Digital transformation: Five recommendations for the digitally conscious firm
تحول دیجیتال: پنج توصیه برای شرکت آگاه دیجیتالی-2020
Digital transformation is one of the key challenges facing contemporary businesses. The need to leverage digital technology to develop and implement new business models forces firms to reevaluate existing capabilities, structures, and culture in order to identify what technologies are relevant and how they will be enacted in organizational processes and business offerings. More often than not, these profound changes require firms to revisit old truths as they develop strategies that thread the needle between beneficial innovation and harmful disruption. This article uses the Internet of Things (IoT) as a backdrop to demonstrate the concerns associated with transformative technologies and offers five recommendations as to how firms can develop the strategies needed for digital transformation and become digitally conscious: (1) Start small and build on firsthand benefits; (2) team up and create competitive advantage from brand recognition; (3) engage in standardization efforts; (4) take responsibility for data ownership and ethics; and (5) own the change and ensure organization-wide commitment. As such, this article shows that digital transformation should be a top management priority and a defining trait of corporate business strategy, and that by becoming digitally conscious, firms may get a head start on their transformation journey.
KEYWORDS: Digital transformation | Digitization | Digitalization | Internet of Things | Digital consciousness
Navigating disruptive crises through service-led growth: The impact of COVID-19 on Italian manufacturing firms
هدایت بحران های مخرب از طریق رشد خدمات محور: تأثیر COVID-19 بر بنگاه های تولیدی ایتالیا-2020
This study draws on an extensive survey and interview data collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. The respondents were executives of industrials firms whose factories, warehouses, and headquarters are located in Northern Italy. This is undoubtedly the European region first and most extensively affected by the pandemic, and the government implemented radical lockdown measures, banning nonessential travel and mandating the shutdown of all nonessential businesses. Several major effects on both product and service businesses are highlighted, including the disruption of field-service operations and supply networks. This study also highlights the increased importance of servitization business models and the acceleration of digital transformation and advanced services. To help firms navigate through the crisis and be better positioned after the pandemic, the authors present a four-stage crisis management model (calamity, quick & dirty, restart, and adapt), which provides insights and critical actions that should be taken to cope with the expected short and long-term implications of the crisis. Finally, this study discusses how servitization can enhance resilience for future crises—providing a set of indicators on the presumed role of, and impact on, service operations in relation to what executives expect to be the “next normal.”
Keywords: COVID-19 | Coronavirus | Servitization | Digitalization | Service operations | Solutions | Resilience
AI-enabled recruiting: What is it and how should a manager use it?
استخدام با هوش مصنوعی: چه چیزیست و یک مدیر چگونه باید از آن استفاده کند؟-2020
AI-enabled recruiting systems have evolved from nice to talk about to necessary to utilize. In this article, we outline the reasons underlying this development. First, as competitive advantages have shifted from tangible to intangible assets, human capital has transitioned from supporting cast to a starring role. Second, as digitalization has redesigned both the business and social landscapes, digital recruiting of human capital has moved from the periphery to center stage. Third, recent and near-future advances in AI-enabled recruiting have improved recruiting efficiency to the point that managers ignore them or procrastinate their utilization at their own peril. In addition to explaining the forces that have pushed AI-enabled recruiting systems from nice to necessary, we outline the key strategic steps managers need to take in order to capture its main benefits.
KEYWORDS : AI-enabled recruiting | Artificial intelligence | Digital recruiting | technology | Human resources
How to convert digital offerings into revenue enhancement – Conceptualizing business model dynamics through explorative case studies
نحوه تبدیل پیشنهادات دیجیتالی به افزایش درآمد - تصور پویایی مدل کسب و کار از طریق مطالعات موردی اکتشافی-2020
Equipment manufacturers are currently utilizing new digital technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence, or Big Data, for new digital offerings. However, these offerings seldom enhance revenue, because companies struggle with business model (BM) dynamics. By analyzing 27 companies through an explorative case-study approach, the authors consider how companies can successfully achieve revenue enhancement through digital offerings. The result is a threefold framework for revenue enhancement through digital offerings. First, this framework distinguishes between three phases of BM dynamics: 1) augmenting products through a “hardware plus” logic, 2) developing a portfolio of multiple logics for creating customer value, 3) integrating this portfolio through platform logic. Second, the framework emphasizes that three barriers, which we refer to as confidence, mixing, and collaboration barrier, limit the progress from Phases 1 to 3. Third, the framework reveals that each phase contains certain modifications of BM components. In the first phase, companies adapt their BM components slightly, so as to advance toward a “hardware plus” logic. In the second phase, companies embrace more radical BM innovations in order to convert services into an outcome-based BM and develop a new software subscription BM. In the third phase, companies modify BM components in order to integrate the BMs internally and to open them up for external collaboration partners.
Keywords: Digitalization | Digital offerings | Business models | Business model innovations | Competitive advantages | Business model components | Revenue enhancement | Value creation
A new model to compare intelligent asset management platforms (IAMP)
مدل جدیدی برای مقایسه سیستم عامل های مدیریت دارایی هوشمند (IAMP)-2020
Nowadays, no business activity escapes the fourth industrial revolution, called industry 4.0, which is characterized by digitalization of processes. The possibility of simultaneously having systems with greater interconnection, more information and greater flexibility, allows companies to have a clearer view of their processes and consequently improve their effectiveness and efficiency. The digital transformation can no longer be based simply on making the processes more efficient, but on creating more sustainable and profitable customer relationships, continuously aligning the value of the product with the changing customer requirements. Even though managing assets over the Internet is increasingly common, much effort is needed to identify the functionality that should be provided by these platforms to enhance existing asset management practices. The effort of IT vendors is focused on the development of IoT platforms, which allow, among other functions, to create a connection between machinery and digital systems, protect all devices and data against hacking or attacks, control operations and maintenance of equipment or perform different analyses of assets or systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the functionalities of the existing IAMP platforms, providing a system that evaluates these functionalities based on the business objectives from the point of view of asset management. This methodology allows maintenance managers guiding the evolution of the life cycle of their assets according to the business value conception. This makes this methodology especially suitable for supporting new challenging scenarios of maintenance management. In this paper we first talk about the structure of an IAMP, then how they integrate the asset management model and a summary of the features and modules that have the most known IAMP platforms. Finally, an evaluation system of IAMP platforms and a case study is presented based on their content for asset management. Copyright © 2020 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0)
Keywords: Asset Management | Industrial IoT | Digitalization | Predictive Analytics | Intelligent assets management systems
Scientific Authors in a Changing World of Scholarly Communication: What Does the Future Hold?
نویسندگان علمی در دنیای متغیر ارتباطات علمی: آینده چیست؟-2020
Scholarly communication in science, technology, and medicine has been organized around journal-based scientific publishing for the past 350 years. Scientific publishing has unique business models and includes stakeholders with conflicting interests—publishers, funders, libraries, and scholars who create, curate, and consume the literature. Massive growth and change in scholarly communication, coinciding with digitalization, have amplified stresses inherent in traditional scientific publishing, as evidenced by overwhelmed editors and reviewers, increased retraction rates, emergence of pseudo-journals, strained library budgets, and debates about the metrics of academic recognition for scholarly achievements. Simultaneously, several open access models are gaining traction and online technologies offer opportunities to augment traditional tasks of scientific publishing, develop integrated discovery services, and establish global and equitable scholarly communication through crowdsourcing, software development, big data management, and machine learning. These rapidly evolving developments raise financial, legal, and ethical dilemmas that require solutions, while successful strategies are difficult to predict. Key challenges and trends are reviewed from the authors’ perspective about how to engage the scholarly community in this multifaceted process.
KEYWORDS: Open access | Peer review | Predatory publishing | Preprint repository | Self-archiving
Port cybersecurity and threat: A structural model for prevention andpolicy development
امنیت سایبری و تهدید بندر: الگوی ساختاری برای پیشگیری و تدوین سیاست ها-2020
Most port operators have increasingly integrated cybertechnology into port activities to increase theircompetitiveness; unfortunately, this digitalization becomes the major vulnerability for the emergingcyberthreat. To help port policymakers develop cybersecurity measures, this study conceptualized anddeveloped three dimensions of port cybersecurity hygiene (i.e. human, infrastructure, and procedurefactors) and investigated the relationships between port cybersecurity hygiene and cyberthreats (i.e.hacktivism, cyber criminality, cyber espionage, cyber terrorism, and cyber war). A questionnaire surveywas used to collect data from all international container port operators and shipping lines with branchesin Thailand, and the proposed relationships were tested by structural equation modeling. The resultsindicated that container ports tended to encounter hacktivism when their human, infrastructure, andprocedure factors were vulnerable. The weakness of the human factor could also lead to cyber terrorism,while the deficiency of the infrastructure factor could lead to cyber criminality. Moreover, containerports were likely to be harmed by cyber espionage if their procedure factor was poorly implemented.Hence, the provision of training and education to all port workers, including top executives, managers,and supervisors, are necessary to ensure a cyberthreat-awareness culture at all organizational levels.Improving cybersecurity equipment could prevent unauthorized access to port business data and keepimportant information secure, while the ISPS Code-based procedures and other preventive measuresshould be strictly implemented by container ports to reduce the risk of cyberthreats.
Keywords: Cyberthreat | Port cybersecurity hygiene | Cybertechnology | Prevention and policy development | Port digitalization | Structural equation modeling
Digital sustainable entrepreneurship: A business model perspective on embedding digital technologies for social and environmental value creation
کارآفرینی پایدار دیجیتال: چشم انداز مدل کسب و کار در تعبیه فن آوری های دیجیتال برای ایجاد ارزش اجتماعی و زیست محیطی-2020
This article explores how sustainable entrepreneurs embed digital technologies in their business models to leverage social and environmental value creation. To this end, we draw on the institutional logics perspective of sustainable business models. The article contributes to research on sustainable business models and entrepreneurship by showing that digital technologies enable novel conﬁgurations of sus- tainable business model components: a blended value proposition, integrative value creation, and multidimensional value capture. Moreover, we discuss the complementarities and tensions of a digital logic and logics of sustainability that clarify and advance the link between these concepts in an entre- preneurial context. This further adds to the theoretical development of sustainable business models as manifestations of multiple institutional logics. The article yields practical implications by describing possibilities and drawbacks of digital technologies for designing sustainable business models.© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-NDlicense (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: Sustainable entrepreneurship | Digitalization | Business model | Institutional logic | Technology | Tension
International entrepreneurship in the post Covid world
کارآفرینی بین المللی در جهان Covid-2020
How will the world look post Covid-19? What is the role of international entrepreneurship (IE) in this new world? This article attempts to answer these two questions. It highlights the changes caused by Covid and how they might affect the scope and types of international entrepreneurial activities in years to come. It also discusses how international entrepreneurs are likely to operate and shape the emerging world order. The article concludes by outlining the implications of these changes for IE scholarship, offering an agenda for future research.
Keywords: International entrepreneurship | International new ventures (INVs) | Covid-19 | Institutional change | Digitalization | Innovation | Research agenda
“Hello are you available?” Dealing with online frauds and the role of forensic science
"سلام آیا شما در دسترس هستید؟" مقابله با کلاهبرداری آنلاین و نقش علم پزشکی قانونی-2020
On August 6, 2019, the 119 members of the School of criminal justice, forensic science and criminology at the University of Lausanne were the target of an online scammer. His/her modus operandi consisted of email masquerading as the Director of the School in an attempt to induce the victims to buy digital gift cards and to transmit the card usage code to the perpetrator. The first author of this paper is the Director of the School, and the second is an expert in digital forensic science and a professor of the School. They worked together in real time to deal with the fraud. Because the fraud occurred in a School of forensic science and criminology, it raised many questions on a variety of overlapping dimensions. The objective of this study was, therefore, to draw lessons from this case from several perspectives ranging from forensic science to cybersecurity, and from practical to academic. The response to the incident has been treated in four typical distinguishable phases: (1) fraud detection; (2) crisis management; (3) post-incident analysis; and (4) reporting to different communities. We conclude this paper by taking lessons from the case to express the essential role of forensic knowledge and crime analysis in interpreting the information conveyed by digital traces to develop innovative cross-disciplinary models for preventing, detecting, analysing, investigating and responding to online fraud.
Keywords: Online scam | Crime analysis | Digital forensics | Routine activities | Digitalization