Adaptive Management of Multimodal Biometrics—A Deep Learning and Metaheuristic Approach
مدیریت تطبیقی بیومتریک چند حالته - یادگیری عمیق و رویکرد فرا مکاشفه ای-2021
This paper introduces the framework for adaptive rank-level biometric fusion: a new approach towards personal authentication. In this work, a novel attempt has been made to identify the optimal design parameters and framework of a multibiometric system, where the chosen biometric traits are subjected to rank-level fusion. Optimal fusion parameters depend upon the security level demanded by a particular biometric application. The proposed framework makes use of a metaheuristic approach towards adaptive fusion in the pursuit of achieving optimal fusion results at varying levels of security. Rank-level fusion rules have been employed to provide optimum performance by making use of Ant Colony Optimization technique. The novelty of the reported work also lies in the fact that the proposed design engages three biometric traits simultaneously for the first time in the domain of adaptive fusion, so as to test the efficacy of the system in selecting the optimal set of biometric traits from a given set. Literature reveals the unique biometric characteristics of the fingernail plate, which have been exploited in this work for the rigorous experimentation conducted. Index, middle and ring fingernail plates have been taken into consideration, and deep learning feature-sets of the three nail plates have been extracted using three customized pre-trained models, AlexNet, ResNet-18 and DenseNet-201. The adaptive multimodal performance of the three nail plates has also been checked using the already existing methods of adaptive fusion designed for addressing fusion at the score-level and decision- level. Exhaustive experiments have been conducted on the MATLAB R2019a platform using the Deep Learning Toolbox. When the cost of false acceptance is 1.9, experimental results obtained from the proposed framework give values of the average of the minimum weighted error rate as low as 0.0115, 0.0097 and 0.0101 for the AlexNet, ResNet-18 and DenseNet-201 based experiments respectively. Results demonstrate that the proposed system is capable of computing the optimal parameters for rank-level fusion for varying security levels, thus contributing towards optimal performance accuracy.© 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Adaptive Biometric Fusion | Ant Colony Optimization | Deep Learning | Fingernail Plate | Multimodal Biometrics | Rank-level Adaptive Fusion
Person-identification using familiar-name auditory evoked potentials from frontal EEG electrodes
شناسایی فرد با استفاده از پتانسیل نام-آشنا شنوایی الکترودهای EEG جلو برانگیخته-2021
Electroencephalograph (EEG) based biometric identification has recently gained increased attention of re- searchers. However, state-of-the-art EEG-based biometric identification techniques use large number of EEG electrodes, which poses user inconvenience and consumes longer preparation time for practical applications. This work proposes a novel EEG-based biometric identification technique using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) acquired from two EEG electrodes. The proposed method employs single-trial familiar-name AEPs extracted from the frontal electrodes Fp1 and F7, which facilitates faster and user-convenient data acquisition. The EEG signals recorded from twenty healthy individuals during four experiment trials are used in this study. Different com- binations of well-known neural network architectures are used for feature extraction and classification. The cascaded combinations of 1D-convolutional neural networks (1D-CNN) with long short-term memory (LSTM) and with gated recurrent unit (GRU) networks gave the person identification accuracies above 99 %. 1D-convolutional, LSTM network achieves the highest person identification accuracy of 99.53 % and a half total error rate (HTER) of 0.24 % using AEP signals from the two frontal electrodes. With the AEP signals from the single electrode Fp1, the same network achieves a person identification accuracy of 96.93 %. The use of familiar-name AEPs from frontal EEG electrodes that facilitates user convenient data acquisition with shorter preparation time is the novelty of this work.
Keywords: Auditory evoked potential | Biometrics | Deep learning | Electroencephalogram | Familiar-name | Person identification
Generative Deep Learning in Digital Pathology Workflows
یادگیری عمیق مولد در گردش کار آسیب شناسی دیجیتال-2021
Many modern histopathology laboratories are in the process of digitizing their workflows. Digitization of tissue images has made it feasible to research the augmentation or automation of clinical reporting and diagnosis. The application of modern computer vision techniques, based on deep learning, promises systems that can identify pathologies in slide images with a high degree of accuracy. Generative modeling is an approach to machine learning and deep learning that can be used to transform and generate data. It can be applied to a broad range of tasks within digital pathology, including the removal of color and intensity artifacts, the adaption of images in one domain into those of another, and the generation of synthetic digital tissue samples. This review provides an introduction to the topic, considers these applications, and discusses future directions for generative models within histopathology.
Automatic identification and quantification of dense microcracks in high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites through deep learning-based computer vision
شناسایی و تعیین کمی ترکهای متراکم در کامپوزیت های سیمانی با عملکرد بالا با استفاده از دید رایانه ای مبتنی بر یادگیری عمیق-2021
High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCCs) feature high mechanical strengths, crack resistance, and durability. Under excessive loading, HPFRCCs demonstrate dense microcracks that are difficult to identify using existing methods. This study presents a computer vision method for identification, quantification, and visualization of microcracks in HPFRCCs based on deep learning. The presented method integrates multiple deep learning models and computer vision techniques in a hierarchical architecture. The crack pattern (e.g., number, width, and spacing of cracks) are automatically determined from pictures without human intervention. This study shows that the presented method achieves an accuracy of 0.992 for crack detection and an accuracy finer than 50 μm (R2 > 0.984) for quantification of crack width when deep learning models are trained using only 200 pictures of HPFRCCs and 200 pictures of conventional concrete with incorporation of data augmentation. The presented method is expected to be also applicable to other materials featuring complex cracks.
Keywords: Computer vision | Crack detection | Crack quantification | Deep learning | High-performance fiber reinforced | cementitious composites (HPFRCC) | Microcrack
Computer-vision classification of corn seed varieties using deep convolutional neural network
طبقه بندی بینایی ماشین انواع بذر ذرت با استفاده از شبکه عصبی پیچیده عمیق-2021
Automated classiﬁcation of seed varieties is of paramount importance for seed producers to maintain the purity of a variety and crop yield. Traditional approaches based on computer vision and simple feature extraction could not guarantee high accuracy classiﬁcation. This paper presents a new approach using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) as a generic feature extractor. The extracted features were classiﬁed with artiﬁcial neural network (ANN), cubic support vector machine (SVM), quadratic SVM, weighted k-nearest-neighbor (kNN), boosted tree, bagged tree, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Models trained with CNN-extracted features demonstrated better classiﬁcation accuracy of corn seed varieties than models based on only simple features. The CNN-ANN classiﬁer showed the best performance, classifying 2250 test instances in 26.8 s with classiﬁcation accuracy 98.1%, precision 98.2%, recall 98.1%, and F1-score 98.1%. This study demonstrates that the CNN-ANN classiﬁer is an efﬁcient tool for the intelligent classiﬁcation of different corn seed varieties.© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Machine vision | Deep learning | Feature extraction | Non-handcrafted features | Texture descriptors
Deep learning-based computer vision to recognize and classify suturing gestures in robot-assisted surgery
بینایی عمیق مبتنی بر یادگیری برای تشخیص و طبقه بندی حرکات بخیه در جراحی با کمک روبات-2021
Background: Our previous work classified a taxonomy of suturing gestures during a vesicourethral anastomosis of robotic radical prostatectomy in association with tissue tears and patient outcomes. Herein, we train deep learning-based computer vision to automate the identification and classification of suturing gestures for needle driving attempts.
Methods: Using two independent raters, we manually annotated live suturing video clips to label timepoints and gestures. Identification (2,395 videos) and classification (511 videos) datasets were compiled to train computer vision models to produce 2- and 5-class label predictions, respectively. Networks were trained on inputs of raw red/blue/green pixels as well as optical flow for each frame. Each model was trained on 80/20 train/test splits.
Results: In this study, all models were able to reliably predict either the presence of a gesture (identification, area under the curve: 0.88) as well as the type of gesture (classification, area under the curve: 0.87) at significantly above chance levels. For both gesture identification and classification datasets, we observed no effect of recurrent classification model choice (long short-term memory unit versus convolutional long short-term memory unit) on performance.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate computer vision’s ability to recognize features that not only can identify the action of suturing but also distinguish between different classifications of suturing gestures. This demonstrates the potential to utilize deep learning computer vision toward future automation of surgical skill assessment.
Computer vision in surgery
بینایی ماشین در جراحی-2021
The fields of computer vision (CV) and artificial intelligence (AI) have undergone rapid advancements in the past decade, many of which have been applied to the analysis of intraoperative video. These advances are driven by wide-spread application of deep learning, which leverages multiple layers of neural networks to teach computers complex tasks. Prior to these advances, applications of AI in the operating room were limited by our relative inability to train computers to accurately understand images with traditional machine learning (ML) techniques. The development and refining of deep neural networks that can now accurately identify objects in images and remember past surgical events has sparked a surge in the applications of CV to analyze intraoperative video and has allowed for the accurate identification of surgical phases (steps) and instruments across a variety of procedures. In some cases, CV can even identify operative phases with accuracy similar to surgeons. Future research will likely expand on this foundation of surgical knowledge using larger video datasets and improved algorithms with greater accuracy and interpretability to create clinically useful AI models that gain widespread adoption and augment the surgeon’s ability to provide safer care for patients everywhere.
Automated classification of fauna in seabed photographs: The impact of training and validation dataset size, with considerations for the class imbalance
طبقه بندی خودکار جانوران در عکس های بستر دریا: تأثیر اندازه مجموعه داده های آموزش و اعتبار سنجی ، با ملاحظاتی برای عدم تعادل کلاس-2021
Machine learning is rapidly developing as a tool for gathering data from imagery and may be useful in identifying (classifying) visible specimens in large numbers of seabed photographs. Application of an automated classifi- cation workflow requires manually identified specimens to be supplied for training and validating the model. These training and validation datasets are generally generated by partitioning the available manual identified specimens; typical ratios of training to validation dataset sizes are 75:25 or 80:20. However, this approach does not facilitate the desired scalability, which would require models to successfully classify specimens in hundreds of thousands to millions of images after training on a relatively small subset of manually identified specimens. A second problem is related to the ‘class imbalance’, where natural community structure means that fewer spec- imens of rare morphotypes are available for model training. We investigated the impact of independent variation of the training and validation dataset sizes on the performance of a convolutional neural network classifier on benthic invertebrates visible in a very large set of seabed photographs captured by an autonomous underwater vehicle at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory. We tested the impact of increasing training dataset size on specimen classification in a single validation dataset, and then tested the impact of increasing validation set size, evaluating ecological metrics in addition to computer vision metrics. Computer vision metrics (recall, precision, F1-score) indicated that classification improved with increasing training dataset size. In terms of ecological metrics, the number of morphotypes recorded increased, while diversity decreased with increasing training dataset size. Variation and bias in diversity metrics decreased with increasing training dataset size. Multivariate dispersion in apparent community composition was reduced, and bias from expert-derived data declined with increasing training dataset size. In contrast, classification success and resulting ecological metrics did not differ significantly with varying validation dataset sizes. Thus, the selection of an appropriate training dataset size is key to ensuring robust automated classifications of benthic invertebrates in seabed photographs, in terms of ecological results, and validation may be conducted on a comparatively small dataset with confidence that similar results will be obtained in a larger production dataset. In addition, our results suggest that automated classification of less common morphotypes may be feasible, providing that the overall training dataset size is sufficiently large. Thus, tactics for reducing class imbalance in the training dataset may produce improvements in the resulting ecological metrics.
Keywords: Computer vision | Deep learning | Benthic ecology | Image annotation | Marine photography | Artificial intelligence | Convolutional neural networks | Sample size
Civil engineering stability inspection based on computer vision and sensors
بازرسی پایداری مهندسی عمران بر اساس بینایی ماشین و حسگرها-2021
A computer that combines the purchase of vision technology and remote cameras and drones offers a promising non-contact solution for the state evaluation of civil infrastructure. This system’s ultimate goal is too automatically and reliably converted to actionable information image or video data. This white paper provides an overview of computer vision technology’s latest development and applies it to the state evaluation of private infrastructure. Deep learning has been applied to various computer vision; deep learning course covers most of the application. Each application has its architecture, such as the input image and labels data loss function. To explain computer vision architecture in the following figure. Review of the work can be divided into two types: application checks and application monitoring. Review inspection applications include context identifiers, local and global features, visible damage, and changes in the reference image. Monitoring applications described herein include static and dynamic strain modal analysis measurement and displacement measurement. Next, several key challenges continue to move towards civilian infrastructure automation and monitoring of vision- based. Finally, aim to address some of the ongoing challenges in our work.
Keywords: Monitoring applications | Computer vision | Accelerometer | Non-destructive evaluation | Conventional-contact displacement sensors
A Review on Early Wildfire Detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Deep Learning-Based Computer Vision Algorithms
Wildfire is one of the most critical natural disasters that threaten wildlands and forest resources. Traditional firefighting systems, which are based on ground crew inspection, have several limits and can expose firefightersâĂŹ lives to danger. Thus, remote sensing technologies have become one of the most demanded strategies to fight against wildfires, especially UAV-based remote sensing technologies. They have been adopted to detect forest fires at their early stages, before becoming uncontrollable. Autonomous wildfire early detection from UAV-based visual data using different deep learning algorithms has attracted significant interest in the last few years. To this end, in this paper, we focused on wildfires detection at their early stages in forest and wildland areas, using deep learning-based computer vision algorithms to prevent and then reduce disastrous losses in terms of human lives and forest resources.
Keywords: Computer Vision | Deep Learning | Aerial Images Processing | Wildfire Detection system | Smoke Detection system | Unmanned Aerial Vehicle