با سلام خدمت کاربران عزیز، به اطلاع می رساند ترجمه مقالاتی که سال انتشار آن ها زیر 2008 می باشد رایگان بوده و میتوانید با وارد شدن در صفحه جزییات مقاله به رایگان ترجمه را دانلود نمایید.
Modelling guidelines for safety analysis of Station Black Out sequences based on experiments at the PKL test facility
دستورالعمل های مدل سازی برای تجزیه و تحلیل ایمنی توالی خروجی ایستگاه سیاه براساس آزمایشات در مرکز آزمایش PKL-2020
After the Fukushima accident, ‘‘stress-test” activities carried out worldwide pointed out the need to study additional accident management measures to deal with prolonged Station Black Out (SBO) scenarios. Without any operator actions, a total loss of the secondary side heat sink leads to core uncovery, to core damage and ultimately to a melt-down scenario. The international NEA/OECD PKL-3 project has addressed the efficiency of possible accident management actions to re-establish core cooling by experiments at the PKL test facility. Since best estimate system codes were mainly developed to simulate LOCA scenarios, their performance and the general guidelines followed to simulate PWR power plants are called into question. In this paper, RELAP5 simulations of three SBO experiments are presented. An assessment of the code for the particular phenomenology in the experiments have been conducted. Specific guidelines on modelling and a list of the most important sources of uncertainties are provided.
Keywords: Integral test facility | PWR | Station black out | PKL
Towards the interpretation of complex visual hallucinations in termsof self-reorganization of neural networks
به سمت تفسیر توهمات پیچیده بصری از نظر خود سازماندهی مجدد شبکه های عصبی-2020
Patients suffering from dementia with Lewy body (DLB) often see complex visual hallucinations (CVH).Despite many pathological, clinical, and neuroimaging studies, the mechanism of CVH remains unknown.One possible scenario is that top-down information is being used to compensate for the lack of bottom-up information. To investigate this possibility and understand the underlying mathematical structureof the CVH mechanism, we propose a simple computational model of synaptic plasticity with particu-lar focus on the effect of selective damage to the bottom-up network on self-reorganization. We showneurons that undergo a change in activity from a bottom-up to a top-down network framework duringthe reorganization process, which can be understood in terms of state transitions. Assuming that thepre-reorganization representation of this neuron remains after reorganization, it is possible to interpretneural response induced by top-down information as the sensation of bottom-up information. This sit-uation might correspond to a hallucinatory situation in DLB patients. Our results agree with existingexperimental evidence and provide new insights into data that have hitherto not been experimentallyvalidated on patients with DLB.
Keywords : Network self-reorganization | Complex visual hallucinations| Synaptic plasticity | State transition | Oscillology
An efficient interactive framework for improving resilience of power-water distribution systems with multiple privately-owned microgrids
یک چارچوب تعاملی کارآمد برای بهبود مقاومت در برابر سیستم های توزیع آب و انرژی با چندین میکروگرید متعلق به بخش خصوصی-2020
Resilience improvement of power distribution networks against natural disasters is an important problem. Water network similar to other important infrastructures depends on power networks. In this paper, resilience improvement is defined as increasing the users’ accessibility to water and power after natural disasters. Microgrids with appropriate operation can provide energy to restore disconnected loads in distribution networks. In the proposed interactive framework, a stochastic energy management program for microgrids is designed that not only determines the amount of energy can be delivered to distribution systems, but also considers the reliability of local loads during emergency conditions. Each microgrid provides a list of bid-quantity energy blocks to the distribution system operator (DSO) during the emergency period. Then, the DSO chooses the best plan to restore disconnected loads considering inaccessibility values to power and water and also the damage of power and water distribution networks. Demand response actions in microgrids are also considered as effective tools for the energy management program, and their impact on the distribution system resilience is investigated. The proposed model is tested on the modified IEEE 33-bus distribution system with multiple microgrids, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated accordingly.
Keywords: Microgrids | Natural disasters | Resilience | Stochastic linear programming | Water network
A semantic-based methodology for digital forensics analysis
یک روش مبتنی بر معنایی برای تجزیه و تحلیل پزشکی قانونی دیجیتال-2020
Nowadays, more than ever, digital forensics activities are involved in any criminal, civil or military investigation and represent a fundamental tool to support cyber-security. Investigators use a variety of techniques and proprietary software forensics applications to examine the copy of digital devices, searching hidden, deleted, encrypted, or damaged files or folders. Any evidence found is carefully analysed and documented in a ‘‘finding report’’ in preparation for legal proceedings that involve discovery, depositions, or actual litigation. The aim is to discover and analyse patterns of fraudulent activities. In this work, a new methodology is proposed to support investigators during the analysis process, correlating evidence found through different forensics tools. The methodology was implemented through a system able to add semantic assertion to data generated by forensics tools during extraction processes. These assertions enable more effective access to relevant information and enhanced retrieval and reasoning capabilities.
Keywords: Digital forensics | Text analysis | Log analysis | Correlation | Cybersecurity
Shenqi Yizhi granules protect hippocampus of AD transgenic mice by modulating on multiple pathogenesis processes
Shenqi Yizhi granules protect hippocampus of AD transgenic mice by modulating on multiple pathogenesis processes-2020
Ethnopharmacological relevance: 3 Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) draws more attention to explore effective therapeutic 4 strategy for AD continuum. CHM usually uses combinations of herbs or herbal 5 ingredients to treat diseases, with the components targeting different disease processes. 6 CHM might improve cognition in AD and MCI patients by optimizing network 7 activity, promoting neural plasticity and repairing damaged neurons. Shenqi Yizhi 8 granules (SQYG), a Chinese herbal recipe, are mainly consists of Panax ginseng 9 C.A.Mey, Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge, and Scutellaria baicalensis 10 Georgi and have been used to ameliorate cognitive deficits in mild-to-moderate 11 dementia patients. 12 Aim of the study: To investigate the neuroprotection effect and pharmacotherapy 13 mechanism of SQYG in hippocampus of 5XFAD transgenic mice. 14 Materials and methods: The immunofluorescence detection, 2DE-gels, mass spectrum 15 identification, biological information analysis and western blot were performed after 16 SQYG treatment. 17 Results: SQYG treatment significantly decreased the fluorescence intensities of 18 anti-GFAP and anti-Iba1 in the hippocampus of 5XFAD mice. The expression levels of 31 proteins in the hippocampus were significantly influenced by SQYG, 20 approximately 65% of these proteins are related to energy metabolism, stress response 21 and cytoskeleton, whereas others are related to synaptic transmission, signal 22 transduction, antioxidation, amino acid metabolism, and DNA repair. The expression 23 of these proteins were increased. The changes in the expression of malate 24 dehydrogenase (cytoplasmic) and pyruvate kinase M were confirmed by western blot. 25 Conclusions: The pharmacotherapy mechanism of SQYG on the hippocampus may be 26 related to modulation of a number of physiological processes, including energy 27 metabolism, stress response, cytoskeleton, synaptic transmission, signal transduction, 28 and amino acid metabolism in 5XFAD mice.
Keywords: 31 Alzheimer’s disease | hippocampus | proteomics | Shenqi Yizhi granules | 5XFAD mice | 32 energy metabolism
Target species selection criteria for risk assessment based exemptions of ballast water management requirements
معیارهای انتخاب گونه هدف برای معافیت های ارزیابی ریسک مبتنی بر الزامات مدیریت آب ballast -2020
The Ballast Water Management Convention adopted at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) allows exemptions from ballast water management requirements. These exemptions may be granted when a risk assessment results in an acceptable low risk scenario. IMO has adopted a guideline describing different risk assessment approaches (G7 Guidelines, 2017). One approach is a species-specific risk assessment in which so called target species (TS) become important. TS are species that meet specific criteria indicating that they may impair or damage the environment, human health, property or resources and they are defined for a specific port, State or biogeographic region. The guidelines continue to describe general TS selection criteria, which include the species relationship with ballast water as a transport vector, their impact type and severeness, evidence of prior introduction(s), and its current distribution. However, the G7 Guidelines lack details how these criteria are to be defined. This paper presents the TS selection criteria developed during the EU-Interreg Baltic Sea Region COMPLETE project (Completing Management Options in the Baltic Sea Region to Reduce Risk of Invasive Species Introduction by Shipping), including explanations on what ballast water relationship means, which impact threshold is eligible to identify a TS, as well as why prior introductions and the current species distribution are relevant in that context. It was concluded that TS lists need to be regularly reviewed and that the described TS selection criteria may be also adopted elsewhere when planning species-specific risk assessments for exemptions from ballast water management requirements.
Sanctions and tourism: Conceptualisation and implications for destination marketing and management
تحریم ها و جهانگردی: مفهوم سازی و پیامدهای مربوط به بازاریابی و مدیریت مقصد-2020
Sanctions are a topic of significance to many destinations either as a direct result of their impact or because they affect the relative attractiveness of competitors. Despite this, their roles in destination marketing and management has been given relatively less attention compared to other aspects of the political dimensions of international tourism. This regional spotlight aims to introduce their significance, conceptualisation and practical and theoretical implications. Sanctions have a long history and have been integral to the repertoire of coercive foreign policy measures as a substitute for armed hostilities as a stand-alone policy for centuries (Hufbauer, Schott, Elliott, & Oeggm, 2008; Kaempfer & Lowenberg, 2007; Lopez & Cortright, 2018). “From the Napoleonic wars through World War I, economic sanctions were almost entirely an auxiliary feature of war, loosely governed by customary international law on blockades, contraband, and rights of neutral states” (Hufbauer, 1998, p. 332). Sanctions were a significant policy tool of the European powers and the US. Napoleon, for example, used economic sanctions on the UK, known as the continental system or blockade, to try and damage the UK economically while developing continental industry and trade (Naylor, 2001; Selden, 1999). However, the blockade had only limited impacts on the UK economy with the UK increasing trade elsewhere in the world and arguably negatively affecting some of the European countries, such as the Netherlands, much more (Crouzet, 1964). During the Napoleonic period, the War of 1812 and until entry into World War I, their use by the US reflected international norms that narrowed the scope of definitions of contraband and enlarged the rights of neutrals, although during the Civil War the North took a much broader interpretation against the South (Hufbauer, 1998). The passing of the Trading with the Enemy Act by Congress in 1917 gave the US President exceptionally broad powers to freeze foreign assets and regulate international finance and trade that continue to the present day (Hufbauer et al., 2008).
Detection of flood disaster system based on IoT, big data and convolutional deep neural network
تشخیص سیستم بحرانی سیل بر اساس اینترنت اشیا، داده های بزرگ و شبکه عصبی عمیق پیچشی-2020
Natural disasters could be defined as a blend of natural risks and vulnerabilities. Each year, natural as well as human-instigated disasters, bring about infrastructural damages, distresses, revenue losses, injuries in addition to huge death roll. Researchers around the globe are trying to find a unique solution to gather, store and analyse Big Data (BD) in order to predict results related to flood based prediction system. This paper has proposed the ideas and methods for the detection of flood disaster based on IoT, BD, and convolutional deep neural network (CDNN) to overcome such difficulties. First, the input data is taken from the flood BD. Next, the repeated data are reduced by using HDFS map-reduce (). After removal of repeated data, the data are pre-processed using missing value imputation and normalization function. Then, centred on the pre-processed data, the rule is generated by using a combination of attributes method. At the last stage, the generated rules are provided as the input to the CDNN classifier which classifies them as a) chances for the occurrence of flood and b) no chances for the occurrence of a flood. The outcomes obtained from the proposed CDNN method is compared parameters like Sensitivity, Specificity, Accuracy, Precision, Recall and F-score. Moreover, when the outcomes is compared other existing algorithms like Artificial Neural Network (ANN) & Deep Learning Neural Network (DNN), the proposed system gives is very accurate result than other methods.
Keywords: Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) | Convolutional deep neural network (CDNN) | Normalization | Rule generation | Missing value imputation
A resilience matrix approach for measuring and mitigating disaster-induced population displacement
یک روش انعطاف پذیری ماتریس برای اندازه گیری و کاهش جابجایی جمعیت ناشی از فاجعه-2020
Globally, risk factors for population displacement due to major disasters are on the rise. These factors include the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, aging infrastructure, growing populations, and increasing urbanization. In cases of widespread damage, tools are needed to support complicated multiyear reconstruction efforts so that populations can return. We adapt the resilience matrix approach  as an organizing framework and resilience assessment tool to the problem of population displacement under conditions of damaged infrastructure. The resulting Population Resilience Matrix (PRM) links infrastructure reconstruction directly to the goal of reducing displacement due to infrastructure damage through performance metrics across the physical, social, information, and project management domains. This approach yields a summary of status and priorities that accounts for funding availability and the multi-phase recovery process. The PRM is applied to a synthetic extreme flood scenario, and includes detailed event-specific, locally relevant recovery assessment metrics. A practical approach to identifying the contributions of interdependent infrastructure systems to displacement is also outlined. The PRM is intended to support decision makers with coordinating roles, such as local disaster recovery managers. This approach is compatible with and complementary to US guidance on pre- and postdisaster planning and can also be applied internationally.
Keywords: Resilience | Recovery | Infrastructure interdependencies | Population displacement | Migration
Challenges and benefits of community-based safer school construction
چالش ها و مزایای جامعه مبتنی بر ساخت و ساز امن تر مدرسه-2020
Over the last two decades, millions of classrooms have been built through such efforts as the global Education for All campaign and the Millennium Development Goals. Community-based school construction is prevalent in areas where the onus of education has traditionally been on the community or where governments has devolved decision-making to subnational or local bodies. Interviews with 58 practitioners with expertise in communitybased construction in Africa, Latin America, and Asia illuminate both the challenges and benefits of community-based approaches. These practitioners sought to achieve the twin goal of ensuring children have access to educational facilities and ensuring such facilities are able to withstand natural hazards without costly damage that can kill, injure children and school personnel, or disrupt education. Practitioners found that community-based approaches to safer school construction can support local livelihoods and build capacity; the approach can also increase the skills of local stakeholders for maintaining the school after project completion. It also helps develop local capacity for disaster risk management. However, practitioners noted that introduction of new materials and construction techniques, which may be necessary to achieve hazard-resistant construction, were sometimes resisted or ineffectively implemented. Other times, decisions at the design stage did not adequately reflect field realities, increasing risk to future occupants. Overall, reduction in labor and material costs often came with slower construction and higher costs devoted to local training and oversight. The insights help identify key principles for community-based construction that can help ensure safer schools and increased community capacity for disaster risk reduction.
Keywords: Comprehensive school safety | school construction | education | disasters