دانلود و نمایش مقالات مرتبط با Data protection::صفحه 1
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نتیجه جستجو - Data protection

تعداد مقالات یافته شده: 71
ردیف عنوان نوع
1 A novel multi-lead ECG personal recognition based on signals functional and structural dependencies using time-frequency representation and evolutionary morphological CNN
تشخیص شخصی نوار قلب ECG مبتنی بر وابستگی های عملکردی و ساختاری سیگنالها با استفاده از نمایش فرکانس زمان و CNN مورفولوژیکی تکاملی-2021
Biometric recognition systems have been employed in many aspects of life such as security technologies, data protection, and remote access. Physiological signals, e.g. electrocardiogram (ECG), can potentially be used in biometric recognition. From a medical standpoint, ECG leads have structural and functional dependencies. In fact, precordial ECG leads view the heart from different axial angles, whereas limb leads view it from various coronal angles. This study aimed to design a personal biometric recognition system based on ECG signals by estimating these latent medical variables. To estimate functional dependencies, within-correlation and cross- correlation in time-frequency domain between ECG leads were calculated and represented in the form of extended adjacency matrices. CNN trees were then introduced through genetic programming for the automated estimation of structural dependencies in extended adjacency matrices. CNN trees perform the deep feature learning process by using structural morphology operators. The proposed system was designed for both closed-set identification and verification. It was then tested on two datasets, i.e. PTB and CYBHi, for performance evaluation. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method outperformed all of them.
Keywords: Biometrics | Electrocardiogram | Functional dependencies | Structural dependencies | Genetic programming | Convolutional neural networks
مقاله انگلیسی
2 A cancelable biometric authentication system based on feature-adaptive random projection
یک سیستم احراز هویت بیومتریک قابل لغو بر اساس طرح تصادفی سازگار با ویژگی-2021
Biometric template data protection is critical in preventing user privacy and identity from leakage. Random projection based cancelable biometrics is an efficient and effective technique to achieve biometric template protection. However, traditional random projection based cancelable template design suffers from the attack via record multiplicity (ARM), where an adversary obtains multiple transformed templates from different applica- tions and the associated parameter keys so as to assemble them into a full-rank linear equation system, thereby retrieving the original feature vector. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a feature-adaptive random projection based method, in which the projection matrixes, the key to the ARM, are generated from one basic matrix in conjunction with local feature slots. The generated projection matrixes are discarded after use, thus making it difficult for the adversary to launch the ARM. Moreover, the random projection in the proposed method is performed on a local-feature basis. This feature-adaptive random projection can mitigate the negative impact of biometric uncertainty on recognition accuracy, as it limits the error to part of the transformed feature vector rather than the entire vector. The proposed method is evaluated on four public available databases FVC2002 DB1-DB3 and FVC2004 DB2. The experimental results and security analysis show the validity of the proposed method.
Keywords: Biometric authentication | Template protection | Random projection | Cancelable biometrics
مقاله انگلیسی
3 A comparison of primary stakeholders’ views on the deployment of biometric technologies in border management: Case study of SMart mobILity at the European land borders
مقایسه دیدگاههای ذینفعان اصلی در مورد بکارگیری فناوریهای بیومتریک در مدیریت مرزها: مطالعه موردی تحرک SMart در مرزهای زمینی اروپا-2021
Advances in technology have a substantial impact on every aspect of our lives, ranging from the way we communicate to the way we travel. The Smart mobility at the European land borders (SMILE) project is geared towards the deployment of biometric technologies to optimize and monitor the flow of people at land borders. However, despite the anticipated benefits of deploying biometric technologies in border control, there are still divergent views on the use of such technologies by two primary stakeholders–travelers and border authorities. In this paper, we provide a comparison of travelers’ and border authorities’ views on the deployment of biometric technologies in border management. The overall goal of this study is to enable us to understand the concerns of travelers and border guards in order to facilitate the acceptance of biometric technologies for a secure and more convenient border crossing. Our method of inquiry consisted of in-person interviews with border guards (SMILE project’s end users), observation and field visits (to the Hungarian-Romanian and Bulgarian-Romanian borders) and questionnaires for both travelers and border guards. As a result of our investigation, two conflicting trends emerged. On one hand, border guards argued that biometric technologies had the potential to be a very effective tool that would enhance security levels and make traveler identification and authentication procedures easy, fast and convenient. On the other hand, travelers were more concerned about the technologies representing a threat to fundamental rights, personal privacy and data protection.
Keywords: Biometric technologies | Border control | SMILE project | Biometrics
مقاله انگلیسی
4 Voicing concerns: The balance between data protection principles and research developments in forensic speech science
نگرانی های بیان: تعادل بین اصول حفاظت از داده ها و تحولات تحقیقاتی در علم گفتار پزشکی قانونی-2021
The status of forensic speech recordings among existing data protection guidance is not clear. The inherent nature of voice and the way in which forensic speech casework is currently allocated mean that there are additional barriers to incorporating real casework data into research activities. The key objective of this work is to explore data protection solutions that could enable the forensic speech science community to responsibly use real casework data for research and development purposes. While reviewing relevant guidance and rulings, is- sues such as proportionality, opportunism and data minimisation are addressed, as well as where voice sits inrelation to the definition of “biometric data”. This paper ultimately places forensic speech recordings in the dataprotection context to illuminate the specific issues that arise for this data type.
Keywords: Data protection | Forensic speech recordings | Data retention | Proportionality
مقاله انگلیسی
5 The questions we ask: Opportunities and challenges for using big data analytics to strategically manage human capital resources
سوالاتی که می پرسیم: فرصت ها و چالش های استفاده از تجزیه و تحلیل داده های بزرگ برای مدیریت استراتژیک منابع سرمایه انسانی-2020
Big data analytics have transformed research in many fields, including the business areas of marketing, accounting and finance, and supply chain management. Yet, the discussion surrounding big data analytics in human resource management has primarily focused on job candidate screenings. In this article, we consider how significant strategic human capital questions can be addressed with big data analytics, enabling HR to enhance overall firm performance. We also examine how new data sources that help assess workforce performance in real time can assist in the identification and development of the knowledge stars that contribute to firm performance disproportionately as well as help reinforce firm capabilities. But in order for big data analytics to be successful in the HR field, regulatory and ethical challenges must also be addressed; these include privacy concerns and, in Europe, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). We conclude by discussing how big data analytics can facilitate strategic change within HR and the organization as a whole.
KEYWORDS: Big data analytics | Workforce analytics | Stakeholder management | Strategic human | capital | Knowledge stars | Human resource management
مقاله انگلیسی
6 Self-interest and data protection drive the adoption and moral acceptability of big data technologies: A conjoint analysis approach
منافع شخصی و محافظت از داده ها باعث پذیرش اخلاقی و تطبیقی فناوری های داده بزرگ می شوند: یک رویکرد تجزیه و تحلیل مشترک-2020
Big data technologies have both benefits and costs which can influence their adoption and moral acceptability. Prior studies look at people’s evaluations in isolation without pitting costs and benefits against each other. We address this limitation with a conjoint experiment (N ¼ 979), using six domains (criminal investigations, crime prevention, citizen scores, healthcare, banking, and employment), where we simultaneously test the relative influence of four factors: the status quo, outcome favorability, data sharing, and data protection on decisions to adopt and perceptions of moral acceptability of the technologies. We present two key findings. (1) People adopt technologies more often when data is protected and when outcomes are favorable. They place equal or more importance on data protection in all domains except healthcare where outcome favorability has the strongest influence. (2) Data protection is the strongest driver of moral acceptability in all domains except healthcare, where the strongest driver is outcome favorability. Additionally, sharing data lowers preference for all technologies, but has a relatively smaller influence. People do not show a status quo bias in the adoption of technologies. When evaluating moral acceptability, people show a status quo bias but this is driven by the citizen scores domain. Differences across domains arise from differences in magnitude of the effects but the effects are in the same direction. Taken together, these results highlight that people are not always primarily driven by selfinterest and do place importance on potential privacy violations. The results also challenge the assumption that people generally prefer the status quo.
Keywords: Moral acceptability | Big data | Conjoint analysis | Outcome favorability | Data protection | Data sharing
مقاله انگلیسی
7 Addressing AI ethics through codification
پرداختن به اخلاق هوش مصنوعی از طریق تدوین-2020
AI ethics rapidly becomes one of the most significant issues in assessing the impact of AI on social welfare and development. A technology that does not meet the ethical criteria of a society is likely to face a long and hard process of acceptance regardless of its potentially tremendous positive potential for long-term socio-economic development. The development of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is undoubtedly associated with the need to answer ethical questions, and the perception of AI in society will be largely determined by compliance with ethical criteria, whether written or not. At the same time, AI as a technological system itself does not have a natural ethical content; the authors believe that in practice ethical concerns may be addressed by means of ethical codes and compliance rules that articulate what constitutes ethical behaviour in specific areas of application of AI systems. Such a set of rules (a code for AI ethics) could be followed by all actors throughout the complete lifecycle of the system starting with the design stage. The specification of general ethical principles as industry-specific codes of practice would also facilitate classification, evaluation and measurement of systems, both at the technical level and at the level of public perception and trust. The article considers examples of codification of ethical principles and offers several approaches for practical use in solving issues of ethics in the field of AI at the national and international level.
Keywords: ethics | AI | codification | regulation | standards | responsibility | bias | trustworthiness | personal data protection | international cooperation in AI | soft regulation
مقاله انگلیسی
8 Legal Remedies For a Forgiving Society: Children’s rights, data protection rights and the value of forgiveness in AI-mediated risk profiling of children by Dutch authorities
راه حل های قانونی برای یک جامعه بخشنده: حقوق کودکان ، حقوق محافظت از داده ها و ارزش بخشش در مشخصات ریسک کودکان با استفاده از هوش مصنوعی توسط مقامات هلندی-2020
30 years after the United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) and two years after the new EU data protection regime, the social value of forgiveness is not part of these legal instruments. The lack of this value within these legal instruments and the lack of re- search on the subject of forgiveness in relation to improving the legal position of children require urgent addressing especially when children are exposed to artificial intelligence (AI)- mediated risk profiling practices by Dutch government authorities. Developmental psychol- ogists underline that the erosion of this value could hamper children’s ability to develop flourishing human relationships. This article contributes to fill this niche. It investigates how this value can be enforced in order to benefit children below the age of 12 years that are exposed to risk profiling by Dutch law enforcement and youth care authorities. Children who are victims, witnesses, or falsely accused provide a particular narrowing of focus in this article as these groups cannot be held responsible for their correlations to crime. Strengthening children’s legal position is crucial because their position is much weaker compared to adults when it comes to question a risk correlation about themselves. These children correlated to crime, as this paper argues, not only can feel unjustifiably punished, ‘unforgiven’, and hampered in their choices, but can also develop low self-worth and (negative) judgmental attitudes towards others. Based on input from developmental psychology, empirical material, and legal desk research, this article seeks to answer: What remedies can the Law Enforcement Directive (LED) 2016/680, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) offer against the detrimental implications of risk profiling children by the ProKid 12- SI system and the Crime Anticipation System (CAS) in The Netherlands? How can the social value of forgiveness strengthen these instruments and the legal position of children in light of security interests and the best interests of the child? The analysis concludes that the CRC offers the broadest room for incorporating the principle of forgiveness into balancing tests, but certain LED and GDPR prescriptions could also support the value of forgiveness for children, such as the right to erasure. The analysis concludes that incorporating forgiveness into the mentioned legal instruments would not only benefit individual children but would also foster public safety as a result.
Keywords: Forgiveness | Risk profiles | Children rights | Data protection | AI | Correlations
مقاله انگلیسی
9 The questions we ask: Opportunities and challenges for using big data analytics to strategically manage human capital resources
سؤالاتی که می پرسیم: فرصت ها و چالش های استفاده از تحلیل داده های بزرگ برای مدیریت استراتژیک منابع سرمایه انسانی-2020
Big data analytics have transformed research in many fields, including the business areas of marketing, accounting and finance, and supply chain management. Yet, the discussion surrounding big data analytics in human resource management has primarily focused on job candidate screenings. In this article, we consider how significant strategic human capital questions can be addressed with big data analytics, enabling HR to enhance overall firm performance. We also examine how new data sources that help assess workforce performance in real time can assist in the identification and development of the knowledge stars that contribute to firm performance disproportionately as well as help reinforce firm capabilities. But in order for big data analytics to be successful in the HR field, regulatory and ethical challenges must also be addressed; these include privacy concerns and, in Europe, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). We conclude by discussing how big data analytics can facilitate strategic change within HR and the organization as a whole.
KEYWORDS Big data analytics | Workforce analytics | Stakeholder | management | Strategic human | capital | Knowledge stars | Human resource | management
مقاله انگلیسی
10 How far can Convention 108+ ‘globalise’? Prospects for Asian accessions
کنوانسیون 108+ تا چه اندازه می تواند جهانی شود؟ چشم انداز الحاق آسیایی-2020
The ‘globalisation’ of Council of Europe data protection Convention 108 through non-European accessions has continued steadily, with eight such accessions since the first in 2013. The ‘modernisation’ of the Convention was completed on 10 October 2018 when the amending protocol for the new ‘Convention 108+’ became open for signature. Any new countries from outside Europe wishing to accede will have to accede to both Convention 108 and the amending Protocol (ie to 108+). The standards required of the laws of acceding countries by 108+ are higher than those required by 108, and are arguably mid-way between 108 and those of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
This article examines to what extent each of the 26 ‘countries’ (separate jurisdictions) in Asia are likely to be able to accede to 108+, if they wish to. As yet, none have acceded to 108. It proposes an efficient way to consider such a question across such a complex set of jurisdictions. Fifteen of the 26 Asian countries already have data privacy laws, and two others have official Bills for such laws. An assessment of the prospects for accession can be done by considering in order the following grounds which may be impediments to accession: Jurisdictions which are not States; States which are not democratic; Laws of inadequate scope; Laws lacking an independent data protection authority; Laws with substantive provisions falling short of 108+ ‘accession standards’; States with proposed Bills only; and States with no relevant laws or proposed Bills.
The most difficult step in this procedure is in deciding which of the substantive provisions of 108+ constitute its ‘accession standards’, or elements essential for accession to be invited. Neither the Convention, nor the guidelines issued by its Consultative Committee, shed much light on this question. However, previous practice under Convention 108, show there is some flexibility involved. The article concludes with suggestions as to how such flexibility can be made more transparent, and observations on which Asian countries, in light of the seven step assessment carried out in the article, are the most likely candidates to be able to accede to 108+, in both the short and medium terms.
مقاله انگلیسی
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