Building to Vehicle to Building concept: A comprehensive parametric and sensitivity analysis for decision making aims
ساختن به وسایل نقلیه برای مفهوم ساختن : یک تحلیل پارامتری جامع و حساسیت برای اهداف تصمیم گیری-2020
This paper focuses on the energy and economic analysis of the Building To Vehicle To Building (V2B2) concept, conducted through a comprehensive parametric and sensitivity analysis. The idea behind this novel vehicle to building energy management is to exploit the use of electric vehicles as energy vectors to exchange electricity among buildings with the aim to accelerate the development of a novel zero energy paradigm, while promoting the deployment of renewable energy sources, accelerating the widespread usage of electric vehicles, and streamlining the regulation of charging stations in our future communities. In order to evaluate the potentials of the proposed schemes, a comprehensive parametric analysis is conducted to size the design and operating parameters which maximize the self-production and self-consumption of building integrated renewable energy technologies at a cluster level. The paper investigates the energy and economic performance of different V2B2 energy management schemes including a residential building, an office building, and an electric vehicle, which feature a basic cluster of human-linked energy consumers. The study is conducted by means of a novel in-house developed dynamic simulation tool, suitably enhanced to model the system operation. Numerical results, obtained for a representative weather zone (Mediterranean climate of Naples, South-Italy), show that through the V2B2 scheme, a remarkable exploitation of off-site renewable energy production is achieved, producing a significant reduction of fossil fuel consumption from the grid
Keywords: Net zero energy building | Solar energy | Building to Vehicle to Building V2B2 | Vehicle to Building V2H | Parametric and sensitivity analysis | Dynamic simulation
A residential energy management system with bi-level optimization-based bidding strategy for day-ahead bi-directional electricity trading
یک سیستم مدیریت انرژی مسکونی با استراتژی مناقصه مبتنی بر بهینه سازی دو سطح برای تجارت برق دو طرفه پیش رو-2020
Bi-directional electricity trading of demand response (DR) and transactive energy (TE) frameworks allows the traditionally passive end-users of electricity to play an active role in the local power balance of the grid. Appropriate building energy management systems (BEMSs), coupled with an optimized bidding strategy, can provide significant cost savings for prosumers (consumers with on-site power generation and/or storage facility) when they participate in such bi-directional trading. This paper presents a BEMS with an optimization-based scheduling and bidding strategy for small-scale residential prosumers to determine optimal day-ahead energyquantity bids considering the expected cost of real-time imbalance trading under uncertainty. The proposed scheduling and bidding strategy is formulated as a stochastic bi-level minimization problem that determines the day-ahead energy-quantity bids by minimizing the energy cost in the upper level considering expected cost of uncertainty, whereas a number of lower-level sub-problems ensure optimal operation of building loads and distributed energy resources (DERs) for comfort reservation, minimization of consumers’ inconveniences and degradation of residential storage units. A modified decomposition method is used to reformulate the nonlinear bi-level problem as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problem and solved using ‘of the shelf’ commercial software. The effectiveness of the proposed BEMS model is verified via case studies for a residential prosumer in Sydney, Australia with real measurement data for building energy demand. The efficacy of the proposed method for overall financial savings is also validated by comparing its performance with state-of-theart day-ahead scheduling strategies. Case studies indicate that the proposed method can provide up to 51% and 22% cost savings compared to inflexible non-optimal scheduling strategies and deterministic optimization-based methods respectively. Results also indicate that the proposed method offers better economic performance than standard cost minimization models and multi-objective methods for simultaneous minimization of energy cost and user inconveniences.
Keywords: Demand response | Building energy management system | Distributed energy resources | Mixed-integer programming | Bi-level optimization
Are global cities sustainability champions? A double delinking analysis of environmental performance of urban agglomerations
آیا شهرهای جهانی قهرمان پایداری هستند؟ تجزیه و تحلیل چربی دو برابر از عملکرد محیطی از مساحت شهری-2020
Urban agglomerations – irrespective of their size or location – may act not only as engines of economic growth, but also as vehicles of environmental and climate sustainability that may stimulate both socioeconomic achievements and environmentally-benign outcomes. Clearly, the efficiency of these outcomes may differ for different types of urban agglomeration in the world. This paper aims to present and test an advanced methodology for assessing economic and sustainability-oriented performance strategies for global cities, by developing and applying a super-efficient Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. We compare 40 global cities – included in the Global Power City Index (GPCI) database – in a benchmark study in order to trace the highest-performing urban regions from both an economic and environmentalclimatological efficiency perspective, by applying relevant quantitative GPCI indicators to these 40 cities. Our ultimate goal is to test what is termed the ‘delinking’ hypothesis, from the viewpoint of both economic prosperity and urban size externalities. This approach will be applied empirically by examining the GPCI data set comprised of various multidimensional and empirically verified indicators on economic performance and climatologicalenvironmental conditions for the 40 global cities concerned. We regard both the size of these agglomerations and their economic welfare position as critical parameters for assessing their economic and environmental efficiency performance. In the framework of our original DEA approach, these urban areas are categorised according to 2x2 dimensions, viz. in terms of both agglomeration size (big or medium-sized) and the economic development level of the area (highly developed or developing/emerging). Our contribution serves to assess – by means of regression techniques – the highest performing agglomerations among the urban sustainability champions on the basis of the two above-mentioned assessment criteria. This approach provides the opportunity to test the so-called Kuznets sustainability curve under two different conditions, viz. agglomeration size and economic development. The study presents and interprets the empirical findings for these four classes of global cities
Keywords: Sustainability | Data Envelopment Analysis | Super-efficiency | Global Power City Index | Kuznets curve | Environmental externalities
Promoting the polluters? The competing objectives of energy efficiency, pollutant emissions, and economic performance in Chinese municipalities
تبلیغ آلاینده ها؟ اهداف رقیب بهره وری انرژی ، انتشار آلاینده ها و عملکرد اقتصادی در شهرداری های چین-2020
With the rapid development of Chinas economy, energy efficiency and pollutant emissions have also entered our horizons and become two big issues. To explore the impacts that these three factors have on the promotion probability of municipal party secretaries, we have collected the data of 810 municipal party secretaries with position changes in the period of 2005–2015 and mainly adopted the probit model to conduct our empirical tests. Our results are as follows: (1) Higher economic performance, higher energy efficiency and lower pollution emissions can significantly increase the promotion probability of municipal party secretaries; (2) these three correlations evolve differently, the impact of economic performance declines slightly but always predominates, the impact of pollutant emission tends to grow while that of energy efficiency continues to decrease. This research provides a dynamic understanding of Chinese local officials’ promotion incentive and their trade-off among economy, energy and environment, which would be a valuable supplement for Institution Change Theory and an important reference for other countries with similar developing dilemma.
Keywords: Energy efficiency | Pollutant emissions | Economic performance | Promotion Tournament | Promotion incentive | Evolution trend
Entrepreneurship in a transformative and resource-rich state: The case of Qatar
کارآفرینی در یک کشور دگرگون کننده و سرشار از منابع: پرونده قطر-2020
Countries blessed with natural resources have generally struggled to achieve sustainable economic development and prosperity. Population growth, the depletion of natural resources coupled with mismanagement, and sharp fluctuations in prices of those resources are among the main reasons for sub-optimal economic performance. Some resource-rich countries have been expending effort and money in an attempt to change this inverse relationship (a.k.a. “the resource curse”) by designing policies to diversify their economies with high value-added industries and sectors. Qatar is a such country and point of the interest in this article. Qatars political and economic structure, its efforts to diversify its economy, and the potential for improved entrepreneurial outcomes with high value-added products, services, businesses, and industries are analyzed. The country has been very effective in maximizing the benefits of its oil resources and especially its large natural gas reserves, becoming the largest exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the world. Revenues from oil and gas sales have been invested in the domestic economy and global assets. Thus far, however, it has not shown the in-house capacity for innovation and entrepreneurship critical for sustainable economic diversification going forward. This publication was made possible in part by NPRP grant #10–1203–160007 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).
Keywords: Transformative State | Resource Rich Economies | Diversification | governance | Entrepreneurship
Techno-economic performance analysis of zero energy house applications with home energy management system in Japan
تجزیه و تحلیل عملکرد فنی و اقتصادی کاربردهای خانه انرژی صفر با سیستم مدیریت انرژی خانگی در ژاپن-2020
ZEHs are one of the main practices in current Japanese low carbon demonstration projects. ZEHs with wide implementation of HEMS are expected to provide energy and cost-saving chances and are playing more as prosumers under collaboratively designed power-pricing schemes. This research focused on in- vestigating the techno-economic performance of real ZEH applications in Japan. Firstly, we introduced the current technological innovations and coordinated smart management strategies to optimize the cost or energy-saving performance of the ZEHs. Then, we illustrated the operational performances of four typical ZEHs focused on the power of self-sufficiency and dynamic power balance. Meanwhile, we examined the role of HEMS in managing integrated on-site generators based on how they operated according to histori- cal data. Results indicated that day-ahead prediction helped enhance the matching scenario between daily thermal consumption and preproduction of heat pumps, fuel cells could respond effectively to changes in simultaneous electricity and heating loads, and cogeneration systems could enhance the local electric- ity self-sufficiency ratio and reduce net load fluctuations, especially under high heating demand periods. We also concluded that efficient performance of ZEHs is not just a matter of advanced technologies but is also highly dependent on real-time demand-side management and local load-matching scenarios. Fi- nally, we analyzed and compared the impacts of integrated on-site generators among ZEHs on improving economic and environmental performance from an overall energy system. The analysis indicated that PV contributed to a significant ratio of annual ZEH’s economic profit. Fuel cells presented an advantage in reducing annual CO 2 emission.
Keywords: Zero energy house | Photovoltaics | Fuel cell | Eco-cute | Home energy management
Do criminally accused politicians affect economic outcomes? Evidence from India
آیا سیاستمداران متهم به جرم و جنایت بر نتایج اقتصادی تأثیر می گذارند؟ مدارک و شواهدی از هند-2019
We study the causal impact of electing criminally accused politicians to state legislative assemblies in India on the subsequent economic performance of their constituencies. Using data on the criminal background of candidates running in state assembly elections for the period 2004 – 2008 and a constituency-level measure of economic activity proxied by the intensity of nighttime lights, we employ a regression discontinuity design and find that narrowly electing a criminally accused politician lowers the growth of the intensity of night-time lights by about 24 percentage points (approximately 2.4 percentage point lower GDP growth). The negative impact is more pronounced for legislators who are accused of serious or financial charges, have multiple accusations, are from a non-ruling party, have less than a college education, or have below median wealth. Overall, we find that the effect appears to be concentrated in the less developed and the more corrupt states. Similar findings emerge for the provision of public goods using data on India’s major rural roads construction program.
Keywords: Criminal Accusations | Politicians | Night-time Lights | Regression Discontinuity| India
Decomposing banking performance into economic and credit risk efficiencies
تجزیه عملکرد بانکی به ریسک اقتصادی و اعتبار-2019
This paper proposes a non-parametric approach of a banking production technology that decomposes performance into economic and credit risk efficiencies. The basis of our approach is to separate the pro- duction technology into two sub-technologies. The former is the production of non-interest income and loans from a set of traditional inputs. The latter is attached to the production of interest income from loans where an explicit distinction between good and non-performing loans is introduced. Economic effi- ciency comes from the production of good outputs, namely interest and non-interest income, while credit risk management efficiency is related to the minimization of the non-performing loans that can be con- sidered as an unintended or bad output. The model is applied to Chinese financial data covering 30 banks from 2005 to 2012 and different scenarios are considered. The results indicate that income could be in- creased by an average rate of 16% while non-performing loans could be decreased by an average rate of 33%. According to our results, banking managers could strike a balance between economic performance and credit risk management and make more appropriate decisions in line with their preferences.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis | Credit risk | Economic efficiency | Banking performance | Non-performing loans
مقایسهی محیطهای کسب و کار در کشورهای نفتخیز MENA: تحلیل خوشهبندی عملکرد و تنوعبخشی اقتصادی
سال انتشار: 2019 - تعداد صفحات فایل pdf انگلیسی: 16 - تعداد صفحات فایل doc فارسی: 29
هدف از این مقاله، خوشهبندی 11 کشور نفتخیز MENA شامل الجزایر، مصر، ایران، عراق، کویت، لیبی، عمان، قطر، عربستان صعودی، سودان و امارات متحدهی عربی از منظر عملکرد و تنوعبخشی اقتصادی طی سالهای 2010-2016 با استفاده از الگوریتم K-means (یک روش دادهکاوی چندمنظوره) است. نتیجهی اصلی این است که تنوع صادراتی بیشتر در ارتقای عملکرد اقتصادی میتواند اثرات مثبتی بر رقابتپذیری محیط کسب و کار کشورها داشته باشد و عکس این نیز صادق است. کشورهای مورد بررسی به 4 خوشه تقسیم میشوند. قطر و امارات متحدهی عربی با بالاترین سطح عملکرد و تنوع اقتصادی، مطلوبترین محیطهای کسب و کار را در این منطقه دارند.
کلیدواژه ها: محیط کسب و کار | تنوعبخشی اقتصادی | عملکرد اقتصادی | الگوریتم خوشهبندی K-means | کشورهای MENA
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Balance sheet strength and bank lending: Evidence from the global financial crisis
قدرت برگه تعادل و وام دهی بانکی: شواهدی از بحران مالی جهانی-2018
We use the 2007-2008 financial crisis as a lens to study the link between banks’ financial health and the strength of transmission of financial sector shocks to the real economy. We find that banks with ex-ante stronger balance sheets, in particular higher levels of common equity, were better able to maintain credit supply when faced with liquidity shocks during the crisis. Bank recapitalizations mitigated the lending gap between high and low capital banks, but only in countries with strong sovereigns. These findings support the view that strong financial intermediary balance sheets are key for the recovery of credit and economic performance after large financial sector shocks.
keywords: International shock transmission |Bank lending channel |Wholesale funding |High-quality capital |Basel III