Blockchain in healthcare and health sciences : A scoping review
بلاکچین در مراقبت های بهداشتی و علوم بهداشتی: بررسی مقدماتی-2019
Background: Blockchain can be described as an immutable ledger, logging data entries in a decentralized manner. This new technology has been suggested to disrupt a wide range of data-driven domains, including the health domain. Objective: The purpose of this study was to systematically review, assess and synthesize peer-reviewed publications utilizing/proposing to utilize blockchain to improve processes and services in healthcare, health sciences and health education. Method: A structured literature search on the topic was conducted in October 2018 relevant bibliographic databases. Result: 39 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The result indicates that Electronic Health Records and Personal Health Records are the most targeted areas using blockchain technology. Access control, interoperability, provenance and data integrity are all issues that are meant to be improved by blockchain technology in this field. Ethereum and Hyperledger fabric seem to be the most used platforms/frameworks in this domain. Conclusion: This study shows that the endeavors of using blockchain technology in the health domain are increasing exponentially. There are areas within the health domain that potentially could be highly impacted by blockchain technology.
Keywords: Blockchain | Health systems | Scoping review | Distributed ledger
Analysis of the main consensus protocols of blockchain
تجزیه و تحلیل پروتکل های اجماع اصلی بلاکچین-2019
Blockchain is the core technology of many cryptocurrencies. Blockchain as a distributed ledger technology has received extensive research attention. In addition to cryptography and P2P (peer-to-peer) technology, consensus protocols are also a fundamental part of the blockchain technology. A good consensus protocol can guarantee the fault tolerance and security of the blockchain systems. The consensus protocols currently used in most blockchain systems can be broadly divided into two categories: the probabilistic-finality consensus protocols and the absolute-finality consensus protocols. This paper introduces some of the main consensus protocols of these two categories, and analyzes their strengths and weaknesses as well as the applicable blockchain types.
Keywords: Blockchains | Consensus protocols | Cryptocurrencies
Securing instant messaging based on blockchain with machine learning
ایمن سازی پیام های فوری بر اساس blockchain با یادگیری ماشین-2019
Instant Messaging (IM) offers real-time communications between two or more participants on Internet. Nowadays, most IMs take place on mobile applications, such as WhatsApp, WeChat, Viber and Facebook Messenger, which have more users than social networks, such as Twitter and Facebook. Among the applications of IMs, online shopping has become a part of our everyday life, primarily those who are busiest. However, transaction disputes are often occurred online shopping. Since most IMs are centralized and message history is not stored in the center, the messaging between users and owners of online shops are not reliable and traceable. In China, online shopping sales have soared from practically zero in 2003 to nearly 600 hundred million dollars last year, and now top those in the United States. It is very crucial to secure the instant messaging in online shopping in China. We present techniques to exploit blockchain and machine learning algorithms to secure instant messaging. Since the cryptography of Chinese national standard is encouraged to adopt in security applications of China, we propose a blockchain-based IM scheme with the Chinese cryptographic bases. First, we design a message authentication model based on SM2 to avoid the counterfeit attack and replay attack. Second, we design a cryptographic hash mode based on SM3 to verify the integrity of message. Third, we design a message encryption model based on SM4 to protect the privacy of users. Besides, we propose a method based on machine learning algorithms to monitor the activity on blockchain to detect anomaly. To prove and verify the blockchain-based IM scheme, a blockchain-based IM system has been designed on Linux platforms. The implementation result shows that it is a practical and secure IM system, which can be applied to a variety of instant messaging applications directly.
Keywords: Instant Messaging (IM) | BlockChain | Machine learning | Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) | Safety and security
The blockchain and how it can influence conceptions of the self
بلاکچین و چگونگی تأثیری که می تواند بر تصورات خود بگذارد-2019
Blockchain technologies are rapidly being developed and tested in a broad range of business and governmental settings. Their unique cryptographic characteristics and configurations enable users of these systems to transact directly and anonymously. The data these users generate are timestamped and immutable. In open blockhains, individual users take responsibility for managing and protecting their own data and for ensuring the reliability of the parties with whom they transact. The socio-material characteristics of these systems will influence user attitudes and behaviors in ways that are profound and difficult to predict. Outcomes have not yet been researched, and the academy has adopted a stance of technological determinism despite the fact that implicit assumptions about outcomes are literally coded in as these systems are developed. We envision potential impacts that may result from self-sovereign ownership of data including: commoditization of the self and relationships with others, the need to police personal data and reputation, and new perceptions of time and history that result from transaction sequentialization and permanence. Further research on the societal impacts of blockchain technologies is needed as these systems become ubiquitous.
Keywords: Blockchain | Distributed ledger technology (DLT) | Societal impact | Social ideology | Trust | Decentralization | Privacy | Socio-materiality | Bitcoin
From blockchain consensus back to Byzantine consensus
از اجماع بلاکچین به اجماع بیزنس-2019
Consensus is a fundamental problem of distributed computing. While this problem has been known to be unsolvable since 1985, existing protocols were designed these past three decades to solve consensus under various assumptions. Today, with the recent advent of blockchains, various consensus implementations were proposed to make replicas reach an agreement on the order of transactions updating what is often referred to as a distributed ledger. Very little work has however been devoted to explore its theoretical ramifications. As a result existing proposals are sometimes misunderstood and it is often unclear whether the problems arising during their executions are due to implementation bugs or more fundamental design issues. In this paper, we discuss the mainstream blockchain consensus algorithms and how the classic Byzantine consensus can be revisited for the blockchain context. In particular, we discuss proof-of-work consensus and illustrate the differences between the Bitcoin and the Ethereum proof-of-work consensus algorithms. Based on these definitions, we warn about the dangers of using these blockchains without understanding precisely the guarantees their consensus algorithm offers. In particular, we survey attacks against the Bitcoin and the Ethereum consensus algorithms. We finally discuss the advantage of the recent Blockchain Byzantine consensus definition over previous definitions, and the promises offered by emerging consistent blockchains.
Keywords: Algorithms | Proof-of-work | Blockchain consensus | Scalability
MudraChain: Blockchain-based framework for automated cheque clearance in financial institutions
MudraChain: چارچوب مبتنی بر بلاکچین برای ترخیص خودکار چک در موسسات مالی-2019
Currently, the burden on the cheque clearing houses in financial institutions is increasing day-byday, which necessitates the upgrading of the existing cheque truncation system (CTS). It is a manual process which uses Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR), where cheques have been scanned and sent to the clearing house for further processing. The limitations of existing CTS are — illegal duplication of cheque images, invisible ink usage, visibility issues in beneficiary name, and amount on the cheque. To handle the aforementioned issues of the existing CTS, blockchain has emerged as a new technology which is a distributed ledger that is timestamped and immutable. Being immutable, forgeries related to images of cheques during clearance cycles are not allowed. This provides trust and consensus among all participating entities in the network. Motivated by the above discussion, in this paper, we propose a framework named MudraChain for automated cheque clearance, where clearance operations are handled by the blockchain network, instead of existing CTS. It includes: (i) A multi-level authentication scheme to make the blockchain-based framework secure and tamperproof among participating financial stakeholders, (ii) A quick-response (QR) code generation algorithm which performs digital signing of a cheque, and (iii) A novel two-factor authentication protocol to generate a time based one-time password (TOTP) for secure funds transfer. The obtained results are examined against state-of-the-art approaches to indicate the supremacy of the proposed framework. Thus, MudraChain allows a seamless flow of clearance operation via blockchain for the payer and the payee without any intermediaries. Finally, it addresses the requirements of building a secure application for cheque clearance in view of decentralized blockchain 4.0 applications.
Keywords: Blockchain | QR code | Two-factor authentication | Cheque clearance | Hyperledger fabric
Using the security triad to assess blockchain technology in public sector applications
استفاده از سه گانه امنیتی برای ارزیابی فناوری بلاکچین در برنامه های بخش عمومی-2019
This conceptual paper explores the impact of blockchain technology on public sector processes through the lens of information security. It includes an overview of the evolution of e-government, a synopsis of existing applications of blockchain technology, and innovative blockchain developments. We utilize the Confidentiality- Integrity-Accessibility (CIA) triad to guide our discussion of the security, governance, and regulatory implications of this technology. Leveraging the CIA triad model, we provide context for public managers who may consider blockchain technologies, and we highlight certain advantages arising from the “non-reputability” of distributed ledgers. In particular, we highlight the advantages of blockchain technologies with regards to non-reputability to help public managers understand how to best leverage blockchain technology to transform operations.
Keywords: Blockchain technology | Public sector applications | Government | Security triad
A framework for analysing blockchain technology adoption: Integrating institutional, market and technical factors
چارچوبی برای تجزیه و تحلیل فناوری پذیرش بلاکچین : ادغام نهادی ، بازار وعوامل فنی-2019
The adoption of blockchain technologies require the consideration of a broad range of factors, over and above the predominantly technology focus of most current work. Whilst scholarly literature on blockchain technology is only beginning to emerge, majority are focused on the technicalities of the technology and tend to ignore the organizational complexities of adopting the technology. Drawing from a focused review of literature, this paper proposed a conceptual framework for adoption of blockchain technology capturing the complex relationships between institutional, market and technical factors. The framework highlights that varying outcomes are possible, and the change process is focal as this shapes the form blockchain applications take. Factors presented in the framework (institutional, market and technical) interact and mutually influence each other. The proposed framework can be used by organisations as a reference point for adopting blockchain applications and by scholars to expand, refine and evaluate research into blockchain technology.
Keywords: Blockchain technology | Distributed ledger | Adoption | Diffusion | Trust | Markets | Intermediaries