Conceptual MINLP approach to the development of a CO2 supply chain network – Simultaneous consideration of capture and utilization process flowsheets
رویکرد مفهومی MINLP برای توسعه یک شبکه زنجیره تامین CO2 - در نظر گرفتن همزمان صفحه های جریان فرآیند ضبط و استفاده-2021
A large fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions comes from large point sources such as power plants, petroleum refineries, and large industrial facilities. A significant decrease of these CO2 emissions can be achieved with CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies. This study proposes a conceptually simplified model for the optimization of combined CO2 supply networks and capture and utilization technologies by the mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) approach. The objective is to maximize the profit of CCUS technologies, considering chemisorption using methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA) as a capture technology and conversion of CO2 to CH3OH as a utilization technology. Additionally, avoided tax from reduced CO2 emissions is considered as a revenue. A hypothetical case study of five larger point sources of CO2 was investigated, namely coal power plants, biogas plant, aluminium production plant and two cement plants. Two scenarios were considered: i) Scenario A considering different values of the CO2 tax, and ii) Scenario B considering different flue gas flowrates at different values of the CO2 tax. The results show the potential of model-based optimization in reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by CCUS technology. Furthermore, the results in Scenario A show that CCUStechnology is only profitable if the price of CO2 emissions is higher than 110 €/t emitted CO2. Moreover, the results in Scenario B show that both the profit and the production of CH3OH depend to a large extent on the flue gas flow.
KEYWORDS: Point sources of CO2 | Carbon capture | Storage and utilization (CCUS) | Supply network optimization | Process optimization | MINLP approach
Management of Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis by Primary Care Providers: A Systematic Review
مدیریت درماتیت آتوپیک اطفال توسط ارائه دهندگان مراقبت های اولیه: مرور سیستماتیک-2021
BACKGROUND: Primary care providers (PCPs), including pediatricians and general practitioners, are often the first to see children with eczema/atopic dermatitis (AD). Little is known about management of pediatric AD by PCPs and adherence to national guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To review existing literature examining management components of pediatric AD (topical corticosteroids [TCS], topical calcineurin inhibitors [TCIs], antihistamines, bathing, emollients, and diet) by PCPs. DATA SOURCES: PubMed/Medline and Embase. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: English-language articles dated 2015 to 2020 reporting outcomes addressing management of pediatric AD by PCPs. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Two authors independently screened titles/abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, extracted relevant data, and evaluated study quality. Disagreements were resolved by a third author. RESULTS: Twenty articles were included. Surveys and national database analyses were the most common methodologies (n = 7 each). PCPs commonly prescribed TCS but had a preference for low-potency agents, overprescribed nonsedating antihistamines, and avoided TCIs. PCPs commonly recommended emollients, although this was not universal. Data characterizing nonmedication management were limited. LIMITATIONS: Most studies did not examine individual patient encounters, but rather relied on providers reporting their general behaviors. Provider behavior may vary based on country of practice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: Knowledge and management gaps exist among PCPs in treating pediatric AD in key areas including knowledge of TCS safety profiles and prescribing of TCIs. The current literature is largely limited to small studies that evaluate prescribing behaviors with limited data characterizing nonmedication management, highlighting the need for future research in this area.
KEYWORDS: atopic dermatitis | eczema | health care delivery | primary care provider | pediatric
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2021 Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Management of Food and Nutrition Systems
آکادمی تغذیه و رژیمشناسی: استانداردهای 2021 اصلاحشده عملکرد حرفهای برای متخصصان تغذیه ثبتشده (لایق، ماهر و متخصص) در مدیریت سیستمهای غذایی و تغذیه-2021
Management of food and nutrition systems (MFNS) encompasses the varied roles of registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) with administrative responsibilities for food and nutrition services within an organization. RDNs in MFNS are frequently employed in acute care, but also expand into a multitude of other settings in which management of nutrition and foodservice is required, for example, foodservice departments in assisted living and post-acute and long-term care; colleges and universities, kindergarten through grade 12 and pre-kindergarten schools and childcare; retail foodservice operations; correctional facilities; and companies that produce, distribute, and sell food products. RDNs in MFNS aim to create work environments that support high-quality customer-centered care and services, attract and retain talented staff, and foster an atmosphere of collaboration and innovation. The Management in Food and Nutrition Systems Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has revised the Standards of Professional Performance (SOPP) for RDNs in MFNS for 3 levels of practice: competent, proficient, and expert. The SOPP describes 6 domains that focus on professional performance: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Indicators outlined in the SOPP depict how these standards apply to practice. The standards and indicators for RDNs in MFNS are written with the leader in mind—to support an individual in a leadership role or who has leadership aspirations. The SOPP is intended to be used by RDNs for self-evaluation to assure competent professional practice.
Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding prediabetes among general practitioners in Reunion Island
دانش، نگرش و عملکرد در مورد پیش دیابت در میان پزشکان عمومی در جزیره Reunion-2021
Background: General practitioners (GPs) are among the first health care providers to be involved in prediabetes care, and their actions can prevent patients’ transition from prediabetes to diabetes. However, data on knowledge and management of prediabetes in primary care remain scarce. Aim: To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of GPs towards prediabetes. Design and setting: This descriptive cross-sectional study included all private GPs working in Reunion Island.
Method: GPs were sent an electronic questionnaire that specifically sought to establish whether GPs knew the definition of prediabetes and whether their practices were in line with French guidelines for prediabetes screening and management.
Results: A total of 121 GPs completed the questionnaire. Of these, 95.0% knew the definition of impaired fasting glucose, but only 66.1% knew that of impaired glucose tolerance. Many GPs reported practices that are not recommended in guidelines. Thus, 59% of respondents declared that they monitored prediabetes with HbA1c and 10% said that they prescribed oral anti-diabetic drugs as prediabetes treatment. The risks factors associated with prediabetes were generally well known. Although 59.5% of respondents reported not having enough time to provide therapeutic education and medical follow up, only 19% referred their patients to a nutritionist or dietician. Lastly, 93.4% of respondents favoured the implementation of a local therapeutic education program targeting prediabetic individuals.
Conclusion: Prediabetes management in primary care can be made more effective by improving GPs’ knowledge of prediabetes and official guidelines, facilitating referral of prediabetic patients to lifestyle specialists and implementing local therapeutic education programs.
keywords: Prediabetes | Primary Health Care | Secondary Prevention | Health Knowledge | Attitudes | Practice | Diabetes Mellitus.
Caloric restriction prevents alveolar bone loss in the experimental periodontitis in obese rats
محدودیت کالری جلوگیری از تحلیل استخوان آلوئولار در پریودنتیت آزمایشی در موشهای چاق-2021
Aims: It has been shown that periodontitis, can be modified by systemic changes, including behavioral factors, such as diet. Caloric restriction is one of the dietary therapeutic strategies indicated for obesity. It is associated with several benefits, among them, modulation of the inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to verify whether caloric restriction in obese rats changes the progression of experimental ligature-induced periodontitis. Materials and methods: Forty-eight Wistar rats were used for 24 weeks and initially fed with cafeteria diet during 12 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups according to the caloric restriction and experimental periodontitis. The cotton thread was placed around the mandibular first molars, for 15 days, before the end of the experiment. Rats submitted to caloric restriction received, from the 13th week of the experimental protocol, 70% of the food intake compared to the ad libitum animals of other study of the our research group. Alveolar bone loss was assessed using macroscopic morphometric analysis. Analyzes of clinical periodontal measures, biometrics, serum biomarkers and biochemical parameters were performed. Key findings: Caloric restriction decreased the alveolar bone loss in the periodontitis group when compared to the group that received a cafeteria diet with periodontitis. Moreover, the results demonstrate the improvement in the glycemic profile, without prejudice to bone tissue biomarkers. Significance: Based on the results, caloric restriction reduces the progression of alveolar bone loss in rats with experimental periodontitis, in addition to presenting benefits in biometric data, decreasing both glycemic profile and clinical periodontal measures.
Keywords: Obesity | Caloric restriction | Periodontitis
Effect of caloric restriction on alveolar bone loss in rats
تأثیر محدودیت کالری بر از دست دادن استخوان آلوئول در موش صحرایی-2021
Aims: Recent research suggests an association between longevity, caloric restriction (CR) and reduction of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis. Currently, the mechanisms related to the effects of CR are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of caloric restriction on alveolar bone loss (ABL) in Wistar rats with experimental periodontitis.
Main methods: The impact of CR on biometric data, clinical periodontal parameters, serum biomarkers and biochemical parameters were also investigated. The experimental protocol lasted 24 weeks. The CR rats were fed for 12 weeks with 70% of the standard food compared to the animals with ad libitum diet. Experimental peri- odontitis was induced in Wistar rats during 15 days before the end of the experiment. The animals were divided into four experimental groups (n = 12 animals/group), according to the presence or absence of caloric restriction and ligature-induced periodontitis. Hemimandibles were used to assess ABL.
Key findings: The groups with experimental periodontitis induction showed a significant decrease on alveolar bone loss in animals submitted to caloric restriction, in addition to attenuating gingival inflammation, demon- strated by the significant difference in gingival index. Biochemical and biometric data showed a significant reduction in the glycemic profile, body weight, adiposity index and abdominal circumference after caloric restriction. Caloric restriction did not significantly alter bone tissue biomarkers.
Significance: According to the findings, caloric restriction reduced alveolar bone loss, glycemic profile and bio- metric parameters in rats with experimental periodontitis.
Keywords: Caloric restriction | Periodontitis | Rats
Chronic Liver Diseases and the Microbiome-Translating Our Knowledge of Gut Microbiota to Management of Chronic Liver Disease
بیماری های مزمن کبدی و میکروبیوم - ترجمه دانش ما از میکروبیوتا روده به مدیریت بیماری مزمن کبدی-2021
Chronic liver disease is reaching epidemic proportions with the increasing prevalence of obesity, nonalcoholic liver disease, and alcohol overuse worldwide. Most patients are not candidates for liver transplantation even if they have end-stage liver disease. There is growing evidence of a gut microbial basis for many liver diseases, therefore, better diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches based on knowledge of gut microbiota are needed. We review the questions that need to be answered to successfully translate our knowledge of the intestinal microbiome and the changes associated with liver disease into practice.
Keywords: Cirrhosis | Hepatic Encephalopathy | Fecal Microbial Transplant | Diet.
Role and knowledge of critical care nurses in the assessment and management of hypophosphataemia and refeeding syndrome: A descriptive exploratory study
نقش و شناخت پرستاران مراقبت های ویژه در ارزیابی و مدیریت هیپوفسفاتهمی و سندرم ریزش شده:یک مطالعه اکتشافی توصیفی-2021
Objective: To assess the perceived and actual role of critical care nurses in nutritional care, and their knowledge regarding the identification and management of hypophosphataemia and refeeding syndrome. Design and methods: Data were collected in one intensive care unit in Israel, from a self-administered questionnaire completed by 42 critical care nurses. The questionnaire was designed to assess their perceived and actual roles in the administration of nutritional care, and knowledge regarding electrolyte monitoring, hypophosphataemia and refeeding syndrome, including risk factors, consequences, and treatment.
Results: The majority participants that dieticians are solely responsible for nutrition care and follow-up. Most agreed that the measurement of phosphate levels was not important and that patients should receive full nutrition upon admission, while important risk factors for the development of refeeding syndrome were not recognised or considered. This informed their actual practice. A correlation was found between nurses’ knowledge and their actual practice so that the greater the nurses’ knowledge, the more they adhered to current nutrition guidelines (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: This study revealed critical care nurses’ lack of clarity of their role and lack of knowledge regarding nutrition care. We suggest that this complex task is best managed by a multidisciplinary team, including nurses and dieticians, with clear role definitions.
keywords: پرستاری مراقبت های ویژه | مطالعه اکتشافی توصیفی | هیپوفسفاتیه | سندرم ریزش | Critical care nursing | Descriptive exploratory study | Hypophosphataemia | Refeeding syndrome
شناسایی و مدیریت سوء تغذیه در بیماران بستری: بررسی دانش و نگرش کارکنان
سال انتشار: 2020 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 11 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 21
زمينه و هدف: سوء تغذيه موجب كاهش عملكرد و پيامدهاي باليني ناچیز در بيماران بستري می شود. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی دانش کارکنان بالینی در مورد شناسایی و مدیریت سوء تغذیه، ارزیابی نگرش و دانش سوء تغذیه به صورت مسئولیت مشترک بین رشته¬ای انجام شده است.
مواد و روشها: اين مطالعه به منظور توزیع کارکنان باليني (پزشكي ، پرستاري ، رژيم غذايي و بهداشت) در سه دانشگاه بيمارستاني از جمله مكان هاي حاد، کمی حاد و توانبخشي انجام شد.
نتایج: نتایج حاصل از نظرسنجي 14٪ كاركنان باليني واجد شرايط (116 پرستار ، 68 پزشك ، 20 متخصص تغذيه و 98 نفر از كاركنان بهداشت) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به استثنای متخصصین رژیم غذایی ، پاسخ به سؤالات مربوط به مهارت و دانش در زمینه های شناسایی سوء تغذیه ، تشخیص ، درمان و مدیریت ، کمتر از حد مطلوب بود. تنها پاسخ 60٪ از كاركنان پزشكي / جراحي و 42٪ از كاركنان پرستاري توانایی خود را در تشخيص سوء تغذيه گزارش كرده اند. پاسخ به سوالات مربوط به مسئولیت سوء تغذیه بسیار متغیر بود و هیچ کسی "مالکیت مشترک" سوء تغذیه را در مسئولیت بالینی پیشنهاد نکرد.
نتيجه گيري: به غير از متخصصان رژيم غذايي ، مهارت هاي مديريت سوء تغذيه متوسط بود و شکاف دانش در کارمندان باليني دیده شد. در مورد مسئولیت مراقبت از سوء تغذیه بیماران بستری نوعی سردرگمی نیز وجود داشت. برای بهبود تغذیه بیماران بستری ممکن است نیاز به درگیر شدن بیش از حد چند رشته و آموزش بهبود یافته باشد.
واژههای کلیدی: سوء تغذیه | تیم بین رشته ای | دانش | نگرش ریسک | بیماران بستری (بستری)
|مقاله ترجمه شده|
Biochanin A: A novel bioactive multifunctional compound from nature
Biochanin A: رویکرد ترکیب چند منظوره زیست فعال طبیعت-2020
Natural products (NPs) will continue to serve humans asmatchless source of novel drug leads and an inspiration for the synthesis of non-natural drugs. As our scientific understanding of ‘nature’ is rapidly expanding, itwould be worthwhile to illuminate the pharmacological distinctions of NPs to the scientific community and the public. Flavonoids have long fascinated scientists with their remarkable structural diversity as well as biological functions. Consequently, this review aims to shed light on the sources and pharmacological significance of a dietary isoflavone, biochanin A, which has been recently emerged as a multitargeted and multifunctional guardian of human health. Biochanin A possesses anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, antioxidant, anti-microbial, and hepatoprotective properties. It combats cancer development by inducing apoptosis, inhibition of metastasis and arresting cell cycle via targeting several deregulated signaling pathways of cancer. It fights inflammation by blocking the expression and activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines via modulation of NF-κB and MAPKs. Biochanin A acts as a neuroprotective agent by inhibiting microglial activation and apoptosis of neurons. As biochanin A has potential to modulate several biological networks, thus, it can be anticipated that this therapeutically potent compound might serve as a novel lead for drug development in the near future.
Keywords: Biochanin A | Isoflavone | Anticancer | Anti-inflammatory | Antioxidant | Neuroprotective | Anti-microbial