Income inequality and ethnic cleavages in Malaysia: Evidence from distributional national accounts (19842014)
نابرابری درآمد و شکاف های قومی در مالزی: شواهدی از حساب های توزیع ملی (19842014)-2021
In this paper, by combining information obtained from national accounts, household surveys, and fiscal data, we document the evolution of income inequality in Malaysia, not only at the national level (for the period of 1984–2014) but also by ethnic group (for the period of 2002–2014). To our knowledge this is the first attempt to produce inequality measurements of Malaysia, which are fully consistent with the national accounts. Our research shows that despite Malaysia’s exceptional economic growth rate, its growth has been inclusive. For the period of 2002–2014, the real income growth for the bottom 50 % is the highest (5.2 %), followed by the middle 40 % (4.1 %), the top 10 % (2.7 %) and then the top 1 % (1.6 %). However, while average growth rates are positive across all ethnic groups (Bumiputera 4.9 %, Indians 4.8 %, and Chinese 2.7 %), the highest growth of real income per adult accrued to the Bumiputera in the top 1 % (at 8.3 %), which sharply contrasts the much lower growth rate of the Indians (at 3.4 %) and negative income growth rates of the Chinese (at 0.6 %). Despite the negative growth rate, the Chinese still account for the lion’s share in the top 1 %. In 2014, 60 % of the adults in the top 1 % income group are Chinese, while 33 % Bumiputera, and 6 % Indians. We conclude that in this period, Malaysia’s growth features an inclusive redistribution between income classes, but with a twist between racial groups.
keywords: اقدامات مثبت | حساب های ملی توزیع | شکاف های قومی | نابرابری درآمد | مالزی | Afﬁrmative actions | Distributional national accounts | Ethnic cleavages | Income inequality | Malaysia
The dynamic linkages between current account deficit and budget balance deficit in the South Asian region
ارتباط پویا بین کسری حساب جاری و کسری تراز بودجه در منطقه جنوب آسیا-2021
The issue of twin imbalances is at the forefront of fiscal policy concerns in the South Asian region, fuelled by an ever-going budget deficit and current account deficit over the last five decades. A standard approach is to assume a model in which budget balance influences the current account. We relax this assumption by using a panel data vector autoregression model comprising five South Asian countries. The results show that both budget deficit and current account deficit are mutually causative, which contrasts the unidirectional causality running from fiscal deficit to current account deficit found in prior studies. Further, this bi-causality relationship is also demonstrated in the impulse response analyses. Budget balance in South Asian economies re- sponds positively to a one standard deviation positive shock in the current account balance. Likewise, external balance increases to a one standard deviation positive shock in internal bal- ance. Higher fiscal debt impedes economic growth, which in turn impacts negatively on the budget balance. Our findings lead us to reject ’fiscal policy only’ recommendations to address the twin deficits.
keywords: کسری دوقلو | مدل P-VAR | آزمون علیت پانل گرنجر | تابع پاسخ ضربه ای | آسیای جنوبی | Twin deficits | P-VAR model | Panel Granger causality test | Impulse response function | South Asia
Towards agile knowledge management in an online organization
به سمت مدیریت دانش چابک در یک سازمان آنلاین-2021
Effective knowledge management is a powerful driver for product and organizational growth. Knowledge management allows for the efficient creation, sharing and use of information. But it is not entirely clear what basic knowledge is involved in agile practice and how teams handle it. The main aim of the article was the theoretical and empirical analysis of the agile knowledge management approach. The principles of knowledge management in connection with agile methodology were examined in the cognitive-theory section. The methodology is based on a case study applying an observational technique within an online organization. The empirical part presents a theoretical model that describes how knowledge management is used in the agile approach. These findings can aid in the understanding of agile knowledge management practices inside an online company, which includes iterative development, knowledge management and engineering practices. The results show that agile knowledge management improved in the organizations proactive process management. The significant influence is observed on staff efficiency, economic growth, and hence on customer loyalty, which boosts corporate morale while reducing resource consumption.
Keywords: knowledge management | agile approach | online company reorganization
Disruption in food supply chain and undernourishment challenges: An empirical study in the context of Asian countries
اختلال در زنجیره تأمین مواد غذایی و چالش های کم غذایی: یک مطالعه تجربی در زمینه کشورهای آسیایی-2021
Undernourishment and associated health issues are some mammoth challenges that the world currently faces. The poorly design food supply chain (FSC) is considered a root cause of high undernourishment cases worldwide. Since all processes and stages in a supply chain are strongly connected, a slight delay or glitch can trigger a butterfly effect resulting in significant socio-economic losses. The FSC is vital to providing human essentials and a source of bread earning; rank at the top in global industries and any disturbance results in high unemployment and leading social evils like crime and violence in society. Recognize the same; this study examines the impact of food supply chain disruption on undernourished cases in selected Asian countries. Using Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) estimator, this study provides two key findings. First, a higher intensity of COVID-19 cases translates into higher undernourishment due to direct and indirect effects from higher stringency measures. Secondly, government financial allocations to combat COVID-19 and economic growth significantly mitigate the prevalence of undernourishment. Interestingly, a higher crime index is linked with higher undernourished cases supporting the proposition of socio-economic disorder. These results propose broad policy implications for governments, food regulatory authority, donor agencies, and Non-Governmental Organizations by strengthening the food supply chain and thus reduces undernourishment cases.
Keywords: Food supply chain | COVID-19 | Unemployment | Undernourishment | Economic growth | Asian countries
Circular economy for phosphorus supply chain and its impact on social sustainable development goals
اقتصاد مدور برای زنجیره تأمین فسفر و تأثیر آن بر اهداف توسعه پایدار اجتماعی-2021
To be able to grow crops, we have interfered with Earths reserves of one of top three essential elements, phosphorus (P), as to which we face a problem related to its high consumption compared to available resources. This forces us to follow the alternative of closing the phosphorus loop from a circular economy perspective. However, there is a lack of research on regional and global social sustainability in this area, as emphasized in the United Nations Agenda 2030 goals for sustainable development. In this paper, we address social challenges involved in global phosphorus supply chain, such as eradicating poverty, child labor and malnutrition; promoting gender equality; providing decent work and economic growth; maintaining sustainable water use; and achieving food security. Our research is driven by the question of whether the circular economy aims to direct phosphorus management towards tackling social issues associated with its supply chain. We use system dynamics modelling by combining the concept of material flow analysis and social life cycle assessment. Detailed analysis at regional and global levels indicates a paradoxical social impact of phosphorus circular model. This reflects the multiple stakeholders involved, and the regional interactions with phosphorus circular economy transitions. Improvements can be demonstrated in reducing poverty and providing safer work environment in many regions, e.g., Western Asia (93%), New Zealand, Central Asia, and Europe (44–61%), while achieving employment targets is limited in Northern and Eastern Europe. Circular model fails to promote gender equality, it also exacerbates exploitative child work problem for the Caribbean and most Africa. It provides sufficient nutrition to North America, Australia/New Zealand, and Northern Europe. It achieves water use targets in several regions with 53% savings worldwide. Finally, circular model contributes to P efficiency (average balance of 1.21 kgP/ha) and strengthens P security within most regions with an average of 64%.
Keywords: Critical materials | Phosphorus | Social sustainability | Circular economy | Dynamic modelling
Supply chain performance and economic growth: The impact of COVID-19 disruptions
عملکرد زنجیره تامین و رشد اقتصادی: تأثیر اختلالات COVID-19-2021
Reliable supply chains are crucial to the productivity and economic growth of nations. Despite the recognition of its importance, especially brought to the forefront by the challenges of the coronavirus crises, formal research on the contribution of supply chain logistics is less forthcoming. This paper uses data on 130 nations to examine the relative effects of different aspects of supply chain logistics, including overall logistics performance, and the performance of the input and output dimensions of logistics, on economic growth. The results show that improvements in the supply chain logistics performance yield positive growth dividends. Further, the input and output dimensions of logistics performance have positive growth effects, with some quantitative differences. Significantly, the growth impact of logistics performance varies across nations with different growth rates. Implications for public policy and spillovers for COVID-19 initiatives are discussed.© 2021 The Society for Policy Modeling. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. JEL classiﬁcation: O40; L80; L91
Keywords: Economic growth | Supply chain | Logistics | Infrastructure | COVID-19
Female Labor Force Participation and economic growth: Accounting for the gender bonus
مشارکت نیروی کار زنان و رشد اقتصادی: محاسبه پاداش جنسیتی-2021
Borrowing from the demographic dividend literature, this paper examines whether there is a gender bonus, namely an increase in the average living standard associated with increases in female labor force participation (FLFP) rates. Translating a per worker production function into a per capita one, it derives a linear dynamic model, the coefficient of which can be used to test for the existence of a gender bonus, and the reasons for this bonus. Using an international panel and applying a system GMM approach, it finds a positive and statistically significant effect of the growth of FLFP on economic growth and a positive but not statistically different from zero effect of the initial FLFP on economic growth. Importantly, we cannot reject the hypothesis that either of these effects is merely an accounting effect, namely a consequence of having more workers in the economy and more aggregate output. It finds no support for a secondary bonus through education or population growth.
keywords: نیروی کار زن | پاداش جنسیت | رشد اقتصادی | Female Labor Force | Gender bonus | Economic growth
Persistent current account imbalances: Are they good or bad for regional and global growth?
عدم تعادل حساب جاری مداوم: آیا آنها برای رشد منطقه ای و جهانی خوب یا بد هستند؟-2021
This paper examines the regional and global growth effects of current account imbalances in Japan, Germany, and the People’s Republic of China (PRC)—the three largest persistent surplus countries—and the United States and United Kingdom, the two largest persistent deficit countries. Controlling for a set of macroeconomic determinants, we use a structural vector autoregression (SVAR) framework to show that positive shocks to current account balances in the PRC, Germany, and Japan transmit positive regional and global growth effects, particularly in the case of spillovers to regional growth from Japan. As expected, the global growth response is lower in magnitude than the regional growth response. In addition, the extent of the effect is amplified by global value chains, pointing to the significant role played by trade in intermediate goods. For current account deficit countries, the magnitudes of the responses of growth to shocks are much lower on average than in the case of current account surplus countries. We find some marginal positive effects on regional and global growth emanating from a positive shock on the UK current account—i.e., a reduction in the deficit. For the US, a positive shock to its persistent current account deficit marginally drags on global growth, possibly reflecting declining import demand and wealth effects linked to the US dollar’s status as the global reserve currency. Our findings have important policy implications, particularly in light of discussions in recent years on whether current account surplus countries are hindering growth abroad.
keywords: عدم تعادل حساب جاری | عدم تعادل اقتصاد کلان | رشد اقتصادی | Current account imbalances | Macroeconomic imbalances | Economic growth
Accounting for U:S: economic growth 1954–2017
حسابداری برای U:S: رشد اقتصادی 1954-2017-2021
We perform a growth accounting exercise using the whole neoclassical growth model for the U.S. economy during 1954–2017. Our growth accounting exercise reveals that the U.S. extraordinary economic growth in the 1960s has been mainly driven by the increase of the labor efficiency, whereas the growth slowdowns in the 1970s and the first decade of 21st century were mainly driven by the decline in the capital efficiency. However, the reduction of the distortions on the labor supply driven the subsequent recoveries in the 1980s and after the Great Recession.
keywords: حسابداری رشد | گوه CAPITAL-E FFI | گوه Labor-e FFI | گوه کارگر | گوه سرمایه گذاری | گوه محدودیت منابع | بهره وری | سهم کار | ساعت کار کرد | Growth accounting | Capital-eﬃciency wedge | Labor-eﬃciency wedge | Labor wedge | Investment wedge | Resource constraint wedge | Productivity | Labor share | Hours worked
Hierarchical structure of a green supply chain
ساختار سلسله مراتبی یک زنجیره تأمین سبز-2021
Since the past decades, environmental challenges have been increasing due to pollution and production costs. For sustainable development, a green supply chain integrates the sustainable environmental process into the tradi- tional supply chain, reducing the cost of production, spur economic growth, and solving ecological issues. Thus, exploring the feasible design of green supply chain systems becomes an essential requirement for industry and commercial organizations. However, the green supply chain system usually integrates various systems currently used by the participants of supply chains. The design of such a large-scale system is quite costly through the conventional discrete event simulation-based approaches. Moreover, formal modelling method (e.g. Petri nets), as an alternative approach, provides formal and efficient support to model creation and analysis. However, the Petri nets cannot achieve compositional modelling, particularly for large-scale and complex systems, e.g., the green supply chain system. For improved compositionality, this paper proposes a hybrid modelling technique to integrate the compositional feature into Petri nets by combining with process algebra due to its superior capability in compositional modelling. The hybrid technique supports the modelling with Petri nets at first. It sorts the incidence matrix of Petri nets’ models to retrieves the mapping relation between Petri nets and performance evaluation process algebra (i.e. PEPA, a formal modelling method based on process algebra), which represents the compositional structure of Petri-net models. Hence, a compositional-structure constructing algorithm is designed to obtain all qualified PEPA hierarchical sub-models based on Petri net models, which combines Petri nets’ usability and the compositionality of PEPA for creating a novel and enhanced formal modelling technique that is particularly suitable for systems such as green supply chain systems.
Keywords: Green supply chains | Petri nets | Performance evaluation process algebra | Hierarchical structures | Compositionality