proposed scheme can protect two-level information with multiple decryptions, and has many benefits compared with the previous schemes.
Keywords: Two-level information protection | Visual cryptography | QR code | Multiple decryptions